Silvicultural characteristics of three tree species on temperate region bishnu pd adhikari
A Term Paper Presentation on
Silvicultural Characteristics of Three Tree Species on
Bishnu Prasad Adhikari
Institute of Forestry, Pokhara
Outline of the Presentation
2.Mehods of the Study
Silviculture is that branch of forestry which deals with
establishment, development, care and reproduction of
stands of timber(Toumey and Korstian).
Indian Forest and Forest Products
Terminology, published by the Forest Research Institute
and Colleges, Deharadun,defines silviculture as the art
and science of cultivating forest crops.
• These indicate under what conditions a species may
be exposed to grow well.
• They include its tolerance to shade; tolerance to
draught; tolerance to frost; its tolerance to damage by
fire and grazing.
• Other characteristics include types of soil on which
grow well and its ability to coppice, pollard or
produce root suckers.
Tree Species in Temperate Forest
Two Types of Temperate Forest are prevalent
1. Lower Temperate Forest
Altitude 2000-2700 meter in the west,1700-2400 meter in
• Forest of Quercus leucotripchophora and Quercus lanata
• Quercus floribunda forest
• Quercus lamellosa forest
• Lower temperate mixed broadleaved forest,with abundant
• Pinus wallichiana forest
2.Upper Temperate Forest
Occurs at altitudes from about 2700 meter in the west
and center and from 2400 to 2800m in the west.
• Quercus semecarpifolia forest
• Upper temperate mixed broadleaved forest: mixed in
composition including A. campbellii,A.sterculiaceum,
A.pectinatum, R.arboreum, Litsea, Lindera, Neolitsea,
• Rhododendron forest
• Upper temperate coniferous forest: main species
include Abies pindrow, Picea smithiana, Cedrus
deodara, Taxus baccata
Methods of the Study
This term paper is entirely based on secondary
Different manuals, textbooks, publications and
websites have been consulted for its
• Following three species have been described of
species of temperate forest.
1. Gobre Salla (Pinus wallichiana)
2. Khasru (Quercus semecarpiflora)
3. Loth Salla( Taxus baccata)
Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana)
• A large Tree
• Needles in bundles of five, dark-bluish green,11-18
• Cones ellipsoid, 10-15 cm long
• Seed with wing 1.5-3 cm long
• Naturally found in Nepal between 1800 and
3600m, and very occasionally to 4400m
• It is widely distributed in the midland zone,between
the foothillls and main Himalayan range, where at its
lower altitude,mixed with P.roxburghii.(generally
found on north-facing slopes.
Silvicultural Characteristics of Blue Pine
• Strong light demander.
• Frost hardy, it suffers from snow, the crowns break
and young trees develop curvature at the base.
• Seedling may suffer from the draught after the end of
monsoon and again in April and May.
• It is moderately resistant to fire,blue pine is less fire
resistant than chirpine
• It prefers well-drained,porous soil and will grow on
• It is a non-coppicer.
• They are very easily damaged by browsing.
• It can tolerate the competition from shrub and weed
growth,but dense,matted grass is harmful to them.
Khasru (Quercus semecarpifolia)
• Leaves are elliptical or oblong, spinous teethed or entire.
• Flowers :male spikes-crowed, female spikes-short in
clusters of 3 or more
• Fruits are fleshy acron.
• Seed- a fleshy nut, which can be removed from cup
• Bark is dark grey, exfoliating in irregular woody scales.
• It grows between 1700 and 3800m but is commonest
between 2400 and 3000m, and is the highest altitude oak
• It is dominant with Abies spectabilish and Betula
utilis,especially on south facing slopes,at above 3000m.
• It is absent from the very high rainfall areas.
Silvicultural Characteristics of Khasru
Strong light demander.
The seedlings are resistant to frost.
It is sensitive to fire.
It tolerates the wide range of soil types. It needs
moderately fertile soils.
Survival is on poor rocky ridges but growth is poor.
It coppices and pollards fairly well.
It is sensitive to browsing.
Khasru forests occur in regions of moderate rainfall.
It is slow growing species and difficult to raise in the
Himalayan Yew (Taxus baccata)
• Evergreen tree
• Bark- thin, reddish-grey, peeling off in narrow strips.
• Leaves in two rows,1.5 to 2.8 cm by 2 mm, dark green
above, pale beneath.
• Seed surrounded by a red fleshy aril, looking like a
berry, about 7mm in diameter.
• It is found in Nepal between 2300 and 4400m, often as an
• It is found associated with Picea smithiana,Tsuga
dumosa, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus semecarpifolia
,particularly at higher altitudes.
• Leaves and barks are a good source of taxol, which is used
against ovarian, lung,breast and other types of cancer.
Silvicultural Characteristics of Himalayan Yew
• Strongly shade tolerant, can grow and reproduce
under fairly dense shade.
• It is frost hardy.
• It is a fire tender because bark is so thin that fire is
fatal to the trees.
• It is usually in shady places under trees. It does not
thrive in areas where forests have been cleared.
• Himalayan yew is a non-coppicer.
• Pinus wallichiana, Quercus semecarpifolia and Taxus
baccata are common tree species in temperate forest
although they are not always strictly adhere to these
• Silvicultural characteristics have indicated their tolerance
to shade, draught, frost and tolerance to damage by fire
• Other characteristics have included the types of soil on
which grow well and its ability to coppice, pollard or
produce root suckers.
• Knowledge of silvicultural characteristics is essential for
regeneration of that species.
• Course Coodinator Dr. Bimal Keshary poudel
• All my classmates