A Term Paper Presentation on
Silvicultural Characteristics of Three Tree Species on
Temperate Region

By
Bishnu Prasad Adh...
Outline of the Presentation
1.Introduction
2.Mehods of the Study
3.Discussion
4.Conclusion
Introduction
Silviculture is that branch of forestry which deals with
establishment, development, care and reproduction of...
Silvicultural Characteristics
• These indicate under what conditions a species may
be exposed to grow well.
• They include...
Tree Species in Temperate Forest
Two Types of Temperate Forest are prevalent
(Jackson,1994).
1. Lower Temperate Forest
Alt...
2.Upper Temperate Forest
Occurs at altitudes from about 2700 meter in the west
and center and from 2400 to 2800m in the we...
Methods of the Study
This term paper is entirely based on secondary
source.
Different manuals, textbooks, publications and...
Discussion
• Following three species have been described of
species of temperate forest.
1. Gobre Salla (Pinus wallichiana...
Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana)
• A large Tree
• Needles in bundles of five, dark-bluish green,11-18
cm long
• Cones ellipso...
Silvicultural Characteristics of Blue Pine
• Strong light demander.
• Frost hardy, it suffers from snow, the crowns break
...
Khasru (Quercus semecarpifolia)
• Leaves are elliptical or oblong, spinous teethed or entire.
• Flowers :male spikes-crowe...
Silvicultural Characteristics of Khasru
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Strong light demander.
The seedlings are resistant to frost.
It...
Himalayan Yew (Taxus baccata)
• Evergreen tree
• Bark- thin, reddish-grey, peeling off in narrow strips.
• Leaves in two r...
Silvicultural Characteristics of Himalayan Yew
• Strongly shade tolerant, can grow and reproduce
under fairly dense shade....
Conclusion
• Pinus wallichiana, Quercus semecarpifolia and Taxus
baccata are common tree species in temperate forest
altho...
Acknowledgements
• Course Coodinator Dr. Bimal Keshary poudel
• All my classmates
Silvicultural characteristics of three tree species on temperate region  bishnu pd adhikari
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Silvicultural characteristics of three tree species on temperate region bishnu pd adhikari

  1. 1. A Term Paper Presentation on Silvicultural Characteristics of Three Tree Species on Temperate Region By Bishnu Prasad Adhikari Roll Number-17 M.Sc. Forestry Institute of Forestry, Pokhara
  2. 2. Outline of the Presentation 1.Introduction 2.Mehods of the Study 3.Discussion 4.Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction Silviculture is that branch of forestry which deals with establishment, development, care and reproduction of stands of timber(Toumey and Korstian). Indian Forest and Forest Products Terminology, published by the Forest Research Institute and Colleges, Deharadun,defines silviculture as the art and science of cultivating forest crops.
  4. 4. Silvicultural Characteristics • These indicate under what conditions a species may be exposed to grow well. • They include its tolerance to shade; tolerance to draught; tolerance to frost; its tolerance to damage by fire and grazing. • Other characteristics include types of soil on which grow well and its ability to coppice, pollard or produce root suckers.
  5. 5. Tree Species in Temperate Forest Two Types of Temperate Forest are prevalent (Jackson,1994). 1. Lower Temperate Forest Altitude 2000-2700 meter in the west,1700-2400 meter in the east. • Forest of Quercus leucotripchophora and Quercus lanata • Quercus floribunda forest • Quercus lamellosa forest • Lower temperate mixed broadleaved forest,with abundant Lauraceae • Pinus wallichiana forest
  6. 6. 2.Upper Temperate Forest Occurs at altitudes from about 2700 meter in the west and center and from 2400 to 2800m in the west. • Quercus semecarpifolia forest • Upper temperate mixed broadleaved forest: mixed in composition including A. campbellii,A.sterculiaceum, A.pectinatum, R.arboreum, Litsea, Lindera, Neolitsea, Tsuga dumosa • Rhododendron forest • Upper temperate coniferous forest: main species include Abies pindrow, Picea smithiana, Cedrus deodara, Taxus baccata
  7. 7. Methods of the Study This term paper is entirely based on secondary source. Different manuals, textbooks, publications and websites have been consulted for its preparation.
  8. 8. Discussion • Following three species have been described of species of temperate forest. 1. Gobre Salla (Pinus wallichiana) 2. Khasru (Quercus semecarpiflora) 3. Loth Salla( Taxus baccata)
  9. 9. Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana) • A large Tree • Needles in bundles of five, dark-bluish green,11-18 cm long • Cones ellipsoid, 10-15 cm long • Seed with wing 1.5-3 cm long • Naturally found in Nepal between 1800 and 3600m, and very occasionally to 4400m (Jackson,1994). • It is widely distributed in the midland zone,between the foothillls and main Himalayan range, where at its lower altitude,mixed with P.roxburghii.(generally found on north-facing slopes.
  10. 10. Silvicultural Characteristics of Blue Pine • Strong light demander. • Frost hardy, it suffers from snow, the crowns break and young trees develop curvature at the base. • Seedling may suffer from the draught after the end of monsoon and again in April and May. • It is moderately resistant to fire,blue pine is less fire resistant than chirpine • It prefers well-drained,porous soil and will grow on limestone soil. • It is a non-coppicer. • They are very easily damaged by browsing. • It can tolerate the competition from shrub and weed growth,but dense,matted grass is harmful to them.
  11. 11. Khasru (Quercus semecarpifolia) • Leaves are elliptical or oblong, spinous teethed or entire. • Flowers :male spikes-crowed, female spikes-short in clusters of 3 or more • Fruits are fleshy acron. • Seed- a fleshy nut, which can be removed from cup • Bark is dark grey, exfoliating in irregular woody scales. • It grows between 1700 and 3800m but is commonest between 2400 and 3000m, and is the highest altitude oak in Nepal. • It is dominant with Abies spectabilish and Betula utilis,especially on south facing slopes,at above 3000m. • It is absent from the very high rainfall areas.
  12. 12. Silvicultural Characteristics of Khasru • • • • • • • • • Strong light demander. The seedlings are resistant to frost. It is sensitive to fire. It tolerates the wide range of soil types. It needs moderately fertile soils. Survival is on poor rocky ridges but growth is poor. It coppices and pollards fairly well. It is sensitive to browsing. Khasru forests occur in regions of moderate rainfall. It is slow growing species and difficult to raise in the nursery.
  13. 13. Himalayan Yew (Taxus baccata) • Evergreen tree • Bark- thin, reddish-grey, peeling off in narrow strips. • Leaves in two rows,1.5 to 2.8 cm by 2 mm, dark green above, pale beneath. • Seed surrounded by a red fleshy aril, looking like a berry, about 7mm in diameter. • It is found in Nepal between 2300 and 4400m, often as an understorey tree. • It is found associated with Picea smithiana,Tsuga dumosa, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus semecarpifolia ,particularly at higher altitudes. • Leaves and barks are a good source of taxol, which is used against ovarian, lung,breast and other types of cancer.
  14. 14. Silvicultural Characteristics of Himalayan Yew • Strongly shade tolerant, can grow and reproduce under fairly dense shade. • It is frost hardy. • It is a fire tender because bark is so thin that fire is fatal to the trees. • It is usually in shady places under trees. It does not thrive in areas where forests have been cleared. • Himalayan yew is a non-coppicer.
  15. 15. Conclusion • Pinus wallichiana, Quercus semecarpifolia and Taxus baccata are common tree species in temperate forest although they are not always strictly adhere to these altitudinal limits. • Silvicultural characteristics have indicated their tolerance to shade, draught, frost and tolerance to damage by fire and grazing. • Other characteristics have included the types of soil on which grow well and its ability to coppice, pollard or produce root suckers. • Knowledge of silvicultural characteristics is essential for regeneration of that species.
  16. 16. Acknowledgements • Course Coodinator Dr. Bimal Keshary poudel • All my classmates

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