Leadership casestudy


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Leadership casestudy

  1. 1. The Government of India has introduced Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System [CCTNS] and Common Integrated Police Application [CIPA] and various other systems to make the task of policing easier and bring citizen-centricity more in focus. For instance, through the National Crime Record Bureau [NCRB], crime tracking has become much simpler. Systems are in place to ensure protection from any internal or external interference. Some states, having proactive leadership, have already begun to harness the potential of Information and Communication Technology [ICT] to bring about change. With leadership driving the change, such states were clearly at an advantage. A case in point is Karnataka. This article traces the leadership role of the IPS officer who is credited with the CCTNS mission in Karnataka Sri Sanjay Sahay, IPS, IGP, Karnataka. This article is about the journey to fulfill the promise he made to himself and his department. Keywords eGovernanace, ICT-enabled change, Leadership and drive, Karnataka Police IT implementation ICT-Enabled Change in Indian Police: A Case of leadership and drive in Karnataka India is a country of over a billion people vying with each other for a better life and existence. Crime rates are high and the Police force in India has the not-so-envious task [among many other things] of preventing crime, tracking and nabbing criminals who may escape to any part of the world to find a safe haven and plan another strike. There is also a very high demand for police activities, which include counter- terrorism activities, VIP security, etc. Needless to say, pressure on police stations is mounted by those affected by the crimes and criminal activities. Apart from tracking crimes and criminals, the police force also takes care of a host of other related duties Leadership Case Study By TAPMI, Manipal ICT-Enabled Change in Indian Police: A case of leadership and drive in Karnataka Prof. Jaba Mukherjee Gupta * T. A. Pai Management Institute Prof. Vinit Thakur
  2. 2. to maintain public peace and order. In this situation, having access to information is crucial. IT has provided solutions by which the information may not only be harnessed but can be used to analyze the data, produce relevant reports and act speedily to complete crime-related activities. The volumes of work expected from the police department is extremely high and with the shortage of manpower, taking care of entering the data manually and maintaining it in acceptable shape is next to impossible. In the absence of the IT systems, it was a constant struggle to find manpower to record manually and carry out the task of maintaining law and order among other important tasks of the police. The efficiency with which the police perform is a function of speed and accuracy. Information Systems tailor-made to the needs of the police provided the solution. The Government of India therefore decided to introduce Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System [CCTNS] and Common Integrated Police Application [CIPA] and various other ways of making the police tasks easier and bringing citizen-centricity more in focus. For instance, through the National Crime Record Bureau [NCRB], State Crime Record Bureaux [SCRB] and District Crime Record Bureaux [DCRB] crime tracking has become much simpler. Systems are in place to make sure that the FIR lodged by a citizen is entered into the system and cannot be taken off thereby ensuring protection from any internal or external interference. Some states, having proactive leadership, had already begun to harness the potential of Information and Communication Technology [ICT] to bring about change. A case in point is Karnataka, where Police IT software was introduced successfully. This article traces the role of the IPS officer who is credited with the mission. Sri Sanjay Sahay, IPS, Inspector General of Police Department of Karnataka, was given the charge of the Police Computer Wing [PCW] of Karnataka State Police with the expectation of making a turnaround in the ERP creation and successful deployment of the Police IT software in a year’s time [2010]. He had been hand-picked on account of the
  3. 3. department’s immense faith and trust in his abilities. He has been involved in the entire process of technology integration, manpower training and deployment in the state of Karnataka. After taking on the responsibility, he took stock of the situation. Things were at ground zero waiting for his initiative and action plan. There were huge resource gaps that needed his attention. It would be a challenge to get the task started, but Mr. Sahay loved challenges. He believed that life runs on the dictum, Power is the ability to make things happen. From his determined journey to the school of his choice, St. Xavier’s School, Bokaro to St. Stephen’s college he had amazed everyone. This was even more laudable as he had started from a small district town, Daltonganj in Jharkhand. Later, being selected as an IPS officer, allotted to the Karnataka cadre, there was no looking back for him. Success was the only way ahead. Turning back was not an option. The Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System [CCTNS] had already been announced by the Central Government. CCTNS was becoming a buzzword in the proactive police circles and the IT industry across the country. Mr. Sanjay Sahay had to find solutions for Karnataka. Not only did he succeed, but Karnataka went on to become one of the lead states in the country. Subsequently he was invited to make presentations at several high level gatherings, meetings, workshops, symposiums, and to the IT industry itself, to share his experiences with the rest of the country. His outreach ranged from being a regular speaker at CCTNS training sessions at Delhi to HCL CXO Summit at Udaipur to Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore. This article is about the journey to fulfil the promise he made to himself and his department. It traces his role as a leader. CCTNS in Karnataka Under the leadership of Mr. Sanjay Sahay, Karnataka is today one of the lead states in the country [along with AP and Gujarat] in terms of CCTNS implementation. The mission of Police Computer Wing [PCW] in Karnataka is “to implement the computerization of police department in the entire State of Karnataka and to integrate technology into the police department and leverage technology for better and
  4. 4. efficient functioning of Karnataka State Police.” As the lead state, Karnataka has a special status and was allowed to deploy or continue to use the software of choice, as long as the required information was made available to the Government of India and the approved citizen-centric services were integrated. Mr. Sanjay Sahay came up with a model that integrated CCTNS and Police IT into the system to complement each other. Figure: 1 Police IT – CCTNS Composite Model Under the leadership of Sri Sanjay Sahay, who took up the challenge of implementing Police IT and the CCTNS in the state, Karnataka became the lead state for the CCTNS project. How did it succeed while others struggled to come to grips with CCTNS/Police IT? His attitude towards the information age was revealed by his belief that ICT “takes the stress out of the system.” One of the key reasons for failure of projects has been identified as poor planning. In an article written about the Karnataka CCTNS experience, Mr was an area of strength. “The Karnataka Composite Model of Computerization is a need based model to create and run the systems in perfect shape and then deploy the software on the infrastructure and trained manpower thus created. This entails a minimum of a skeletal data centre, creation of a uniform broadband networking [no integration issues], anti-virus and facility management services, hiring of trainers, multi-pronged training— basic and application based for all end users, specialized training for system administrators, multi organizational workforce, ERP End to End Software Solution and above all perfect synchronization of all activities and processes.” The Strategy used in Implementation of Police IT 1. Talent Acquisition within the police force The crucial point of differentiation was in the recognition that the personnel would have to be drawn and trained from within the police force as they knew how the police force worked and could be depended on to ensure that the software worked the police way.
  5. 5. Among those who were being trained to run the Police IT software, some were technical personnel—some non- technical officers who had been asked to help out. Constables were selected for training. There were some younger constables with qualifications like MCA, etc. With 1439 locations of around 75 units had to be covered— this was challenging. In order to fulfil the need for personnel to man the Technical infrastructure, which was supposed to help build the entire ICT- enabled change, help was sought from the senior authorities. This was granted. 2. Robust Training Models for the operating staff a. The training imparted: 48 hour Basic Computer Awareness Training Police IT Application Module Based Training Specialized Training for System Administrators Training of Trainers Training of Handholding Staff Evolution- training of Senior Police Managers in Change Management, Make them Change Agents b. The staff to be trained were put through rigorous training 75 Nodal offices were set up –and a policy framed. 75 nodal officers were nominated out of the serving senior officers to the district, in so many they were the district SPs—1 per unit. Their task was to supervise and monitor the implementation—pre- cursor to the rollout, deployment— usage—consolidation and coordination of the activities of all service providers/vendors. At a later stage the Nodal officers would take charge of administration of non-software related issues. The User Acceptance Test Team Leader would take of the deployment of that particular module. c. Next level training: System Administrators—75 of them were put through a customized training program and then completed MCSE [Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer], of which 54 have already complete their CCNA certification and others are in the process of taking the test shortly. 350 candidates took the exams and then 75 were selected after rigorous training—complete with weekly test and monthly tests. CCNA was the next stage—5 of them would be selected and dedicated to data centre management. They would be put through a small course and exposure to data centre management.
  6. 6. They are likely to be selected from among the constables. This thought process resulted in 8 MCSE certified police staff managing the Data Centre, besides the Data Centre Head, who is also one of the products of the same training. The training is customized for the police force— it is very different from the generic courses. This was done with the specific intent of creating specialized courses for the Police Dept. How were the police personnel convinced and motivated to undertake the training? Mr. Sanjay Sahay explained that he had taken personal interest in ensuring that this process of training was accepted by all. He had made it clear to his men that they were the specially chosen ones and would have to deliver. He took good care of them with regard to stay, transportation, etc. However, he had made it clear that they would have to overcome all their personal problems to focus on the training, which was to be a global benchmark for the Dept. Nothing less was acceptable to him. He believed in keeping a personal one-on-one contact with his trainees, while being at the same time very demanding about the standards to be met. This gave him results beyond his expectation. All 75 officers were successfully trained and certified by Microsoft. Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA®) validates the ability to install, configure, operate, and troubleshoot medium-size route and switched networks, including implementation and verification of connections to remote sites in a WAN. CCNA curriculum includes basic mitigation of security threats, introduction to wireless networking concepts and terminology, and performance-based skills. This new curriculum also includes (but is not limited to) the use of these protocols: IP, Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), Serial Line Interface Protocol Frame Relay, Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIPv2), VLANs, Ethernet, access control lists (ACLs) Apart from his personal drive, interest and commitment, which became an example, the training was done using standard methods—and using the local language which everyone is
  7. 7. familiar with. Language barriers were thus removed and the policemen worked in a zone of comfort. The persistence of the leadership to fight back resistance to acceptance of technology yielded results as the end users started appreciating the ease of functioning in the new system. Undeniably it was forced upon them to start with but as the advantages of software started exploding the end users had an experience which they had not imagined. The official functioning slowly moved on to the digital level. They hat an ERP could deliver. The rigorous application training with a combination of persuasion and aggression was the ideal formula for change management creating an enabling environment for deploying and use the software. The approach of the leader was to achieve inclusive growth by identifying internal talent and upgrading their knowledge and skills through rigorous training. Those who were selected knew that this was a rare opportunity. The support and encouragement they received gave them greater confidence. 3. Adequate compensation and benefit schemes All the immediate needs were taken care of including stay and transport for the training period. The motivating factor for the trainees was also the knowledge that they would drive the ICT-enabled change in the entire state. 4. High level of motivation from leadership Sri Sanjay Sahay was personally involved at all stages of the training. Apart from the selection of the training package and the trainers, he handpicked the candidates for this training and spent time interacting with them after every training module. The involvement of a senior leader acted as a morale booster and made a big difference to the final outcome. 5. Balanced stakeholder management Sri Sanjay Sahay was completely committed to the task and said that he would visit and/or talk to anyone who could make a difference to this mission [while not compromising his dignity or ethical code of conduct]. He ensured that all the stakeholders understood the goal and worked towards it. There were regular meetings that helped in building
  8. 8. relationships across the departments— getting people to pitch in for the ultimate goal of implementing CCTNS. He used his network of personal and professional relationships and created support systems—where people loved to collaborate in his projects and came together to help. Academics also came forward to help. Anyone who could provide intellectual support in IT related knowledge transfer and/or the project at hand was welcomed. 6. Choosing appropriate implementation partner Wipro was the implementation partner in this project. Instead of depending on the partner blindly, he had put in place checks and reviews so that he was in control. 7. Interacting with intellectuals [intelligentsia] Even though he had a robust plan in place and was constantly interacting with the trainer and the trainees to ensure that there was rigour, Sri Sanjay Sahay did not rest on his laurels. He interacted with professionals in the field and faculty members from reputed management institutes on a regular basis. He also read significant management books to keep himself updated. In spite of his busy schedule, taking time out for these interactions and keeping the options to examine, think, critique and renew his efforts based on insights, made this leader different. 8. Role of leadership Once he had taken on the responsibility, Sri Sanjay Sahay studied the situation, identified the gaps in the requirement and was completely in control, whether it concerned the technology aspects, the process or the people. To cite an example, one of the findings of the audit report for eCops was that the training had not been taken seriously. It was left to the vendor. As a result the training did not prepare specific individuals for the ICT operations as expected. In the case of Karnataka, the scenario was very different. He selected the candidates, the training and ensured that the vendor delivered what was expected. a. Leading from the front, and sending out a strong message that the training was to be taken seriously made a big difference. Selected candidates were put through rigorous training for MCSE and had to clear examinations for certification. This left a lasting impact on the trainees and
  9. 9. they brought the same commitment to project rollout and implementation. b. People Management: Sri Sanjay Sahay treated the officers and staff working under him with dignity but was a no-nonsense leader when it came to being completely focused on the task at hand. Anyone who was disinterested was free to leave the training. The policemen selected for the training were treated like the lucky chosen ones who would make the difference in the implementation of CCTNS in Karnataka. At the same time he did not give in to weaknesses, whims and fancies. The men were told that they were on an important mission and small personal problems should not come in the way. In other words, he demanded complete loyalty to the cause and commitment to complete the work. This spirit of commitment was the impetus that drove the project and saw it through. He reiterated that loyalty to the Department should not be compromised by lucrative offers from other quarters after the training, as the Government had invested heavily on the trainees. 9. Top management commitment [political/bureaucratic] commitment In the role of the leader who had taken on the onerous task of rolling out/implementing CCTNS-Police IT in Karnataka, Sri Sanjay Sahay had the support of top management in the Karnataka Police and the State machinery which was geared up to help him achieve his ends. The DGP, who had selected him to carry out this task, had taken a commitment from him about the start and the end date of the implementation of Police IT. His commitment was that the task would begin on January 1, 2010 and end on December 31, 2010. This “time lock- in” galvanized the activities towards the fulfilment of the goal. The top management had complete faith in his ability and helped him to achieve his target and having given this assurance, Sri Sanjay Sahay dedicated himself to the task. He was also ready to seek help whenever needed [e.g. He wrote to the higher authority asking for external help to initiate the IT and Systems training and this was granted]. As Mr. Sanjay Sahay reflects, “Projects fail because they are not
  10. 10. dynamic—static things do not work— one should be able to integrate everything that is useful.” He has in many ways done just that by balancing the technology, process and people aspects; networking with professionals, drawing lessons from the failures in other states. The Karnataka experience has shown that complete and positive involvement of the leader in the complex task of implementing CCTNS has made a significant impact. The Leadership Imperative The role of leadership in a venture like the CCTNS implementation in Karnataka is crucial. How did Mr. Sanjay Sahay succeed? There were four crucial factors that made a difference: 1. Vision—beginning with the end in mind During the interviews with him it was evident that the leadership role was of the essence: “Internalization and having a vision of the entire structure—the ability to see the larger picture—is crucial for the leader.” He began with the goal in mind and kept his focus on the objective at all times. This helped him to overcome hurdles: “One has to be versatile so that the system cannot limit you...cross the boundaries...skills and passion should act as the antidote to the system.” 2. Communicating for “buy-in” — effective in bringing in change Mr. Sanjay Sahay was able to communicate this vision to the trainees he had selected for the successful implementation of the project. His presence, interaction and commitment helped to bring them on board and make them a part of the process. The ownership of this project was possible because of the buy-in achieved through effective communication. Involving the subordinates and making them feel a part of the change process, helped to build solidarity also. The leader should, as Mr. Sahay said, “...work with all levels—a subordinate may have a wonderful approach to resolve an issue. The person is recognized and he is empowered and feels more loyal. Thus there is an integration of legacy support system.” 3. Networking with professionals— willing to unlearn and relearn Understanding the importance of interdependence in the modern workplace, he was ready to network with other departments and other
  11. 11. professionals. This ability to network with other professionals who were from diverse areas helped Mr. Sahay to achieve the desired results effectively. There was also readiness to unlearn the redundant and learn from the environment which put him a very special position. As Mr. Sahay said, “Your knowledge base should be far beyond your organization. Collaborate with people outside, translate collaboration framework into a workable model and get it to work for you. My reading has certainly helped, but it is the drive, network and collaboration that have helped most.” “Networking—working with good people who lend support has been a rejuvenating experience. By involving everyone in the task one is able to work on several areas together...and succeed in doing the work of several professionals together!” 4. Strong Will to Succeed—no room for failure The strong will to succeed against all odds was the most important driving factor in the case. A focused approach with the drive to bring about the envisioned change in spite of barriers helped this leader to succeed leaving several other states behind. Using an image to explain the force that must work to bring success, Mr. Sahay said, “Barriers are temporary in nature....the strength of a surge leaves the embankment broken, engulfs everything – unstoppable in its pursuit!” He believes that being action-oriented is crucial for success.
  12. 12. Conclusion Exemplary leadership as shown by Mr. Sanjay Sahay is the need of the hour and can help transform our nation. The study shows that leadership and drive coupled with the will to succeed can bring change even in domains that are run by systems that have been suspicious of change in the past. There are several states struggling to implement CCTNS successfully. Some of these lessons would be useful for them. Looking at the issue from a leadership angle, one may conclude: 1. Managing people and getting them to accept the change proposed/implemented is crucial for the success of a project—this is perhaps the most challenging in the present context 2. Understanding how technology can be used to find solution to problems is essential; 3. There is also an imminent need for sound processes that will help in effective implementation. Therefore, the ability to manage technology, processes and people would help in successful implementation of this eGovernance project. The involvement of the leader in the change process would certainly help to bring about the desired results. Along the journey to the realization of the vision for change, the paths may be blocked by hurdles, but a determined leader is not daunted by them. The ability to garner the support of all the positive forces in the environment makes the journey more meaningful and fulfilling. A leader who works with the people, is able develop a feeling of pride and ownership among them. This in turn helps them to align with the vision or the ultimate objective of the organization or Department. Thus the vision is fulfilled by the willing contribution from the stakeholders. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the support and immense help received from Sri Sanjay Sahay, IGP, Karnataka to write this article. We also thank the T. A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal for supporting this research venture in eGovernance.
  13. 13. References Bhatnagar, S. (2009). Unlocking E-Government Potential: Concepts, Cases and Practical Insights (1st ed.), India: Sage Publications Interview 1 with Sri Sanjay Sahay, IPS, IG (PCW) on June 26, 2010 Interview 2 with Sri Sanjay Sahay, IPS, IG (PCW) on Feb. 19, 2011 Home [police]/Information Technology and Communications Department, Information Technology Audit of eCops—an e-Governance initiative by Government. (2004) Available at: http://www.icisa.cag.gov.in/Printed%20reports/State%20Reports/Andhra%20Pradesh/IT%20Audit%20of% 20eCops%20-%20an%20e%20Gov%20initiative%20of%20Andhra%20Pradesh.pdf Accessed June 20, 2010 Karnataka State Police, Police Computer Wing Home page. Available at: http://www.ksp.gov.in/pcw/home/faq-general.php Accessed June 20, 2010. Kotter, J. P. (2002) The Heart of Change, Harvard Business School Press: Boston, MA, Sahay, S. (2010), “CCTNS in Karnataka—an Experience worth Sharing.” Network for Improved Policing