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ANIMAL KINGDOM * Basis of classification * Classification of animals
Basis of classification <ul><li>1. Levels of organisation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>3. Diploblastic ...
1. Levels of Organisation <ul><li>Cellular level  :Cells are arranged as loose cell agregates.  </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue l...
<ul><li>Organsystems in different animals exibit various patterns of complexities. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg The digestive syst...
Open circulation   <ul><li>System in which blood is not always continued within a network of blood vessels </li></ul>
Closed circulation   <ul><li>System in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels </li></ul>
2. SYMMETRY <ul><li>Asymmetrical  :Any plane that passes through the centre does not divide them into equal halves. </li><...
 
Radial Symmetry <ul><li>: When any plane passing through the central axis of the body divides the organism into two equal ...
Body Symmetry  Central Axis A Radial Plane Another Radial Plane (a) Radial Symmetry
Bilateral Symmetry <ul><li>When the body can be divided into two equal halves in only one plane passing through the centra...
Body Symmetry  Sagittal Plane Anterior Posterior (b) Bilateral Symmetry
3. Diploblastic and Triploblastic <ul><li>Animals in which the cells are arranged in two embryonic layers ,an external ect...
Triploblastic <ul><li>Those animals in which the developing embryo has a third layer, mesoderm in between ecto and endoder...
 
4. Coelom <ul><li>A body cavity derived from and lined with mesoderm are called coelom. Such animals are called coelomates...
The True Coelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Coelom Body Wall Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm Complete ...
Pseudocoelom <ul><li>The body cavity is not lined by mesoderm, instead it is present as scattered pouches in between ecto ...
The Pseudocoelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Pseudocoelom Body Wall Body cavity partially lined with mesoderm Par...
Acoelom <ul><li>The animals in which the body cavity is absent are called acoelomates. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg platyhelminthe...
  Acoelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Lining Solid Tissue Body Wall No cavity between body wall & digestive tract Cnida...
5. Segmentation <ul><li>The external and internal division of the body into segments called metamerism. </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
6. Notochord <ul><li>It is a mesodermally derived rod like structure formed on the dorsal side during embryonic period is ...
Evolutionary Tree of Major Animal Phyla Porifera No true tissues True tissues 2 tissue layers; radial symmetry Ctenophora ...
Phylum-Porifera <ul><li>Commonly called sponges </li></ul><ul><li>They have canal system </li></ul><ul><li>Water enters th...
Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
The Body Plan of Sponges Osculum Epithelial Cell Spicules Amoeboid Cells Pore Cell Collar Cell Pore Water Flow
Asymetrical
Phylum Cnidaria
Phylum- Cnidaria(Coelenterata)  <ul><ul><li>Presence of cnidoblast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have central cavity called c...
The Polyp Mouth Tentacle Body Wall Mesoglea Gastrovascular Lining Gastrovascular Cavity Foot Column
The Medusa Mouth Tentacle Body Wall Mesoglea Gastrovascular Lining Gastrovascular Cavity
The Cnidoblast Armed Cnidocyte Body Wall Water Filament Trigger Nuclei Spent Cnidocyte
Portuguese Man-of-War
Sea Anemones
Coral
Phylum Ctenophora <ul><li>It exibits Bioluminescence ( the property of emitting light ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg Pleurobrachia...
 
Phylum Platyhelminthes Tapeworm Liver fluke
<ul><li>Body is dorsoventrally flattened </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly endoparasites </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of hooks and su...
Larvae migrate through vessels to pig muscles & encyst there.  Adult tapeworm
Head with hooks & suckers
Flatworm Organ Systems (a) Digestive System Gastrovascular Cavity Pharynx (b1) Excretory System Excretory Canal Excretory ...
Phylum-Aschelminthes <ul><li>Body is circular in cross-section hence the name roundworms . </li></ul><ul><li>Sexes are sep...
Round Body, tapered at both ends, two openings
Phylum-Annelida <ul><li>It shows metamerism </li></ul><ul><li>Circular and longitudinal muscles help in locomotion. </li><...
An Annelid: the Earthworm Mouth Brain Pharynx Ventral Vessel Ventral Nerve Cord Hearts Esophagus Crop Gizzard Intestine Ve...
Leech
Nereis
Phylum-Arthropoda <ul><li>Body is covered with chitinous exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>The body consists of Head, thorax a...
Arthropoda -  Classes <ul><li>Class Crustacea Eg Prawn,Crab </li></ul><ul><li>,,   Insecta  ,,  Grasshopper,Silverfish </l...
Class-Crustacea (Prawn)
Class-Insecta(Grasshopper) Wing Abdomen Thorax Head Antennae Compound Eyes
Class-Arachnida(Spider)
Arachnida(Scorpion)
Class-Myriapoda(Centipedes)
Class-Myriapoda(Millipede)
Other insects <ul><li>Economically important isects :-Honey bee, Silkworm,  </li></ul><ul><li>Vectors (Spreads diseases):-...
Phylum-Mollusca <ul><li>Body is covered by calcareous shell with Head, Muscular foot and Visceral hump. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Internal structure of a mollusc Tentacle Eye Mouth Radula Foot Ganglia (brain) Digestive Tract Gonad Nerve Cords Heart Coe...
Pila
Pearl oyster
Squid
Octopus
Chiton
Phylum-Echinodermata <ul><li>Have an endoskeleton of calareous ossicles </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Water vascular syste...
Star Fish
Sea Urchin
Sea lily
Sea Cucumber
Brittle Sea Star
Phylum-Hemichordata <ul><li>Worm like </li></ul><ul><li>Body is composed of proboscis, collar and trunk. </li></ul><ul><li...
Balanoglossus
Phylum Chordata <ul><li>Presence of notochord </li></ul><ul><li>,,  Dorsal tubular nerve chord </li></ul><ul><li>,,  Paire...
Comparison of Chordates and non-chordates Absent Post anal tail is present 5 Heart is doral Heart is ventral 4 Gill slits ...
<ul><li>Phylum Chordata is divided into three sub phylas :- </li></ul><ul><li>Urochordata </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalochordat...
Urochordata <ul><li>They are exclusively marine </li></ul><ul><li>Notochord is present only in larval tail </li></ul><ul><...
Ascidia Gill Slits Brain Mouth Gut Heart Water Exit ADULT
Ascidia(photo)
Cephalochordata <ul><li>They are marine </li></ul><ul><li>Notochord extends from head to tail throughout their life. </li>...
Amphioxus Notochord Nerve Cord Gill Slits Mouth Gut Muscle Segments Tail Anus
Amphioxus
Vertebrata <ul><li>The notochord is replaced by vertebral column in the adult. Thus all vertebrates are chordates but all ...
Vertebrata <ul><li>Agnatha (Lacks jaw ):- Class Cyclostomata </li></ul><ul><li>Gnathastomata ( Bears jaw ):-Super class Pi...
Cyclostomata <ul><li>They have sucking and circular mouth without jaws. </li></ul><ul><li>They are marine but migrate to f...
Cyclostomata-Lamprey
Cyclostomata Hagfish
Super class- Pisces <ul><li>Class- Chondrichthyes </li></ul><ul><li>Class- Osteichthyes </li></ul>
Class-Chondrichthyes <ul><li>Have streamlined body with cartilaginous endoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth is ventral </li...
Eg :Shark
 
Sting ray
Torpedo
Class-Osteichthyes <ul><li>Bony endoskleton </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth is terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Four pairs of gills cove...
Hippocampus (Sea horse)
 
3. Osteicthyes
Super class-Tetrapoda <ul><li>Class- Amphibia </li></ul><ul><li>,,  Reptilia </li></ul><ul><li>,,  Aves </li></ul><ul><li>...
Class- Amphibia <ul><li>Live aquatic as well as in terrestrial habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Body is divided into head and Tru...
Toad
Frog
 
Salamander
Class- Reptilia <ul><li>They are creeping or crawling animals </li></ul><ul><li>Body is covered by dry scales or scutes </...
Turtle
Crocodile
KING COBRA
Python
Class- Aves <ul><li>Presence of feathers </li></ul><ul><li>Possess beak </li></ul><ul><li>Forelimbs are modified into wing...
Ostrich-Flightless bird
 
 
Class- Mammalia <ul><li>Presence of mammary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is covered with hair </li></ul><ul><li>External ...
<ul><li>Class mammalia is divided into three sub classes namely  1.Prototheria,  2. Metatheria  3.Eutheria </li></ul><ul><...
Prototheria(Egg laying)-Platipus
Echidna
Metatheria(marsupial)Kangaroo
Eutheria (Placental mammals)
 
Eutheria (Placental mammals ) <ul><li>Order 1. Primates  : Man, Ape, Monkeys . </li></ul><ul><li>Order 2. Carnivora  : Tig...
<ul><li>Thankyou </li></ul><ul><li>With Besr Compliments from </li></ul><ul><li>Jose Mathew.K </li></ul><ul><li>HSST (Zool...
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Animal kingdom plus1

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A presentation for Higher Secondary Zoology.

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  • (a) A radially symmetrical body. Any plane that passes through the central axis divides the body into mirror-image halves. Animals in these groups lack a well-defined head. (b) Bilateral symmetry. The body can be split into two mirror-image halves only along a particular plane that runs down the midline. Animals with bilateral symmetry have an anterior head end and a posterior tail end.
  • (a) A radially symmetrical body. Any plane that passes through the central axis divides the body into mirror-image halves. Animals in these groups lack a well-defined head. (b) Bilateral symmetry. The body can be split into two mirror-image halves only along a particular plane that runs down the midline. Animals with bilateral symmetry have an anterior head end and a posterior tail end.
  • (c) Annelids have a true coelom.
  • (b) Roundworms are pseudo-coelomates.
  • (a) Cnidarians and flatworms have no cavity between the body wall and digestive tract.
  • An evolutionary tree of some major animal phyla
  • All sponges have a similar body plan. Currents created by collar cells draw in water through numerous tiny pores. Microscopic food particles are filtered out by collar cells and shared among the various cell types. Water exits through larger pores, the oscula. Spicules form a supportive internal skeleton.
  • The two basic body forms of cnidarians are actually variations on a single, simple theme. (a) The polyp form is seen in hydra (see Fig. 22-8), sea anemones (Fig. 22-6a), and the individual polyps within a coral (Fig. 22-6c).
  • (b) The medusa form, seen in the jellyfish (Fig. 22-6b), resembles an inverted polyp. Both forms exhibit radial symmetry, with body parts arranged in a circle around a central axis.
  • At the slightest touch to the trigger of a special structure in their cnidocytes, cnidarians, such as this hydra, violently expel a poisoned filament. The hollow filament turns inside out, impaling the prey and injecting a paralyzing venom. These structures are microscopic. Only a few species inject enough venom to harm a human.
  • Each reproductive unit, or proglottid, is a self-contained reproductive factory that includes both male and female sex organs.
  • Each reproductive unit, or proglottid, is a self-contained reproductive factory that includes both male and female sex organs.
  • Flatworms such as planarians have well-developed organ systems. (a) The elaborately branched digestive system, the centrally located ventral pharynx, and eyespots in the head are clearly visible. (b) (Left) The excretory system consists of branching tubes that conduct excess fluid to the outside through numerous pores. Cilia keep the fluid moving. (Right) The nervous system of flatworms shows clear cephalization, with eyes and a brain composed of ganglia cells in a well-defined head. Ladderlike nerve cords carry signals through the rest of the body.
  • This diagram shows an enlargement of segments, many of which are repeating similar units separated by partitions. The digestive system, which has both a mouth and an anus, is divided into a series of compartments specialized to process food in an orderly sequence.
  • Insects such as this grasshopper show fusion and specialization of body segments into a distinct head, thorax, and abdomen. Segments are visible beneath the wings on the abdomen.
  • The general body plan of a mollusk, showing the mantle, foot, gills, shell, radula, and other features that are seen in most (but not all) species of mollusk.
  • The sea squirt larva (left) also exhibits all the chordate features. The adult sea squirt (a type of tunicate, middle) has lost its tail and notochord and has assumed a sedentary life, as shown in the photo (right).
  • A lancelet, a fishlike invertebrate chordate. The adult organism exhibits all the diagnostic features of chordates.
  • FIGURE 24-4a Jawless fishes (a) Hagfishes live in communal burrows in mud, feeding on worms.
  • FIGURE 24-8a &amp;quot;Amphibian&amp;quot; means &amp;quot;double life” The double life of amphibians is illustrated by the bullfrog&apos;s transition from (a) a completely aquatic larval tadpole to (b) an adult leading a semiterrestrial life.
  • Transcript of "Animal kingdom plus1"

    1. 1. ANIMAL KINGDOM * Basis of classification * Classification of animals
    2. 2. Basis of classification <ul><li>1. Levels of organisation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>3. Diploblastic and Triploblastic </li></ul><ul><li>4. Coelom </li></ul><ul><li>5. Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>6. Notochord </li></ul>
    3. 3. 1. Levels of Organisation <ul><li>Cellular level :Cells are arranged as loose cell agregates. </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue level : cells grouped together to perform same function. </li></ul><ul><li>Organ level :Tissues are grouped together to form organs for a function. </li></ul><ul><li>Organ system level :Organs are associated to form functional systems. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Organsystems in different animals exibit various patterns of complexities. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg The digestive system in platyhelminthes has only a single opening while higher organisms have two openings, mouth and anus. Similarly the circulatory system are of two types. </li></ul><ul><li>Open type and Closed type </li></ul>
    5. 5. Open circulation <ul><li>System in which blood is not always continued within a network of blood vessels </li></ul>
    6. 6. Closed circulation <ul><li>System in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels </li></ul>
    7. 7. 2. SYMMETRY <ul><li>Asymmetrical :Any plane that passes through the centre does not divide them into equal halves. </li></ul>
    8. 9. Radial Symmetry <ul><li>: When any plane passing through the central axis of the body divides the organism into two equal halves is called radial symmetry. Or A body can be divided into two equal halves in any plane passing through the central axis of the body. </li></ul>
    9. 10. Body Symmetry Central Axis A Radial Plane Another Radial Plane (a) Radial Symmetry
    10. 11. Bilateral Symmetry <ul><li>When the body can be divided into two equal halves in only one plane passing through the central axis is called bilateral symmetry. </li></ul>
    11. 12. Body Symmetry Sagittal Plane Anterior Posterior (b) Bilateral Symmetry
    12. 13. 3. Diploblastic and Triploblastic <ul><li>Animals in which the cells are arranged in two embryonic layers ,an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm are called diploblastic animals.An undifferentiated layer ,mesoglea is present in between the ecto and endoderms. </li></ul>
    13. 14. Triploblastic <ul><li>Those animals in which the developing embryo has a third layer, mesoderm in between ecto and endoderm are called triploblastic animals. </li></ul>
    14. 16. 4. Coelom <ul><li>A body cavity derived from and lined with mesoderm are called coelom. Such animals are called coelomates. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Annelids, Molluscs etc </li></ul>
    15. 17. The True Coelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Coelom Body Wall Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm Complete Lining Annelida
    16. 18. Pseudocoelom <ul><li>The body cavity is not lined by mesoderm, instead it is present as scattered pouches in between ecto and endoderms called pseudocoelom. Such animals are called pseudocoelomates. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg Aschelminthes, </li></ul>
    17. 19. The Pseudocoelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Pseudocoelom Body Wall Body cavity partially lined with mesoderm Partial Lining Nematoda
    18. 20. Acoelom <ul><li>The animals in which the body cavity is absent are called acoelomates. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg platyhelminthes. </li></ul>
    19. 21. Acoelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Lining Solid Tissue Body Wall No cavity between body wall & digestive tract Cnidaria
    20. 22. 5. Segmentation <ul><li>The external and internal division of the body into segments called metamerism. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg Earthworm </li></ul>
    21. 24. 6. Notochord <ul><li>It is a mesodermally derived rod like structure formed on the dorsal side during embryonic period is called notochord. </li></ul>
    22. 25. Evolutionary Tree of Major Animal Phyla Porifera No true tissues True tissues 2 tissue layers; radial symmetry Ctenophora Cnidaria 3 tissue layers; bilateral symmetry Platyhelminthes No body cavity Body cavity Pseudocoel Nematoda Rotifera Coelom Protostome development Annelida Mollusca Insecta Deuterostome development Mammalia Echino- dermata
    23. 26. Phylum-Porifera <ul><li>Commonly called sponges </li></ul><ul><li>They have canal system </li></ul><ul><li>Water enters through ostia into spongocoel and goes out through osculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Spongocoel is lined by Choanocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Body is supported a skeleton like spicules </li></ul>
    24. 27. Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
    25. 28. The Body Plan of Sponges Osculum Epithelial Cell Spicules Amoeboid Cells Pore Cell Collar Cell Pore Water Flow
    26. 29. Asymetrical
    27. 30. Phylum Cnidaria
    28. 31. Phylum- Cnidaria(Coelenterata) <ul><ul><li>Presence of cnidoblast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have central cavity called coelenteron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two distinct body plans: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polyp, attached (sessile and cylindrical) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medusa, free swimming (Umbrella shaped) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exibit alternation of generation (Metagenesis) ie polyps produce medusae asexually and medusae form polyps sexually. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One digestive opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce sexually and asexually </li></ul></ul>
    29. 32. The Polyp Mouth Tentacle Body Wall Mesoglea Gastrovascular Lining Gastrovascular Cavity Foot Column
    30. 33. The Medusa Mouth Tentacle Body Wall Mesoglea Gastrovascular Lining Gastrovascular Cavity
    31. 34. The Cnidoblast Armed Cnidocyte Body Wall Water Filament Trigger Nuclei Spent Cnidocyte
    32. 35. Portuguese Man-of-War
    33. 36. Sea Anemones
    34. 37. Coral
    35. 38. Phylum Ctenophora <ul><li>It exibits Bioluminescence ( the property of emitting light ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg Pleurobrachia </li></ul>
    36. 40. Phylum Platyhelminthes Tapeworm Liver fluke
    37. 41. <ul><li>Body is dorsoventrally flattened </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly endoparasites </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of hooks and suckers </li></ul><ul><li>Planaria possess high regeneration capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg Tapeworm,liver fluke and planaria. </li></ul>
    38. 42. Larvae migrate through vessels to pig muscles & encyst there. Adult tapeworm
    39. 43. Head with hooks & suckers
    40. 44. Flatworm Organ Systems (a) Digestive System Gastrovascular Cavity Pharynx (b1) Excretory System Excretory Canal Excretory Pore (b2) Nervous System Nerve Cord Brain
    41. 45. Phylum-Aschelminthes <ul><li>Body is circular in cross-section hence the name roundworms . </li></ul><ul><li>Sexes are separate( Females are longer than males ) </li></ul><ul><li>. Eg: Ascaris, Wuchereria, Ancylostoma </li></ul>
    42. 46. Round Body, tapered at both ends, two openings
    43. 47. Phylum-Annelida <ul><li>It shows metamerism </li></ul><ul><li>Circular and longitudinal muscles help in locomotion. </li></ul><ul><li>It has closed circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion with the help of Nephridia </li></ul><ul><li>Nereis is an aquatic annelid possess parapodia for swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg : Earthworm, Nereis, Leech (Hirudinaria) </li></ul>
    44. 48. An Annelid: the Earthworm Mouth Brain Pharynx Ventral Vessel Ventral Nerve Cord Hearts Esophagus Crop Gizzard Intestine Ventral Nerve Cord Anus Coelom Intestine Excretory Pore Nephridia Coelom
    45. 49. Leech
    46. 50. Nereis
    47. 51. Phylum-Arthropoda <ul><li>Body is covered with chitinous exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>The body consists of Head, thorax and abdomen. </li></ul><ul><li>They have jointed appendages. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration by means of gills, booklungs, tracheal system. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion with the help of malpighian tubules. </li></ul><ul><li>Largest phyla consists of 4 classes. </li></ul>
    48. 52. Arthropoda - Classes <ul><li>Class Crustacea Eg Prawn,Crab </li></ul><ul><li>,, Insecta ,, Grasshopper,Silverfish </li></ul><ul><li>,, Arachnida ,, Scorpion,Spider </li></ul><ul><li>,, Myriapoda ,, Centipede,Millepede </li></ul>
    49. 53. Class-Crustacea (Prawn)
    50. 54. Class-Insecta(Grasshopper) Wing Abdomen Thorax Head Antennae Compound Eyes
    51. 55. Class-Arachnida(Spider)
    52. 56. Arachnida(Scorpion)
    53. 57. Class-Myriapoda(Centipedes)
    54. 58. Class-Myriapoda(Millipede)
    55. 59. Other insects <ul><li>Economically important isects :-Honey bee, Silkworm, </li></ul><ul><li>Vectors (Spreads diseases):-Mosquitos (Female Anopheles, culex, Aedes </li></ul><ul><li>Pest:-Locust, Beetle, Leptochoriza </li></ul><ul><li>Living fossil:- King crab </li></ul>
    56. 60. Phylum-Mollusca <ul><li>Body is covered by calcareous shell with Head, Muscular foot and Visceral hump. </li></ul><ul><li>A soft layer of skin a mantle over the hump. </li></ul><ul><li>The space between the hump and mantle called mantle cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth contains a rasping organ for feeding called radula. </li></ul>
    57. 61. Internal structure of a mollusc Tentacle Eye Mouth Radula Foot Ganglia (brain) Digestive Tract Gonad Nerve Cords Heart Coelom Shell Mantle Anus Gill
    58. 62. Pila
    59. 63. Pearl oyster
    60. 64. Squid
    61. 65. Octopus
    62. 66. Chiton
    63. 67. Phylum-Echinodermata <ul><li>Have an endoskeleton of calareous ossicles </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Water vascular system helps in locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of tube feets </li></ul>
    64. 68. Star Fish
    65. 69. Sea Urchin
    66. 70. Sea lily
    67. 71. Sea Cucumber
    68. 72. Brittle Sea Star
    69. 73. Phylum-Hemichordata <ul><li>Worm like </li></ul><ul><li>Body is composed of proboscis, collar and trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg : Balanoglossus </li></ul>
    70. 74. Balanoglossus
    71. 75. Phylum Chordata <ul><li>Presence of notochord </li></ul><ul><li>,, Dorsal tubular nerve chord </li></ul><ul><li>,, Paired pharyngeal gill slits </li></ul>
    72. 76. Comparison of Chordates and non-chordates Absent Post anal tail is present 5 Heart is doral Heart is ventral 4 Gill slits are absent Pharyngeal gill slits present 3 Ventral, solid, double Dorsal hollow single nerve cord 2 Absent Notochord present 1 Non-chordates Chordates S.No
    73. 77. <ul><li>Phylum Chordata is divided into three sub phylas :- </li></ul><ul><li>Urochordata </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalochordata </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrata </li></ul>
    74. 78. Urochordata <ul><li>They are exclusively marine </li></ul><ul><li>Notochord is present only in larval tail </li></ul><ul><li>Eg : Ascidia </li></ul>
    75. 79. Ascidia Gill Slits Brain Mouth Gut Heart Water Exit ADULT
    76. 80. Ascidia(photo)
    77. 81. Cephalochordata <ul><li>They are marine </li></ul><ul><li>Notochord extends from head to tail throughout their life. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg : Amphioxus </li></ul>
    78. 82. Amphioxus Notochord Nerve Cord Gill Slits Mouth Gut Muscle Segments Tail Anus
    79. 83. Amphioxus
    80. 84. Vertebrata <ul><li>The notochord is replaced by vertebral column in the adult. Thus all vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates. </li></ul>
    81. 85. Vertebrata <ul><li>Agnatha (Lacks jaw ):- Class Cyclostomata </li></ul><ul><li>Gnathastomata ( Bears jaw ):-Super class Pisces(bear fins) and Tetrapoda(bear limbs) </li></ul>
    82. 86. Cyclostomata <ul><li>They have sucking and circular mouth without jaws. </li></ul><ul><li>They are marine but migrate to fresh water for spawning and within few days they die. But the larvae return to ocean. </li></ul>
    83. 87. Cyclostomata-Lamprey
    84. 88. Cyclostomata Hagfish
    85. 89. Super class- Pisces <ul><li>Class- Chondrichthyes </li></ul><ul><li>Class- Osteichthyes </li></ul>
    86. 90. Class-Chondrichthyes <ul><li>Have streamlined body with cartilaginous endoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth is ventral </li></ul><ul><li>Gill slits without operculam </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is tough with placoid scales </li></ul><ul><li>Air bladder is absent. </li></ul>
    87. 91. Eg :Shark
    88. 93. Sting ray
    89. 94. Torpedo
    90. 95. Class-Osteichthyes <ul><li>Bony endoskleton </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth is terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Four pairs of gills covered by operculum </li></ul><ul><li>Skin with cycloid scales </li></ul><ul><li>Air bladder is present. </li></ul>
    91. 96. Hippocampus (Sea horse)
    92. 98. 3. Osteicthyes
    93. 99. Super class-Tetrapoda <ul><li>Class- Amphibia </li></ul><ul><li>,, Reptilia </li></ul><ul><li>,, Aves </li></ul><ul><li>,, Mammalia </li></ul>
    94. 100. Class- Amphibia <ul><li>Live aquatic as well as in terrestrial habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Body is divided into head and Trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is moist and slimy </li></ul><ul><li>A tympanum is present </li></ul><ul><li>Common opening ,cloaca for alimentary and reproductive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Cold blooded. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Toad, Frog, Salamander, Ichthyophis </li></ul>
    95. 101. Toad
    96. 102. Frog
    97. 104. Salamander
    98. 105. Class- Reptilia <ul><li>They are creeping or crawling animals </li></ul><ul><li>Body is covered by dry scales or scutes </li></ul><ul><li>Two chambered heart ( In crocodile 4 chambers) </li></ul><ul><li>Poikilotherms </li></ul><ul><li>They cast their skin periodically. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Turtle, tortoise, Calotes, Lizard, Crocodiles, Snakes etc. </li></ul>
    99. 106. Turtle
    100. 107. Crocodile
    101. 108. KING COBRA
    102. 109. Python
    103. 110. Class- Aves <ul><li>Presence of feathers </li></ul><ul><li>Possess beak </li></ul><ul><li>Forelimbs are modified into wings </li></ul><ul><li>Hindlimbs modified for walking, swimming, clasping </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow bones </li></ul><ul><li>Four chambered heart </li></ul><ul><li>Homeotherms. </li></ul>
    104. 111. Ostrich-Flightless bird
    105. 114. Class- Mammalia <ul><li>Presence of mammary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is covered with hair </li></ul><ul><li>External ears (Pinnae) present </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of teeth present </li></ul><ul><li>Viviparous </li></ul>
    106. 115. <ul><li>Class mammalia is divided into three sub classes namely 1.Prototheria, 2. Metatheria 3.Eutheria </li></ul><ul><li>1.Prototheria:- Egg laying mammals </li></ul><ul><li>2.Metatheria :- Marsupial mammals </li></ul><ul><li>3.Eutheria :- Placental mammals. </li></ul>
    107. 116. Prototheria(Egg laying)-Platipus
    108. 117. Echidna
    109. 118. Metatheria(marsupial)Kangaroo
    110. 119. Eutheria (Placental mammals)
    111. 121. Eutheria (Placental mammals ) <ul><li>Order 1. Primates : Man, Ape, Monkeys . </li></ul><ul><li>Order 2. Carnivora : Tiger, Lion </li></ul><ul><li>Order 3. Rodentia : Squirrel, Rat </li></ul><ul><li>Order 4. Chiroptera : Bat, Vampire </li></ul><ul><li>Order 5. Proboscidia: Elephant </li></ul><ul><li>Order 6. Ungulata : Cow, Buffalow </li></ul><ul><li>Order 7. Insectivora : Hedgehog, Mole. </li></ul><ul><li>Order 8. Cetacea : Whales, Dolphines. </li></ul>
    112. 122. <ul><li>Thankyou </li></ul><ul><li>With Besr Compliments from </li></ul><ul><li>Jose Mathew.K </li></ul><ul><li>HSST (Zoology) </li></ul><ul><li>CMS HSS Mallappally </li></ul>
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