Afforestation of denuded hill slopes mahesh kumain


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  • Presented byMahesh KumainM.Sc. StudentIoF, PokharaRoll No: 11Section General forestry
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  • Afforestation of denuded hill slopes mahesh kumain

    1. 1. Presented by Mahesh Kumain M.Sc. Student IoF, Pokhara Roll No: 11 Section General forestry Afforestation of Denuded Hill Slopes
    2. 2. Presentation outlines  Introduction  Methodology  Discussion  Conclusion
    3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION
    4. 4. Silvicultura • Silvicultura is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. • Silviculture is that branch of forestry which deals with the establishment, development, care, and reproduction of stands of Timber.
    5. 5. Regeneration Regeneration is defined as “the renewable of a forest crop by natural or artificial means.” Methods of regeneration There are two main methods of regenerating forest crops 1. Natural regeneration, 2. Artificial regeneration The objectives of artificial regeneration are: 1. Reforestation 2. Afforestation
    6. 6. Regeneration…  Reforestation: Restocking of felled or otherwise cleared woodland by artificial means.  Afforestation : Establishment of a forest by artificial means on an area from which forest vegetation has always or long been absent. Objectives of Afforestation  To increase the production of timber.  To increase the production of fuel and small timber.  Soil conservation.  Protection of catchment of rivers.  Increasing natural beauty of landscape
    7. 7. Denuded hill slopes  simply denuded means “Nango Danda pakha”.  About 85% area is covered with hills in our country. They are also sloppy, some are covered with vegetations and some are naked , eroded, degraded. In most area some vegetal cover establishes naturally, but in drier parts of the country, their afforestation becomes a matter of importance not only for productive and bio-aesthetic reasons but also for conservation of soil and water.
    8. 8. 2. METHODOLOGY
    9. 9.  Basically, this term paper has been prepared through literature survey from internet, books and publications. No field visit has been made for this purpose.
    10. 10. 3. DISCUSSION
    11. 11. DISCUSSION … The following things should be considered while afforestation in denuded hill slopes: 1. Factors of locality and other conditions: Soil is poor, shallow and stony. Excessive soil erosion, excessive runoff, The incidence of grazing which was one of the most important cause of denudation is very heavy. 2. Closure: Before starting afforestation work it is necessary to close the area by fencing or by the cooperation of local people against felling, grazing and firing for 2-3 years.
    12. 12. DISCUSSION … 3. Soil preparation: Soil preparation is done either in the form of A) Contour trenches:  Contour trench are usually made on slope upto 20% as the operation becomes costly on steeper slope.  They are usually made with the help of any leveling instruments.  In forest, Abney’s level, which is the easiest instruments to use, is generally used.  Alternatively, the contours can be easily marked by any locally improvised wooden contouring frame,
    13. 13. DISCUSSION … structure  A contouring frame in the form of letter “A” of English alphabet is made of 5-6 cm wide sown timber piece, 1-2 cm thick. Two such pieces are joint to make “A” of height 1.5m with legs about 2m apart. To keep the legs in position, they are strutted with a horizontal piece on which is middle point is marked.  A plumb bob is suspended from a nail fixed in the apex. When thread of the plumb bob pass through the middle point mark of the horizontal piece, the two points on which the contouring frame stands, are on the same contour.
    14. 14. DISCUSSION … structure 1.5m Plumb bob 2m fig. Contouring frame with a plumb-bob
    15. 15. DISCUSSION … B.Pitches or pits: In place where the slope is rocky and contour tranches can not be made, patches for sowing and pits for planting may be made at selected places marked by stakes without bothering for regular spacing.
    16. 16. DISCUSSION … 4. Choice of species: The selection of species depends on different factors but should be selected indigenous species as possible. The fast growing , non-palatable species which can survive under the adverse condition. It is advisable to start with either pioneer species or species that occurs in the earlier stage of succession.
    17. 17. DISCUSSION … A few species that are used in afforestation of the denuded hill slopes are given below.  Temperate: Pinus wallichiana, Cedrus deodara, Juglans regia, Quercus spp., Rhododendron spp., Alnus nepalensis.  Moist sub-tropical : Pinus roxburghii, Pinus patula, Alnu nepalensis, etc.  Dry sub-tropical: Acacia modesta, Acacia catechu,, Prosopis juliflora, Robinia pseudacacia, etc.  In chure hills: Schima wallichii, Acacia catechu, cassia siamia, Acacia auriculiformis, Bamboos and grasses eg. Eulelioapsis binata etc.
    18. 18. DISCUSSION … 5. Method of raising plants: for the species mentioned above, planting of nursery grown seedling is the best but for some species direct sowing may be done. 6. Tending: weeding may have to carry out one or twice in a year depending upon the local condition can be continued for some years. However, weeding should be done continuously so that the plants do not suffer from isolation.
    19. 19. DISCUSSION … 7. Treatments of gullies: To check erosion, stone or brush wood check dams are provided or masonry check dams may be constructed where ever necessary. When the dams get silted up the area is planted with Agava, Ipomea, Arundo donax and Vitex negundo.
    20. 20. 4. CONCLUSION
    21. 21.  There are many challenges to afforestation in denuded hill slopes i.e. soil erosion, over grazing, firing, construction of development activities etc.  Different factors must be considered i.e. Factors of locality, Soil preparation activities, Choice of species, Methods of raising plants, Tending operation etc. while afforestation in denuded hill slopes.
    22. 22. Conclusion …  Sites and choice of species are two major factors must be considered while success in afforestation activities in denuded hill slopes