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Vitamin c
 

Vitamin c

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    Vitamin c Vitamin c Presentation Transcript

    •  IT IS WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN. IT ACTS AS ANTI-OXIDANT. VIT.C IS NECESSARY FOR A NUMBER OF METABOLIC PROCESS INCLUDING H2 ION TRANSFER AND MAINTENANCE OF INTRACELLULAR REDOX POTENTIAL. FACILITATES UPTAKE OF IRON IN INTESTINAL TRACT. INVOLVED IN FORMATION OF ACTIVE FORM OF FOLIC ACID (FOLINIC ACID) ITS HIGHLY CONCENTRATED IN PITUATARY, ADRENALS, EYES, PLATELETS AND WBCs.
    •  IT’S A HEXOSE DERIATIVE. ACIDIC PROPERTY OF VIT.C IS DUE TO ENOLIC HYDROXYL GROUPS. VIT.C IS A STRONG REDUCING AGENT IN AQ. PHASE OF LIVING TISSUES AND IS EASILY AND REVERSIBLY OXIDISED TO DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID . OXIDATION OF VIT.C IS RAPID IN PRESENCE OF COPPER, HENCE ITS INACTIVATED IF FOOD IS PREPARED IN COPPER VESSELS.
    •  MANY ANIMALS CAN SYNTHESIZE ASCORBIC ACID FROM GLUCOSE VIA URONIC PATHWAY. MAN AND OTHER PRIMATES CANNOT SYNTHESIZE VIT.C DUE TO THE LACK OF SINGLE ENZYME L-GLUCONELACTONE OXIDASE. AS ITS NOT SYNTHESIZED ENDOGENOUSLY, WE ARE DEPENDENT ON DIETARY SOURCES. ITS VERY EASILY DESTROYED BY HEAT, INCREASED pH AND LIGHT AND IS VERY SOLUBLE IN WATER.
    •  CITRUS FRUITS GOOSEBERRY GUAVAS, BLACKCURRANTS GREEN LEAFY VEG MILK SOME ANIMAL PRODUCTS TOMATOES, POTATOES GREEN PEPPERS, BROCCOLI,CAULIFLOWER (RAW) BRUSSELS SPROUTS, CABBAGE
    •  THE RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE FOR VIT.C RANGES FROM 35MG IN INFANTS TO 60MG IN ADULTS. PREGNANT AND LACTATING WOMEN SHOULD INCREASE THEIR INTAKE BY 20MG AND 40MG RESPECTIVELY
    •  COLLAGEN FORMATION ANTI-OXIDANT BONE FORMATION ITS FUNCTION IN VARIOUS METABOLISMS SYNTHESIS OF CORTICOSTERIOD HORMONE IMMUNOLOGIC FUNCTION
    •  IT PLAYS THE ROLE OF COENZYME IN HYDROXYLATION OF PROLINE AND LYSINE WHILE PROTOCOLLAGEN IS CONVERTED TO COLLAGEN. THE HYDROXYLATION IS CATALYSED BY LYSYL HYDROXYLASE (FOR LYSINE) AND PROLYL HYDROXYLASE (FOR PROLINE) INADEQUATELY HYDROXYLATED PRECURSORS CANNOT ACQUIRE STABLE HELICAL CONFIGURATION AND CANNOT BE ADEQUATELY CROSSLINKED SO THEY ARE POORLY SECRETED FROM FIBROBLAST.
    •  THE SECRETED FIBRES LACK TENSILE STRENGTH, ARE MORE SOLUBLE AND MORE VULNERABLE TO ENZYMATIC DEGRADATION. COLLAGEN ( CONTAINS HIGHEST AMOUNT OF HYDROXYPROLINE) IS MOSTLY AFFECTED PARTICULARLY IN BLOOD VESSELS LEADING TO HAEMORRHAGES IN SCURVY. LACK OF VIT.C LEADS TO SUPRESSION OF THE RATE OF SYNTHESIS OF PRO-COLLAGEN PEPTIDES
    •  VIT.C CAN SCAVENGE FREE RADICALS DIRECTLY IN AQUEOUS PHASES OF CELL AND CAN ACT INDIRECTLY BY REGENERATING THE ANTIOXIDANT FORM OF VIT.E. IN THIS WAY BOTH VIT.C AND E ACT TOGETHER.
    •  BONE TISSUES POSSESS AN ORGANIC MATRIX, COLLAGEN AND INORGANIC CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE ETC. THE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF INTERCELLULAR GROUND SUBSTANCES IN BONE, DENTIN AND OTHER CONNECTIVE TISSUES IS IMPAIRED IN VIT.C DEFICIENCY.
    •  ASCORBIC ACID ENHANCES IRON ABSORPTION BY KEEPING IT IN FERROUS FORM WHICH IS DUE TO REDUCING PROPERTY OF VIT.C. ITS ESSENTIAL FOR HYDROXYLATION OF TRYPTOPHAN TO HYDROXY TRYPTOPHAN IN SYNTHESIS OF SERATONIN. ITS REQUIRED FOR OXIDATION OF p-HYDROXY PHENYLPYRUVATE IN TYROSINE METABOLISM.
    •  ADRENAL GLAND HAS HIGH LEVELS OF ASCORBIC ACID ESP. IN PERIODS OF STRESS. VIT.C IS ESSENTIAL FOR THE HYDROXYLATION REACTIONS IN THE SYNTHESIS OF CORTICOSTEROID HORMONES.
    •  VIT.C ENHANCES THE SYNTHESIS OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS. IT ALSO INCREASES THE PHAGOCYTIC ACTION OF LEUCOCYTES.
    •  VIT.C IS A THRESHOLD SUBSTANCE AND IS EXCRETED PRIMARILY THROUGH KIDNEY. DEGREE OF TISSUE SATURATION DETERMINES THE AMOUNT EXCRETED. IF INTAKE IS NORMAL, SLIGHT INCREASE IN INTAKE ABOVE NORMAL WILL BE EXCRETED. IF TISSUES ARE UN-SATURATED THROUGH LOW INTAKE OR EXCESS METABOLISM OF VIT.C EVEN HIGH DOSES MAY BE RETAINED
    •  LASSITUDE ANOREXIA PAIN IN LIMBS ENLARGEMENT OF COSTOCHONDRAL JUNCTIONS (SCORBUTIC ROSARY) SUB-PERIOSTEAL HAEMORRHAGES GINGIVITIS SWOLLEN AND SPONGY GUMS PAPILLAE IN BETWEEN TEETH GIVE APPEARANCE OF SCURVY BUDS WHICH BLEED EASILY RETROBULBAR AND SUBARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE SEVERE TO MODERATE NORMOCYTIC NORMOCHROMIC ANAEMIA
    •  PERIFOLLICULAR HAEMORRHAGES GUM INVOLEMENT CORK SCREW HAIR APPEARANCE PETECHIAL HAEMORRHAGES ECCHYMOSES ANYWHERE ON THE BODY HAEMORRHAGES MAY OCCUR INTO NERVE SHEATH, JOINTS, GIT EPISTAXIS MAY OCCUR DELAYED WOUND HEALING NORMOCYTIC NORMOCHROMIC ANAEMIA
    • LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF ACOSTOCHONDRAL JUNCTIONWITH WIDENING OF EPIPHYSEALCARTILAGE
    •  DEFICIENCY OF VIT.C CHIEFLY OCCURS IN GINGIVAL AND PERIODONTAL TISSUES.
    •  THE INTERDENTAL AND MARGINAL GINGIVA IS BRIGHT RED WITH SWOLLEN, SMOOTH, SHINY SURFACE. IN ALMOST ALL CASES OF ACUTE OR CHRONIC SCURVY, THE GINGIVAL ULCERS SHOW THE TYPICAL ORGANISMS AND PATIENTS HAVE TYPICAL FOUL BREATH OF PERSONS WITH FUSOSPIROCHETAL STOMATITIS. IN THE SEVERE CHRONIC CASES OF SCURVY, HEMORRHAGES AND SWELLING OF PERIODONTAL MEMBRANES OCCUR, FOLLOWED BY LOSS OF BONE AND LOOSENING OF TEETH WHICH EVENTUALLY EXFOLIATE.
    • VIT.C DEFICIENCY ININFANTIN INFANTS THEENLARGED TISSUES MAYCOVER THE CLINICALCROWNS OF TEETH
    • BLEEDING GUMS - INFULLY DEVELOPEDSCURVY THE GINGIVABECOMES BOGGY,ULCERATES ANDBLEEDS. COLORCHANGES TOVIOLACEOUS RED.
    • VITAMIN.C DEFICIENCYIN ADULT
    •  IN SCURVY, OSTEOBLASTS FAIL TO FORM OSTEOID. THE CARTILAGE CELLS OF EPIPHYSIS PLATE CONTINUE TO PROLIFERATE IN NORMAL FASHION AND SALTS ARE DEPOSITED IN MATRIX BETWEEN COLUMNS OF CARTILAGE CELLS. THE OSTEOBLASTS FAIL TO LAY DOWN OSTEOID ON THE SPICULES OF CALCIFIED CARTILAGE MATRIX. THE CALCIFIED MATRIX MATERIAL IS NOT DESTROYED, SO THAT A WIDE ZONE OF CALCIFIED BUT MONOSSIFIED MATRIX CALLED SCORBUTIC LATTICE DEVELOPS IN METAPHYSIS. THIS SPICULES ARE NONRESISTANT TO WEIGHT BEARING AND MOTION STRESSES SO THEY ARE LIABLE TO FRACTURE. THEY LEAD TO CHARACTERISTIC LESIONS IN SKELETON IN SCURVY.
    •  AS THE LATTICE INCREASES IN WIDTH, MORE FRAGILE ZONE DEVELOPS, SO THAT COMPLETE FRACTURE OF SPICULES OCCUR WITH THE SEPERATION AND DEFORMITY OF CARTILAGE SHAFT JUNCTION. THIS FRACTURING OF CALCIFIED MATRIX MATERIAL LEADS TO CLASSIC PICTURE OF SCURVY I.E., TRUMMERFELD ZONE OR REGION OF COMPLETE DISINTEGRATION. THERE IS PINK STAINING HYALINE MATERIAL, IMMATURE LOOKING FIBROBLASTS AND MACROPHAGES CONTAINING HEMOSIDERIN. THE AREA BENEATH TRUMMERFELD ZONE IS FREE OF HEMOPOIETIC CELLS, THE SO CALLED GERUSTMARK. THE MIGRATION OF MARROW CELLS LEAVING ONLY CONNECTIVE TISSUE ELEMENTS IS NOT CLEAR. SUBPERIOSTEAL HEMORRHAGES ARE FREQUENT IN SCORBUTIC ANIMALS.
    • Photographs of incisor teeth ofguinea pig with complete or earlyvit.c deficiency showing abnormalirregular dentin – cross section
    • In vit.c deficiency, odontoblastseventually fail to lay dentin.
    •  MOTHER’S MILK AND PROPRIETORY MILK PREPARATIONS ARE GOOD SOURCE VITAMIN.C OLD AND SOLITARY PATIENTS SHOULD BE GIVEN 50MG OF VITAMIN.C DAILY. ADEQUATE AMOUNT OF VIT.C SHOULD BE GIVEN TO PATIENT DURING TRAUMA, SURGERY, BURNS, INFECTIONS, SMOKING AND DURING ADMINISTRATION OF ASPIRIN, TETRACYCLINS, STEROIDS AND INDOMETHACIN. FOR TREATMENT, 250MG VIT.C 8-HOURLY BY MOUTH SHOULD SATURATE THE TISSUES QUICKLY. IF PATIENT IS ANAEMIC, IRON AND FOLIC ACID ARE ALSO INDICATED
    •  SOME REPORTS CLAIM THAT ITS EFFECTIVE IN THE PREVENTION OF COMMON COLD. LARGE AMOUNTS OF IRON MAY BE ABSORBED AND MAY PRECIPITATE HAEMOCHROMATOSIS. LARGE AMOUNTS OF OXALATE CRYSTALS ARE PASSED IN URINE WHICH MAY PRECIPITATE OXALATE STONE FORMATION. LONG TERM USE OF VIT.C MAY INTERFERE WITH ABSORPION OF VIT.B12 HENCE MAY CAUSE ANAEMIA.
    • THANK YOU