Hemoglobin estimation

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  • 1. HAEMOGLOBIN MEASUREMENT
  • 2. Introduction
    • The hemoglobin is one of the type of globular protein present in the human blood (more specifically in the RBCs).
    • Its concentration in the blood tells us about many pathological conditions.
    Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  • 3. Functions of hemoglobin
    • Imparts red color to the blood.
    • Helps to carry out the oxygen and other gases assisting the respiratory system.
    • It buffers the blood pH and maintains it to the tolerable limits.
    • Source of physiological active catabolites.
    • Genetic resistance to malaria, etc.
    Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  • 4. Why get tested?
    • Hemoglobin is measured:
      • To detect Anemia or Polycythaemia and to assess its severity.
      • To monitor the patients response to treatment.
      • Prior to donating blood.
      • To calculate red cells indices.
    Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  • 5. Specimen Required
    • Venous Blood
      • EDTA anticoaggulted venous blood (most common)
    • Capillary Blood
      • Finger-prick (children and adults)
      • Heal-prick (infants)
    Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  • 6. Measuring Techniques
    • Photometric
    • Visual comparative technique
    Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  • 7.
    • The absorbance of hemoglobin in a
    • blood sample is measured electronically
    • by a colorimeter or different analyzers.
    • Ways of measuring incluid:
    • HiCN technique
    • Direct read out method (DHT)
    • Oxyhemoglobin technique
    • Automated Analyzer
    Photometric Technique Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  • 8.
    • Based on matching the color of a patient’s sample against a standard.
    • Ways of measuring incluid:
    • BMS Hemoglobinometer
    • WHO Hemoglobin color chart
    • Sehli’s acid hematin method
    Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008 Visual Comparative Technique
  • 9. Result Interpretation
    • Reference ranges:
    • Children at birth - 13.5-19.5 g/dl
    • Children (2-5 years) - 11.0-14.0 g/dl
    • Children (6-12 years) - 11.5-15.5 g/dl
    • Adult men - 13.0-18.0 g/dl
    • Adult women - 12.0-15.0 g/dl
    • Pregnant women - 11.0-13.8 g/dl
    Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  • 10. Result Interpretation Contd… Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
    • Anaemia:
    • Associated with low hemoglobin level, due to:
    • Acute blood loss,
    • Decreased erythropoitic activity, or
    • Hemolysis
    • Classification:
    • Microcytic Hypochromic
    • Normocytic Normochromic
    • Macrocytic Normochromic
  • 11. Result Interpretation Contd… Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
    • Polycythaemia:
    • Associated with raised hemoglobin level, PCV and red cell count.
    • True Polycythaemia (Inc. in number of red cells)
      • Primary
      • Secondary
    • Apparent or relative (Dec. in total plasma volume)
  • 12. Quality Control
    • Use of appropriate anticoagulant.
    • Sample should be checked of having clot.
    • Use of standards and controls.
    • Storage and stability.
    • Blood samples and controls must be allowed to sit at room temperature prior to testing.
    Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  • 13.
    • Sample rejection criteria:
      • Hemolyzed or clotted samples are unacceptable for testing.
      • Blood collected in sodium citrate, or in tubes containing a gel separator.
      • When using anticoagulated blood, not mixing the sample appropriately.
    Quality Control Contd… Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008