Afforestation in wetlands raj kumar gupta


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Afforestation in wetlands raj kumar gupta

  1. 1. Outline of the presentation • Introduction • Findings and discussion • Conclusion
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION : What is a wetland? Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems that provide the world with nearly two-thirds of its fish harvest. They take many forms including marshes, estuaries, mudflats, mires, ponds, fens, pocosins, swamps, deltas, coral reefs, billabongs, lagoons,
  3. 3. • Although the total extent of Nepal’s wetlands is unknown, 163 wetlands of the terai districts and 78 key hill and mountain wetlands have been recorded. • Additionally, over 2200 glacial lakes exist in high mountain areas. • An estimate suggests that wetlands cover 750,000ha or 5 percent of the country’s "Ramsar Convention defines wetlands as total surface area, “wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt,
  4. 4. According to the National Wetland Policy, 2003 of Nepal Wetlands denote perennial water bodies that originate from underground sources of water or rains. It means swampy areas with flowing or stagnant fresh or salt water that are natural or man-made, or permanent or temporary. Wetlands also mean marshy lands, riverine floodplains, lakes, ponds, water storage areas and agricultural lands.
  5. 5. Wetlands share three common characteristics: Hydric soils; soils that have developed under extended periods of saturation. Hydrophytic vegetation; plants that are adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Presence of water; inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater for a specific frequency and duration.
  6. 6. Why wetland should be conserved…? • Wetlands Provide Important Fish, Wildlife, and Plant Habitats • Wetlands Improve Water Quality By: • Wetlands Enhance Hydrologic Cycle Roles • Provide Natural Flood Control • Economic Benefits
  7. 7. Methods of Study: • Literature review • Internet use • Book s
  8. 8. Afforestation: plantation on a site where forest vegetation has long or always been absent. • In india 1950 around 40.48 million hectare area was under forest cover. in 1980 (67.47 million hectare) and in 2006 ( 69 million hectare.) • Nepal YMCA initiated afforestation program on the year 1999. Every year 5000-10000 plants are planted on the banks of Bagmati River; Munuhara River, Balkumari and Bagmati River in khokana village (srikali, chowr), ghajun-
  9. 9. Afforestation in the wetlands: it includes afforestation on different kinds of areas, according to wetlands definition, some of them are follow:- lands. i. Afforestation on Ravine ii. Afforestation on costal lands. iii. Afforestation on canal banks. iv. Afforestation on shallow black cotton soils.
  10. 10. Objectives of Afforestation: • To increase the production of timber. • To increase biodiversity. • To increase the production of fuel and small timber. • Improvement of wetland-ecosystem • To promote Ecosystem based Adaptation. • Moderation of micro-climate. • Soil conservation. • Protection of catchment of rivers. • Increasing natural beauty of landscape
  11. 11. Factors of locality: Coastal Wetlands Coastal wetlands are found in the areas between land and open sea that are not influenced by rivers such as. shorelines, beaches, mangroves and coral reefs. Shallow lakes and ponds These wetlands are areas of permanent or semi-permanent water with little flow. They include vernal ponds, spring pools, salt lakes and volcanic crater lakes. They are small, shallow, intermittently flooded depressions in grasslands or
  12. 12. Bogs • Bogs are waterlogged peatlands in old lake basins or depressions in the landscape. • Almost all water in bogs comes from rainfall. • As bogs are unsuitable for agriculture, forestry or development they offer an undisturbed habitat for a wide range of species, including moose, black bear, lynx, snowshoe hare and mink.
  13. 13. Marshes and Swamps Also known as palustrine wetlands, marshes, swamps and fens account for almost half of all wetlands throughout the world. Marshes are one of the broadest categories of wetlands and in general harbour the greatest biological diversity. Marshes form in depressions in the landscape, as fringes around lakes, and along slow-flowing streams and rivers. Marshes are dominated by floating-leafed plants like water lillies and duckweed.
  14. 14. Estuaries The area where rivers meet the sea and water changes from fresh to salt can offer an extremely rich mix of biodiversity. These wetlands include deltas, tidal mudflats and salt marshes. Mudflats and seagrass beds in particular provide a rich diet for many species of insects, birds, fish, turtles and other species.
  15. 15. Soil preparation • Site preparation work should be site specific. • In the water logged places mounds 60cm × 60cm at the top and 1.8m × 1.8m at the base and with height usually 1.2m or more depending on depth of water logged are made. • at improving soil structure and permeability by breaking the hard pan through deep ploughing, • In the ravine valleys, where 2.5m-10m wide continuous trenches are made. Species selectionmost suitable planting species are
  16. 16. Afforestation methods: include planting seedlings or cuttings, and direct-seeding. Findings and Discussion : • Except national wetland policy 2003 & 2069, existing acts and regulations do not define wetlands and mention wetlands management. • National wetland policy do not have any clear provisions about Afforestation in wetland .
  17. 17. Findings and Discussion : cont…. • Argentina has led to the deterioration of the Ibera Wetlands, the world’s second largest wetlands, and a decline in the quality of life in surrounding communities. By STEVEN R. WATROS, CRIMSON STAFF WRITER October 16, 2013 • in terms of its ubiquity and intensity of impact, was reduced water inputs to the wetland from the catchment caused by afforestation and other land-use activities in the catchment. (SD-report 2011.mondigroup)
  18. 18. Conclusion: • Afforestation is generally seen as a positive thing, but in wetland area it seems to be negative impact. • it should be conserved through wise use. • In wetland regions, most suitable planting species are flood or water logging tolerance spp.
  19. 19. Thank you…!