Guitar (2006)• Stuttering is characterized by an abnormally highfrequency of stoppages in fluency.a) Part word repetitionsb) Sound prolongationsc) Blocks• People who stutter are usually aware of theirstuttering and are often embarrassed by it and use ahigh amount of mental and physical effort to speak.• Children may not be aware- but may show signs ofphysical and mental effort.
Six Major Dimensions- Yairi andSeery (2011) Overt characteristics Physical concomitants/secondary behaviors Muscular activity Affective features Cognitive processes Social Dynamics
Secondary Behaviors- A key pieceof the complex disorder People who stutter usually feel a loss of controlwhen they stutter. The person who stutters will develop a wholegroup of secondary behaviors to cope with theproblem. Also known as concomitant or reactivebehaviors.
Escape Behaviors Loss of eye contact. Jerking or abnormal movements of the head. Blinking of the eyes, wrinkling of the forehead,distortions of the mouth and quivering of the nostrils. Abnormal variations in speaking rate, the loudnessand/or pitch of the voice. Flushing, pallor, or perspiration. Autonomic arousal. A feeling of tension.
Avoidance Behaviors Behaviors that allow individuals to avoid themoment of stuttering. Will be used as the person anticipates theirdifficulty. Anticipates, then inserts a behavior to avoidstuttering. Not talking, interjections, circumlocutions, and othertypes of behaviors.
Avoidance and Escape Behaviors A learned part of the condition. Rewarding at first and a large part of the problemlater. Will often be a major part of therapy for individualswho have a more chronic form of the disorder.
Emotions and Attitudes-Anotherpiece of this complex disorder Feelings are created by stuttering, the opposite isalso true. Can make the process of speaking much moredifficult. Emotional reactions will develop along withstuttering. People will also develop negative communicationattitudes.
Negative Emotions & Attitudes Shame Fear Guilt Lower self-esteem Negative attitudes towards speaking Negative attitudes towards others
World Health Organization (2000)A communication disorder occurs when aperson’s communication performance frequentlyfails to accomplish necessary social functions orthe manner in which the person communicatesis viewed negatively by either the speaker or theaudience.
CDIS- World Health Organization Limitations in Body Functions- Impairment– Any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, oranatomical structure or function. Activity Limitations- Disability– Any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity inthe manner or within the range considered normal for ahuman being. Participation Restriction- Handicap– A disadvantage for a given individual resulting from animpairment or a disability, that limits or prevents thefulfillment of a role that is normal for that individual.
Anticipation and Adaptation People who stutter are able to anticipateand/or predict when they will stutter.– Not only in individual words, but situations.– Often leads to avoidances. People seem to adapt to their stuttering.– Less stuttering over subsequent passages.– Also may adapt in certain situations.
Situations That Reduce Stuttering/IncreaseFluency Acknowledging or not avoiding stuttering ortrying to stutter. Speaking in chorus. Playing a role. Suggestion/hypnosis.
Factors That IncreaseStuttering/Decrease Fluency Speaking on thephone Saying his/her name. Speaking to anauthority figure. Speaking to a largeaudience. Telling a joke. Waiting to speak. Repeating amessage or askingfor clarification. Trying not to stutteror trying to hide it. Experiencingemotional arousal.
Role of the Speech-LanguagePathologist Counselor Educator Mechanic