Silvicultural characteristics of three terai species of nepal pratikshya paneru
Silvicultural characteristics of three Terai species of
Silvicultural characteristics of three Terai species
• Shorea robusta
• Dalbergia sissoo
• Acacia catechu
Silviculture is the branch of forestry which deals with the
establishment, development, care and reproduction of stands of timber (Toumey and
It is the art and science of cultivating forest crops(Forest Research
For the effective management and fulfilling the objective or goals of
forestry, silviculture is required and it is very much important to understand the
silvicultural characteristics of the tree species.
Nepal has the topographic variation from the 50 meters above the sea level to the
southern border to the highest peak of the world (8,848 meters) to the north.
Nepal has tropical climate in the south and temperate and alpine climate in the
north and the forest types vary accordingly.
Nepal has a very diverse flora with 35 forest types, as classified by Stainton
(1972). These forest types are categorized into ten major groups: tropical, subtropical broad-leaved, subtropical conifer, lower temperate broad leaved, lower
temperate mixed broad leaved, upper temperate broad leaved, upper temperate
mixed broad leaved, temperate coniferous, sub-alpine and alpine scrub forests.
Terai region of Nepal is dominated by tropical forest and from the tropical forest
species three tree species Shorea robusta, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia catechu are
selected to study the silvicultural characteristics.
• Local name: Sal
• English name: Sal
• Scientific name: Shorea robusta
• Family: Dipterocarpaceae
• Natural occurance: It is commonly found in Bhabar, Terai and Dunes, tropical and
subtropical zone of Nepal between 50-1500m altitudes (Jackson 1994). Stainton (1972)
distinguishes sal forest of Nepal into two types: 1). Bhabar, Terai and Dun sal forest 2).Hill
• Leaves: Leaves are simple glabrous or shiny, ovate-oblong and
coriaceous. New leaves appear in March-April.
• Flower: Flowers are pale yellow in color; which are in lax, axillary
or terminal panicles. Flowering begins in March -April.
• Bark: .Bark is reddish brown or grey, smooth of longitudinally
• Fruit: Fruits are ovoid, with five wings, three longs and two short
and fruiting in May-July.
Silvicultural characteristics of Shorea robusta.
Moderately frost hardy.
Drought sensitive, show frequently dying back phenomenon.
One of the most fire-resistant of tropical region.
It grows well in a well-drained, moist, sandy loam soil.
It coppices well up to 20-30 cm in diameter.
Graze and Browse
Sensitive to grazing and browsing
It is deciduous for a short time. A large tree exceptionally reaching a height of 45m, in
hills it rarely exceeds 15 m. it is on of the gregarious forest tree species.
Terminalia tomentosa ,T. belerica , T. chebula , Adina cardifolia ,
Anogeissus latifolia, Lagerstroemia parviflora.
• Local name: Sissoo
• Scientific name: Dalbergia sissoo
• Family: Leguminosae
It is a medium to large sized nitrogen fixing deciduous tree growing up to 30 m tall
and 80 cm in diameter.
In Nepal it grows up to 1500 m altitude (Jackson 1994). It is a native Terai species
mainly found associated with Acacia catechu.
• Leaves: leaves are alternate and odd pinnately compound (3-5 leaflets each).
Leaflets are broadly oval and leaf shedding in Jan-March.
• Flowers: Flowers are yellowish white flowers are born in bunches (panicles) in
the leaf axis and appear between March -May.
• Fruit: Yellow brown pods that turn dark brown as they ripe in Dec-Jan.
• Seed: Kidney shaped seed. Do not naturally split from the pods which drop off
Silvicultural characteristics of Dalbergia sissoo
It is a large deciduous tree with clear bole. It is often gregarious on new alluvial lands or
Strong light demander
Moderately fire resistant
Grows well in alluvial soil but poor growth on saline, heavy clay soil. It does not grow in
It coppices and pollards freely and produces abundant root suckers, especially when the
roots have been damaged.
Good association with Acacia catechu on freshly deposited soil.
Grazing and browsing sensitive i.e, young are very liable to damage by grazing and
Nitrogen fixing, seedlings are sensitive to weed and grass competition.
• Local name : Khair
• Scientific name: Acacia catechu
• Natural occurance: In tropical zone,200-1400m(Tisc).It is 815 m tall deciduous tree with light feathery crown and lives
upto 60 years.
• Leaf: Leaves are alternate bi-pinnate. Leaves shedding during
February; new leaves appear during April-May
• Flower: Flowering commences in June and continues till July to
August; flowers are pale yellow in cylindrical spike.
• Fruit: Pods are glabrous, flat and oblong.
• Seed: Seed ripens between November- March.
• Bark :Bark is dark grayish brown; exfoliating in long, narrow stripes.
Silvicultural characteristics of Acacia catechu
It is a strong light demander and does not tolerate any kind of suppression.
Very drought resistant
Prefers well-drained coarse, gravelly and alluvial soil
Coppices well; produces root suckers
It makes good association with Dalbergia sissoo; common associates are Anogeissus
latifolia,Diospyrous melanoxylon, and Lagerstoemea parviflora, Terminalias species.
A moderate sized deciduous tree
Develop a strong tap root system; can withstand flooding.
Gum and resign: oleo-resign from the sal tree is widely used as incense,and from the khair
tree is used in mastectomies.
Tannin:Cutch from the Khair tree is used for tanning and dyeing pulp and paper .
Sissoo and Khair are nitrogen fixing species and used as agroforestry species. They helps in
Oil from the sal seeds is used in making soap.
Sal leaves are also used for making temporary plates.
all the three species are strong light demander and frost hardy species
Sal is drought sensitive and frequently die back phenomenon is observed
but Sissoo is drought hardy and Khair is very resistant to drought.
These species are moderately fire resistant and all the species coppices
well. So silviculture systems like simple coppice, coppice with standards or
coppice with reserves are also applicable for forest management.
Seedlings of these species are very sensitive to grazing and browsing.