Milestones in dental public health

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Milestones in dental public health

  1. 1. MILESTONES IN DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH
  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction Definitions History of Dentistry Milestones in Dental Public Health Milestones in Dental Public Health in Indian context
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  The history of mans fight for health begins with his earliest existence when he was completely at the mercy of nature with no effective means of combating its hazards.  Ancient Egyptians used a variety of ways to treats the diseases of the mouth whereas efforts related to prevention of oral diseases dates back to Hippocrates  Then came the process of learning and research in medical and dental field has resulted in a dramatic acceleration in health knowledge but dental diseases continue to be most common diseases and are still progressing  This is because conventional dentistry has traditionally been curative rather than preventive. The need of the hour is the application of evidence based dentistry at the community level  In public health dentistry, the individual patient is not the sole object of study. The entire community is in focus
  4. 4. DEFINITION1.DENTISTRY Dentistry is defined as the evaluation, diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment [non surgical, surgical or related procedures] of diseases, disorders and/or conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and/or the adjacent associated structures and their impact on the human body; provided by a dentist within his/her scope of education, training and experience, in accordance with the ethics of the profession and applicable law.2. DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH “The science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. Its that form of dental practice which serves the community as a patient rather than the individual. Its concerned with dental health education of the public, with applied dental research and with the administration of group dental care programs as well as the prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis.”3. ORAL HEALTH The World Health Organization (1982) defined oral health as “ The retention throughout life of a functional, aesthetic and natural dentition of not less than 20 teeth and not requiring a prosthesis.” An alternative definition of oral health given by U.K Department of Health (1994) is “Oral health is a standard of health of the oral and related tissues which enables an individual to eat, speak and socialize without active
  5. 5. disease, discomfort or embarrassment and which contributes to general well being.” HISTORY OF DENTISTRY- STAGES OF EVOLUTION OF DENTISTRYStage-1 Undifferentiated -Folk medicine was used in the treatment of occupation toothache n infections -A few individuals denote some time to perform simple dental procedures -None depended solely on dentistry for their livelihoodStage-2 Differentiated -Indigenous practitioners emerged without any occupation formal training -Devotion of entire time to dentistry profession -Fabrication of dental prosthesis was done -No restriction of govt for the practice of dentistryStage-3 Initial -Dentists form a guild/association professionalization -Formal training of 6months-2years was organized -Restrictive legislation is enacted -Profession comes into beingStage-4 Intermediate -Independent dental schools were established professionalization with increased course n duration -Minimum requirement for admission was secondary education -Dental education stresses on technical aspects of profession -Professional associations became stronger due to increase in dental professionals -Unqualified professionals strived due to deficiencies in laws n their enforcementsStage-5 Advanced -Dentistry becomes recognized as health professionalization profession
  6. 6. -It becomes strongly organized n institutionalized -Post graduation studies develop -Dental practice by unqualified personnel disappearsMILESTONES IN DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTHEfforts towards the prevention of dental disease dates back to 2600 years beforeChrist where an inscription on the tomb of Hesy-Re, an Egyptian scribe reads thathe was “the greatest of those who deal with teeth and of physicians.” This is theearliest known reference to a person identified as a dental practitioner and isoften called “the first dentist.” 2500 BC – H Wang Ti from China devotes a chapter in his book to dental and gingival diseases 1500 BC – Ebers papyrus from Egypt describes oral diseases and offers a number of prescriptions for strengthening of teeth and gums 480 BC – Hippocrates of Cos, the father of modern medicine, discussed the functions and eruptions of teeth and also the etiology of periodontal diseases 15 BC – Aulus Cornelius Celsus (Roman) refers to the disease that effects the soft parts of the mouth and their treatment. Paul of Aegina (Roman) differentiated between epulis and parulis 9th century AD – The Arabs were interested in the care of the teeth rather than in their extraction and replacement and mouth hygiene was a well
  7. 7. established technique. They used a small wooden stick, the end of whichwas often chewed, the wooden fibres being used as a brush called “Siwak”Late 10th century AD – The first recognition for removal of calcareousdeposits as important in control of periodontal diseases was mentioned byAbulcasis14th century AD – Guy de Chauliac records a fairly definite set of rules fororal hygiene based on Arab writings involving a number of dietaryprohibitions including viscous food such as figs and confectionary madewith honey and also directions for cleansing the teeth with a dentrificeLate 1440’s – The first modern idea of a toothbrush was invented by Chinaby the Chinese1640 – Toothbrush is introduced into the western world1723 – Pierre Fauchard , a French surgeon publishes “The SurgeonDentist”, a treatise on teeth. Fauchard is credited as being the Father of theModern Dentistry because his book was the first to describe acomprehensive system for the practice of dentistry including basic oralanatomy and function, operative and restorative techniques and denturereconstruction1776 – The first modern known case of post-mortem dental forensics. PaulRevere, a dentist, verifies the death of his friend, Dr. Joseph Warren in theBattle of Breed’s Hill, when he identifies the bridge that he constructed forWarren1789 – Frenchman Nicolas Dubois de Chemant receives the first patent forporcelain teeth
  8. 8. 1790 – John Greenwood, son of Issac Greenwood and one of GeorgeWashington’s dentists, constructs the first known dental foot engine. Headapts his mother’s foot treadle spinning wheel to rotate a drill1790 – Josaiah Flagg, a prominent American Dentist, constructs the firstdental chair made specially for dental patients. To a wooden Windsonchair, Flagg attached an adjustable headrest plus an arm extension to holdthe instruments1791 – The first dispensary for the treatment of poor was established bySkinner in NYC. Dental services were also offered there.1801 – Richard C Skinner writes the Treatise on the human teeth, the firstdental book published in America1825 – Samuel Stockton begins commercial manufacture of porcelain teeth.His SS White Dental Manufacturing Company establishes and dominatesthe dental supply market throughout the 19th century1832 – James Snell invents the first reclining dental chair1833 – The Crawcour brothers introduce amalgam in US and advertise it asa substitute for gold restorations1839 – The American Journal of Dental Science, the world’s first dentaljournal begins its publication
  9. 9. 1839 – Charles Goodyear invents the vulcanization process for hardeningrubber. The resulting Vulcanite, an inexpensive material easily moulded,makes an excellent base for false teeth.1840 – The American Society of Dental Surgeons, the world’s first nationaldental organization is founded1844 – Horace Wells, a Connecticut dentist discovers that nitrous oxide canbe used as an anesthesia and successfully uses it to conduct severalextractions in his clinic. In 1845 the public demonstration of the same failedafter the patient cried out during the operation. In 1846, another dentist,William Mortan (student of Wells) takes the credit for the discovery whenhe conducts the first successful public demonstration of the use of ether asan anesthesia for surgery1849 – The society of Dental Surgeons of the state of New York founded itsown dental infirmary1854 – The earliest known lab in the US., Sutton & Raynor, opens in NYC1857 – The first patent for toothbrush by HN Wadsworth in the US1859 – 26 dentists meet in Niagara Falls and forms American DentalAssociation1861 – Dental service became a part of charity hospital of Philadelphia
  10. 10. 1864 – Sanford C Barnum develops the rubber dam which solves theproblem of isolating a tooth1865 – The first children’s dental clinic was established in Strasbourg,Germany1866 – Lucy Hobbs graduated from Ohio College of Dental Surgery,becoming the first woman to earn a dental degree1867 – The Harvard University Dental School, the first university-affiliateddental institution is founded. The school calls its degree DentariaeMedicinae Doctorae (DMD)1867 – Small dental clinic for low income people was opened in Boston1871 – James B Morrison patents the first commercially manufactured foot-treadle dental engine. This inexpensive mechanized tool supplies dentalburs with enough speed to cut enamel n dentin smoothly and quickly,revolutionizing the practice of dentistry1871 – George F Green receives the patent for the first electric dentalengine, a self contained motor and handpiece1877 – The Wilkerson chair, the first pump type hydraulic dental chair isintroduced1884 – ML Rhein of NYC urges dentists to teach their patients proper toothbrushing method. He coins the term “Oral Hygiene”
  11. 11. 1885 – Dr. C Edmung Kells of New Orleans hires his first lady dentalassistant in assisting his lady patients1890 – In England through the stimulation of W Mac Pherson Fisher ofDundee, a committee was appointed to carry on oral hygiene work inschools which led to the appointment of dentists in many elementaryschools1892 – Dr. Washington Sheffield of New London, Connecticut manufacturestoothpaste in a collapsible tube and names it Dr. Sheffield’s CrèmeDentifrice1895 – Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen a German physicist discovers the X-ray1896 – A prominent New Orleans dentist C Edmond Kells takes the firstdental radiograph of a living person in US1898 – J Leon Williams, a dental histologist gave a slogan “A clean toothnever decays” which led to higher standards of mouth hygiene1899 – Edward Hartley Angle classifies the various forms of malocclusion1900 – FDI is formed1901 – Dr Federick Mckay discovers Colorado stains in Colorado springs, US
  12. 12. 1905 – Alfred C Fones of Bridgeport trains Mrs. Irene Newman to undertakeoral prophylaxis1908 – Epidemiologic studies related to mottled enamel was done1913 - Alfred C Fones opens the Fones Clinic For Dental Hygienists inBridgeport, Connecticut, the world’s first oral hygiene school. Dr Fones usesthe term dental hygienist to become known as the Father of DentalHygiene1921 – The first training school for dental nurses come into existence inNew Zealand in Willington at the urging of T A Hunter1926 – The Carnegie Foundation-sponsored Gies report, the firstcomprehensive report on the state of dental education, is published andhas an immediate impact on dental profession1931 – Fluoride is identified by H V Churchill in New Kensington,Pennsylvania , Smith MC, Lantz EM, Smith HV in Arizona and Velu H, BalozetL in France1938 – The nylon toothbrush made with synthetic bristles is introduced byDuPoint1945 – The water fluoridation era begins when the city of Grand Rapids,Michigan, add sodium fluoride to their public water systems
  13. 13. 1948 – WHO was formed1955 – Michael Buonocore describes the acid etch technique, a simplemethod of increasing the adhesion of acrylic filings to enamel1956 – The Oral Health Unit was established in WHO1957 – John Borden introduces a high speed air driven contra-anglehandpiece. The airotor obtains speed upto 300,000 rotations per minute1958 – A fully reclining dental chair is introduced1959 – The first electric toothbrush, the Broxodent is introduced by Bristol-Myers company at the centennial of ADA1960s – Lasers are developed and approved for soft tissue procedures1969 – WHO establishes the WHO epidemilogical data bank which collectsdata on dental health and dental needs in many countries around the globe1982 – International conference on the declining prevalence of dentalcarried is organized by Forsyth Dental Centre, Boston in June1996 – WHO establishes an internet online oral health database, supportedby the WHO Collaborating Centre in oral health at Malmo University,Sweden and the University of Niigata, Japan. The WHO Oral healthCountry/Area Profile Program (CAPP) aims at presenting information on
  14. 14. oral diseases in individual countries, including data on oral health services, programs, dental education and human resourcesMILESTONES IN THE INDIAN CONTEXT 1000 BC – Sushrutha Samhita-numerous descriptions of severe periodontal disease with loose teeth and purulent discharge Charaka Samhita – Stressed on tooth brushing-the stick for tooth brushing, should be bitter, pungent or astringent. One of its ends should be cleaned in the form of a brush and should be used twice a day taking care that gums are not injured. Neem twigs are used even today The father of Dentistry in India ia considered to be Dr Rafiuddin Ahmed, who was born on December 24, 1890 and later became the first president of Indian Dental Association (then known as All India Dental Association) 1920 – Dr Ahmed founded the first dental college of India which was financed by starting the New York Soda Foundation in Calcutta 1925 – Dr Ahmed establishes the Bengal Dental Association and establishes the Indian Dental Journal 1939 – Dr Ahmed helps to form the Bengal Dentists Act, which was the first governmental regulation in India
  15. 15. 1948 – Dentists act is passes by the Indian Parliament in closeassociation with All India Dental Association on the 29th of March. ThisAct was introduced to regulate the profession of dentistry in India. TheAct was amended on 1st July 1955 to make the law applicable to thestate of Jammu and Kashmir1971 – Mr Orango started the department of Community Dentistry atGovernment Dental College, Bangalore under Dr Mohandas Bhat1988 – National Oral Health Care Program, (NOHCP) project of DGHSand Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is initiated to improve theoral health of the masses and to prevent or reduce the burden of oraldisease in the country1995 – The re-drafted Oral Health Policy is accepted in principle as apart of the National Health Policy during the Fourth Conference ofCentral Council of Health and Family Welfare2002-2003 – National oral health survey was carried out by the DentalCouncil of India
  16. 16. REFERENCES Soben Peter Hiremath

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