Unreached

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Unreached

  1. 1. REACHING OUT TO THE UNREACHEDREACHING OUT TO THE UNREACHED Sanjay Sahay, IPS,Sanjay Sahay, IPS, IGP, Eastern Range,IGP, Eastern Range, Davangere,Davangere, KarnatakaKarnataka
  2. 2. In a world with overIn a world with over 6 billion6 billion in thein the population of 7 billion aroundpopulation of 7 billion around 4 billion4 billion of theof the population on the globe remains unreached.population on the globe remains unreached. Communication is anCommunication is an enablerenabler and not aand not a providerprovider..
  3. 3. Relevance Of This TopicRelevance Of This Topic ➔ Only recently is human history the concept ofOnly recently is human history the concept of reaching out to the unreached emergedreaching out to the unreached emerged ➔ Nation State and Welfare State.Nation State and Welfare State. ➔ Welfare of all its citizens is a State function.Welfare of all its citizens is a State function. ➔ With development becoming the buzzword ofWith development becoming the buzzword of human existence.human existence.
  4. 4. Relevance Of This TopicRelevance Of This Topic ➔ Inclusive Growth became the final goal.Inclusive Growth became the final goal. ➔ Countries with huge underdeveloped areasCountries with huge underdeveloped areas and poor population is an anachronism toand poor population is an anachronism to today's world.today's world. ➔ Not limited to the social service sector.Not limited to the social service sector. ➔ NGOsNGOs
  5. 5. Relevance Of This TopicRelevance Of This Topic ➔ Sphere of work generally treated as outside theSphere of work generally treated as outside the governmental and business domains.governmental and business domains. ➔ People treating this as their core competencyPeople treating this as their core competency and core domain.and core domain. ➔ Other charitable and religious institutions.Other charitable and religious institutions.
  6. 6. MY PERSONAL EXPERIENCESMY PERSONAL EXPERIENCES  Worked for NSS in St.Stephen's College, worked inWorked for NSS in St.Stephen's College, worked in 1984 Delhi Riots.1984 Delhi Riots.  Worked at Pristina, Kosovo in the year 2000-2001 -Worked at Pristina, Kosovo in the year 2000-2001 - United Nations Mission in Kosovo. Had some interactionUnited Nations Mission in Kosovo. Had some interaction with national and international NGOs.with national and international NGOs.
  7. 7. MY PERSONAL EXPERIENCESMY PERSONAL EXPERIENCES  Worked at Wau, Southern Sudan 2005-2006 - UnitedWorked at Wau, Southern Sudan 2005-2006 - United Nations Mission in Sudan.As it was a unified commandNations Mission in Sudan.As it was a unified command worked in collaboration with the International NGOs.worked in collaboration with the International NGOs. Direct Interaction.Direct Interaction.  1994-95 Worked as Supervisory Officer of women1994-95 Worked as Supervisory Officer of women counselling center at Bangalore Police Commissioner'scounselling center at Bangalore Police Commissioner's OfficeOffice  2008 - 09 Worked as the Vice- President of a NGO2008 - 09 Worked as the Vice- President of a NGO run by Bangalore Police and also took care of Womenrun by Bangalore Police and also took care of Women and Child Helplinesand Child Helplines
  8. 8. STRUCTURESTRUCTURE ➢ Who are unreached?Who are unreached? ➢ Types of unreached?Types of unreached? ➢ What all is to be reached?What all is to be reached? ➢ By which agencies?By which agencies?
  9. 9. STRUCTURESTRUCTURE ➢Welfare State: The Biggest SocialWelfare State: The Biggest Social Organisation.Organisation. ➢ Who fills the void?Who fills the void? ➢ The NGOs/CharitableThe NGOs/Charitable Organisations.Organisations.
  10. 10. STRUCTURESTRUCTURE ➢The UNThe UN ➢ Beyond CSR, Its Business.Beyond CSR, Its Business. ➢ Conclusion.Conclusion.
  11. 11. WHO ARE UNREACHED?WHO ARE UNREACHED?
  12. 12. Unreached though has been understood as anUnreached though has been understood as an economic concepteconomic concept, it is comprehensive in nature,, it is comprehensive in nature, directly related to thedirectly related to the lack of fulfillmentlack of fulfillment ofof nationally/globallynationally/globally accepted parameters of humanaccepted parameters of human existence.existence.
  13. 13. UNREACHED!!!UNREACHED!!!  EconomicEconomic  SocialSocial  PoliticalPolitical  GeographicGeographic  HealthHealth  EducationEducation
  14. 14. Unreached because of gender and ageUnreached because of gender and age as in the case of women and children.as in the case of women and children.
  15. 15. UNREACHED BECAUSE OF ATTITUDE.UNREACHED BECAUSE OF ATTITUDE.
  16. 16. WHY REACH?WHY REACH?
  17. 17.  Welfare State throughWelfare State through social, economicsocial, economic andand political equity.political equity.  NGOs created with purpose toNGOs created with purpose to subserve socialsubserve social good.good.  Business entities urge to fulfillBusiness entities urge to fulfill social responsibilitysocial responsibility..  Large number of other organizations religious andLarge number of other organizations religious and otherwise jumping on theotherwise jumping on the social bandwagonsocial bandwagon in a bigin a big way.way.
  18. 18. Welfare StateWelfare State A welfare state is a "A welfare state is a "concept of governmentconcept of government inin which the state plays a key role in thewhich the state plays a key role in the protectionprotection andand promotionpromotion of the economic andof the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based onsocial well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles ofthe principles of equalityequality of opportunity,of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and publicequitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to availresponsibility for those unable to avail themselves of thethemselves of the minimal provisionsminimal provisions for a goodfor a good life. The general term may cover a variety oflife. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization."forms of economic and social organization."
  19. 19. The Social Service SectorThe Social Service Sector ● TheThe govt.govt. is theis the biggest social service organisationbiggest social service organisation in this country, which isin this country, which is permanentpermanent in nature and isin nature and is guidedguided by only the constitutionby only the constitution ● Economic Survey 2010-11Economic Survey 2010-11 ● Money we spend on social services between theMoney we spend on social services between the centre and the states is aboutcentre and the states is about 25%25% of all ourof all our money, onmoney, on education, health and other relatededucation, health and other related sectors.sectors. ThatThat figure is Rs 5,22,492 crores forfigure is Rs 5,22,492 crores for 2010-11.2010-11.
  20. 20. The Social Service SectorThe Social Service Sector ● This comes to aboutThis comes to about $115 billion dollars$115 billion dollars, or, or about $100 per person per year.about $100 per person per year. ● EducationEducation accounts foraccounts for 45%45% of this andof this and healthhealth forfor 19%.19%. ● This money can be spent more efficiently.This money can be spent more efficiently.
  21. 21. The Social Service SectorThe Social Service Sector ● This is anThis is an important questionimportant question because not onlybecause not only is the quantum very large, so is its growthis the quantum very large, so is its growth rate.rate. ● ThatThat expenditureexpenditure has more thanhas more than doubleddoubled in thein the past 4 years.past 4 years.
  22. 22. Government Poverty Alleviation ProgramsGovernment Poverty Alleviation Programs
  23. 23.  From IRDP 1978 to Mahatma Gandhi NAREGA allFrom IRDP 1978 to Mahatma Gandhi NAREGA all revolutionary poverty alleviation programs haverevolutionary poverty alleviation programs have become household names through rural Indiabecome household names through rural India
  24. 24.  The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural EmploymentThe Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act aims atGuarantee Act aims at enhancingenhancing the livelihood securitythe livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeingof people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred dayshundred days ofof wage-employment in a financial year to a rural householdwage-employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manualwhose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.work.  There cannot beThere cannot be more revolutionarymore revolutionary social servicesocial service program around the globe.program around the globe.  The PDSThe PDS
  25. 25. EMPOWERMENTEMPOWERMENT
  26. 26. From Physical Programs to EmpowermentFrom Physical Programs to Empowerment  All facets ofAll facets of social and economic well beingsocial and economic well being of theof the unreached are catered to by the government programsunreached are catered to by the government programs and services.and services.  Beyond programs the government aims atBeyond programs the government aims at empowermentempowerment of all unreached classes, women, SCs,of all unreached classes, women, SCs, STs, backward classes and whole of the rural countrySTs, backward classes and whole of the rural country side itself.side itself.  Political empowered throughPolitical empowered through Panchayati RajPanchayati Raj isis changing the face of the nation.changing the face of the nation.  Today all areToday all are stake holdersstake holders in the growth of thein the growth of the nation.nation.
  27. 27. Do the Unreached remain so?Do the Unreached remain so?
  28. 28. Do the Unreached remain so...??Do the Unreached remain so...?? ✗ Large groups remain below theLarge groups remain below the benchmarked level of good and services.benchmarked level of good and services. ✗ Human Development Index, we are stillHuman Development Index, we are still ranked very low.ranked very low.
  29. 29. Do the Unreached remain so...??Do the Unreached remain so...?? ✗ Final delivery of lot of programs haveFinal delivery of lot of programs have been debated upon.been debated upon. ✗ From PDS to Electronic Direct CashFrom PDS to Electronic Direct Cash Transfer Scheme based on Aadhar.Transfer Scheme based on Aadhar.
  30. 30. NGOs/Charitable OrganisationsNGOs/Charitable Organisations ● Professor Akira Iriye defines NGO as "aProfessor Akira Iriye defines NGO as "a voluntary non-state, non-profit, non-voluntary non-state, non-profit, non- religious, and non-military association.”religious, and non-military association.” ● One of the earliest mentions of theOne of the earliest mentions of the acronym "NGO" was in 1945, when theacronym "NGO" was in 1945, when the UN was created.UN was created.
  31. 31. NGOs/Charitable OrganisationsNGOs/Charitable Organisations ● These activities might include humanThese activities might include human rights, environmental, or developmentrights, environmental, or development work.work. ● The number of NGOs operating in theThe number of NGOs operating in the United States is estimated at 40,000,United States is estimated at 40,000, Russia has 277,000 NGOs; India isRussia has 277,000 NGOs; India is estimated to have around 3.3 millionestimated to have around 3.3 million NGOs in year 2009, which is just overNGOs in year 2009, which is just over one NGO per 400 Indians.one NGO per 400 Indians.
  32. 32. NGOs/Charitable OrganisationsNGOs/Charitable Organisations ● The best represented sub-sectors overall wereThe best represented sub-sectors overall were Development, followed by Health, Education,Development, followed by Health, Education, Children & Youth, Environment and Peace building.Children & Youth, Environment and Peace building. ● In the multilateral context alone, the number ofIn the multilateral context alone, the number of UN-accredited NGOs had risen from 40 in 1945 toUN-accredited NGOs had risen from 40 in 1945 to 3,536 by the end of 2011.3,536 by the end of 2011. ● Governmental Funding for NGOs.Governmental Funding for NGOs. ● LoopholesLoopholes
  33. 33. Charitable OrganisationsCharitable Organisations ● A charitable organization is a type of non-profitA charitable organization is a type of non-profit organization (NPO). It differs from other types oforganization (NPO). It differs from other types of NPOs in that it centers on non-profit andNPOs in that it centers on non-profit and philanthropic goals as well as social well-being e.g.philanthropic goals as well as social well-being e.g. charitable, educational, religious, or other activitiescharitable, educational, religious, or other activities serving the public interest or common good.serving the public interest or common good. ● Social Service actually emanated out of theseSocial Service actually emanated out of these organisations.organisations. ● NGOs I presume is a later addition to this socialNGOs I presume is a later addition to this social responsibility, these charitable institutions haveresponsibility, these charitable institutions have been working for agesbeen working for ages
  34. 34. UNOUNO  Peacekeeping - most unreached in everyPeacekeeping - most unreached in every way.way.  International Aid.International Aid.  UNICEFUNICEF  UNHCRUNHCR  WHOWHO  WFOWFO  FAOFAO
  35. 35. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYCORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
  36. 36.  "Corporate social responsibility" came into common"Corporate social responsibility" came into common use in the lateuse in the late 1960s1960s and earlyand early 1970s1970s..  Ensures itsEnsures its active complianceactive compliance with the spirit of thewith the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international norms.law, ethical standards, and international norms.  Concept ofConcept of StakeholderStakeholder..
  37. 37.  Encourage aEncourage a positive impactpositive impact through its activities onthrough its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities,the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders.stakeholders.  A more common approach to CSR is corporateA more common approach to CSR is corporate philanthropyphilanthropy..
  38. 38. VIRTUE MATRIXVIRTUE MATRIX Depicts the forces that generate corporate socialDepicts the forces that generate corporate social responsibility.responsibility.
  39. 39. Beyond CSR, Its BusinessBeyond CSR, Its Business  Article named Serving theArticle named Serving the World's Poor,World's Poor, ProfitablyProfitably by C K Prahalad and Allen Hammond.by C K Prahalad and Allen Hammond.  Willingness of big MNCsWillingness of big MNCs to enter and invest into enter and invest in the world's poorest markets.the world's poorest markets.  ByBy stimulatingstimulating commerce and development at thecommerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid.bottom of the economic pyramid.
  40. 40. Beyond CSR, Its BusinessBeyond CSR, Its Business  CanCan radically improveradically improve the lives of billions ofthe lives of billions of people and help bring into being a more stable,people and help bring into being a more stable, less dangerous world.less dangerous world.  Prosperity can come to these regions onlyProsperity can come to these regions only through thethrough the directdirect andand sustainedsustained involvement ofinvolvement of MNCs.MNCs.
  41. 41. Beyond CSR, Its Business -UntappedBeyond CSR, Its Business -Untapped  FullyFully 65%65% of the world's population earns lessof the world's population earns less thanthan 2000 dollars each per year2000 dollars each per year - that's- that's 44 billionbillion  Little to spendLittle to spend on goods & serviceson goods & services  Issues ofIssues of corruptioncorruption,, infrastructureinfrastructure,, red tapered tape bottlenecks.bottlenecks.  ManyMany multinationalsmultinationals already successful - pol.already successful - pol. reforms, congenial investment climate, low costreforms, congenial investment climate, low cost wireless communicationwireless communication
  42. 42. Beyond CSR, Its Business -UntappedBeyond CSR, Its Business -Untapped  IndividualIndividual incomes lowincomes low - on aggregation a- on aggregation a largelarge marketmarket  Bangalesh Grameen TelecomBangalesh Grameen Telecom is a great exampleis a great example $90 to $1000 from one village$90 to $1000 from one village
  43. 43. Beyond CSR, Its Business-They buy...Beyond CSR, Its Business-They buy...  TheThe poorpoor often buyoften buy luxuryluxury items.items.  DharaviDharavi - 85% households have TVs, 75% pressure- 85% households have TVs, 75% pressure cookers, 56% gas stoves.cookers, 56% gas stoves.  Bottom of PyramidBottom of Pyramid pay higher than middle class.pay higher than middle class.  100 times100 times more formore for waterwater asas middlemiddle andand upperupper class.class.
  44. 44. Beyond CSR, Its Business-They buy...Beyond CSR, Its Business-They buy...  FoodFood 20%20% more.more.  Rate of interestRate of interest unimaginable 10% to 15% per day,unimaginable 10% to 15% per day, annual as high at 2000%.annual as high at 2000%.  MicrofinanceMicrofinance at 40% to 70% per year.at 40% to 70% per year.
  45. 45. Beyond CSR, Its Business - Customers in ChunkBeyond CSR, Its Business - Customers in Chunk  Surprisingly cheapSurprisingly cheap to market and deliverto market and deliver products/services to the world's poor.products/services to the world's poor.  Live in cities that areLive in cities that are densely populateddensely populated..  Collectively,Collectively, 1,300 largest cities1,300 largest cities will account forwill account for 1.51.5 to 2 billion population.to 2 billion population.  Roughly half of theRoughly half of the BoP consumersBoP consumers now served bynow served by primarily byprimarily by informal economiesinformal economies..
  46. 46. Beyond CSR, Its Business - Customers in ChunkBeyond CSR, Its Business - Customers in Chunk  The poor isThe poor is Rio de JaneiroRio de Janeiro have a totalhave a total purchasing power of $1.2 billion.purchasing power of $1.2 billion.  Few reliable estimatesFew reliable estimates of value of commercialof value of commercial transactions, business activity appears to betransactions, business activity appears to be thriving.thriving.  DharaviDharavi generates estimatedgenerates estimated $ 450 million$ 450 million inin manufacturing revenues or aboutmanufacturing revenues or about $ 1 million$ 1 million perper acre of land.acre of land.
  47. 47. Beyond CSR, Its Business - The Rural PoorBeyond CSR, Its Business - The Rural Poor  60%60% of India's GDP is generated inof India's GDP is generated in rural areasrural areas  Critical barrierCritical barrier- distribution access and not- distribution access and not buying power.buying power.  New information technology and communicationsNew information technology and communications isis breaking barriersbreaking barriers
  48. 48. Beyond CSR, Its Business - The Rural PoorBeyond CSR, Its Business - The Rural Poor  Clearly, poor communities are ready to adoptClearly, poor communities are ready to adopt new technologiesnew technologies..  TheThe technologiestechnologies should improve theirshould improve their economiceconomic opportunitiesopportunities or theiror their quality of lifequality of life or both.or both.
  49. 49. Beyond CSR, Its Business - Informal EconomiesBeyond CSR, Its Business - Informal Economies terribly exploitativeterribly exploitative  Microfinance Vs MoneylendersMicrofinance Vs Moneylenders  MNCs working onMNCs working on acceptable return on investmentacceptable return on investment for good products.for good products.  Outbeats the good and services inOutbeats the good and services in qualityquality andand betterbetter business modelbusiness model
  50. 50. Beyond CSR, Its Business - ExperienceBeyond CSR, Its Business - Experience  TheThe experienceexperience of NGOs, entrepreneurial start upsof NGOs, entrepreneurial start ups and few MNCs is aand few MNCs is a proof of conceptproof of concept..  Businesses can gainBusinesses can gain three advantagesthree advantages by servingby serving the poor namely:the poor namely:
  51. 51. Beyond CSR, Its Business - ExperienceBeyond CSR, Its Business - Experience  A new source of revenue growth.A new source of revenue growth.  Greater efficiency.Greater efficiency.  Access to InnovationAccess to Innovation
  52. 52. Beyond CSR, Its Business - Some Live ExamplesBeyond CSR, Its Business - Some Live Examples  Citibank'sCitibank's ATM based banking experiment inATM based banking experiment in India, calledIndia, called SuvidhaSuvidha, which requires a minimum, which requires a minimum deposit of just $ 25, enlisted 150,000deposit of just $ 25, enlisted 150,000 customers in one year in the city of Bangalorecustomers in one year in the city of Bangalore alone.alone.  Hindustan LeverHindustan Lever operates a $2.6 billionoperates a $2.6 billion business portfolio in this sector withbusiness portfolio in this sector with zerozero working capital.working capital.
  53. 53. Beyond CSR, Its Business - Some Live ExamplesBeyond CSR, Its Business - Some Live Examples  ITC agribusinessITC agribusiness division has deployed a totaldivision has deployed a total of 970 kiosks serving 600,000 farmers.of 970 kiosks serving 600,000 farmers.  SupplyingSupplying Soy, coffee, shrimp and wheat fromSoy, coffee, shrimp and wheat from 5000 villages5000 villages across India.across India.  E-Choupal.E-Choupal.
  54. 54. Beyond CSR, Its Business - Innovation - MindsetsBeyond CSR, Its Business - Innovation - Mindsets  eCommerce systemseCommerce systems over phone and internet,over phone and internet, eliminate the need for intermediaries.eliminate the need for intermediaries.  UnlessUnless CEOsCEOs and otherand other business leadersbusiness leaders confrontconfront their own perceptions, companies are unlikely totheir own perceptions, companies are unlikely to master the challenges of themaster the challenges of the BOP marketBOP market..
  55. 55. Beyond CSR, Its Business - Innovation - MindsetsBeyond CSR, Its Business - Innovation - Mindsets  EducationEducation in MNCs is to change the mindset isin MNCs is to change the mindset is the need of the hour.the need of the hour.  HP's e-Inclusion divisionHP's e-Inclusion division, concentrates on rural, concentrates on rural markets, it established a branch of its famedmarkets, it established a branch of its famed HP labs in India to develop products andHP labs in India to develop products and services for this market.services for this market.
  56. 56. Beyond CSR, Its Business, Beyond BoundariesBeyond CSR, Its Business, Beyond Boundaries  The ConsortiaThe Consortia  Imagine sharing theImagine sharing the cost of buildingcost of building inin aa rural network, with the communicationsrural network, with the communications company that would operate it, a consumercompany that would operate it, a consumer goods companygoods company seeking channels to expandseeking channels to expand its sales, and a bank that is financing theits sales, and a bank that is financing the construction and wants to makeconstruction and wants to make loansloans to andto and collectcollect deposits fromdeposits from rural customersrural customers..
  57. 57. ConclusionConclusion TheThe tall claimstall claims of all organizations of everyof all organizations of every type, itstype, its leadersleaders andand nationsnations of bringing in aof bringing in a world order based on equity is still miles awayworld order based on equity is still miles away from reality.from reality. MilestonesMilestones have been achievedhave been achieved undeniably but what is disturbing is theundeniably but what is disturbing is the naturenature andand costcost of this progress towards the goal.of this progress towards the goal. The cost benefit analysis gives a veryThe cost benefit analysis gives a very bleakbleak futurefuture as well. Its never too late, for allas well. Its never too late, for all stakeholdersstakeholders, Governments, NGOs, Charitable, Governments, NGOs, Charitable Organizations, International Organizations toOrganizations, International Organizations to rewrite and execute their strategiesrewrite and execute their strategies to bringto bring transformational change for the positive, intransformational change for the positive, in the lives of the unreached.the lives of the unreached.
  58. 58. THANK YOU!

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