Learning artifact on paradigms


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A look into the paradigms and theories and their place in education methods and technology.

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Learning artifact on paradigms

  1. 1. Educational Technology<br />Paradigms, Theories and Models<br />by Sarah Devereaux<br />
  2. 2. Constructivism Theory<br />Behaviorism Theory<br />Cognitivism Theory<br />Paradigms<br />A comprehensive belief system that guides research and practice in the field.<br />
  3. 3. The Behaviorist Learning Theory<br />Makes teachers directly accountable for student results.<br />Teaching = Learning<br />Postpositivism<br />Teacher – Directed Methods<br />Focuses on observable events that precede and follow certain behaviors.<br />- Stimulus & Response<br />Postpositivist/Objectivist Paradigm<br />Education is Knowledge Transmission<br />
  4. 4. Behaviorism<br />Operant Learning – contingent relationships among antecedents, operant, and consequences.<br />Programmed instruction – the pedagogical organization of stimuli, responses, and reinforcers.<br />Direct Instruction – scripted method that provides fast-paced, constant interaction between students and teachers.<br />As hard technology advanced these frameworks were incorporated in digital formats like CAI (computer-assisted instruction) and online distance education.<br />Behaviorism-based technologies show that it is possible to achieve dramatic test gains through careful control.<br />
  5. 5. The Cognitivist Theory<br />Focuses on inferred mental conditions.<br />Teachers & Students = Collaborators<br />Interpretivism<br />Teachers allow students to construct knowledge<br />Learning is under the control of learners. <br />Student Motivation leads to achievements.<br />Interpretivism Paradigm<br />Education is about participation<br />
  6. 6. Copyright 2010<br />Cognitivism<br />Learners us their memory and thought processes to generate strategies or manipulate mental ideas.<br />Cognitive perspective gained legitimacy and dominance in 1970 when the journal Cognitive Psychology began.<br />Piaget’s Theory – children try to fit events of experiences into existing framework. Modified mental structure when things didn’t fit.<br />Information processing theory – learning is a series of transformations of information. Information processes – sensory memory to short term memory to long term memory.<br />Schema theory – material stored in long term memory is arranged in organized structures that change.<br />
  7. 7. Copyright 2010<br />Cognitivism – cont.<br />Learner use of multiple sensory modalities like computer multimedia resembles the natural human cognitive system. Can transform from one symbol system to another.<br />It is meant to apply to learning in the cognitive domain – knowledge, understanding, application, evaluation, and metacognition.<br />Emphasis on the arrangement of content to make it meaningful, comprehensible, memorable, and appealing draws attention to design issues.<br />A useful example of a lesson framework that arranges the steps of a learning event is Gagne’s Events of Instruction – a specific sequence of events.<br />Or Foshay and Stelnicki’s framework that is the form of “a cognitive training model” – 17 specific tactics organized around 5 strategic phases (shown on next slide).<br />
  8. 8. Five Strategic Phases<br />Gaining and focusing attention<br />1<br />2<br />Linking to prior knowledge<br />Organizing content<br />3<br />Assimilating the new knowledge<br />4<br />Strengthening retention and transfer of the new knowledge<br />5<br />
  9. 9. The Constructivism Theory<br />Involves construction, authenticity and reflection. <br />Sociocultural approach<br />Constructivism<br />Infused anchored instruction, problem-based learning, and collaborative learning with a sense of mission.<br />An umbrella term for a wide range of ideas drawn primarily from recent developments in cognitive psychology.<br />A number of authors were known to hold widely divergent and sometimes conflicting views associated with constructivism.<br />Constructivism Paradigm<br />Learning is a social process<br />
  10. 10. Constructivist Prescriptions<br />Embed learning in complex, realistic, and relevant environments.<br />1<br />2<br />Provide for social negotiation as an integral part of learning.<br />Support multiple perspectives and the use of multiple modes of representation.<br />3<br />4<br />Encourage ownership in learning.<br />Nurture self-awareness of the knowledge construction process.<br />5<br />
  11. 11. Constructivism<br />Terhart concluded the difficulty to distinguish moderate constructivist principals of instruction from cognitivist principals<br />He stated that “the ‘new’ constructivist didactics in the end is merely an assembly of long-known teaching methods.”<br />The assumption “that knowledge is constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense of their experiences” (Driscoll, 2005, p.387) overlaps with cognitivists assumptions.<br />Where constructivism differs is in that the constructions may not correspond to the external reality.<br />Teachers are learning to plan activities that engage students in learning, are authentic and worthwhile, and involve constructivist principals while using educational technology as a tool for learning.<br />
  12. 12. A Simple FormulaThe combination of theoretical perspectives<br />Employ behaviorist perspective when learners have lower levels of task knowledge<br />Use cognitivist perspective for middle levels of task knowledge<br />Consider constructivist perspective when learners have a higher level of prior knowledge – complex problem solving<br />Copyright 2010<br />
  13. 13. Copyright 2010<br />Media vs Methods<br />Some enthusiasts for using media to improve learning assume that embedding content in the newest media will automatically improve the effectiveness of it.<br />“The best current evidence is that media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction […] like a truck that delivers our groceries” (Clark, 1983, p.445).<br />The use of media more and more comes to mean digital media.<br />Clark (1983) concludes that “it seems not to be media but variables such as instructional methods that foster learning” (p.449).<br />Different media formats only make a difference in time, not learning effectiveness.<br />Different results could be expected if a different instructional paradigm might be used.<br />Not learning from media, but instead with media.<br />