Hemoglobin estimation

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Hemoglobin estimation

  1. 1. HAEMOGLOBIN MEASUREMENT
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The hemoglobin is one of the type of globular protein present in the human blood (more specifically in the RBCs). </li></ul><ul><li>Its concentration in the blood tells us about many pathological conditions. </li></ul>Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  3. 3. Functions of hemoglobin <ul><li>Imparts red color to the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to carry out the oxygen and other gases assisting the respiratory system. </li></ul><ul><li>It buffers the blood pH and maintains it to the tolerable limits. </li></ul><ul><li>Source of physiological active catabolites. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic resistance to malaria, etc. </li></ul>Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  4. 4. Why get tested? <ul><li>Hemoglobin is measured: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To detect Anemia or Polycythaemia and to assess its severity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To monitor the patients response to treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to donating blood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To calculate red cells indices. </li></ul></ul>Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  5. 5. Specimen Required <ul><li>Venous Blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EDTA anticoaggulted venous blood (most common) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capillary Blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finger-prick (children and adults) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heal-prick (infants) </li></ul></ul>Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  6. 6. Measuring Techniques <ul><li>Photometric </li></ul><ul><li>Visual comparative technique </li></ul>Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  7. 7. <ul><li>The absorbance of hemoglobin in a </li></ul><ul><li>blood sample is measured electronically </li></ul><ul><li>by a colorimeter or different analyzers. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways of measuring incluid: </li></ul><ul><li>HiCN technique </li></ul><ul><li>Direct read out method (DHT) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxyhemoglobin technique </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Analyzer </li></ul>Photometric Technique Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  8. 8. <ul><li>Based on matching the color of a patient’s sample against a standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways of measuring incluid: </li></ul><ul><li>BMS Hemoglobinometer </li></ul><ul><li>WHO Hemoglobin color chart </li></ul><ul><li>Sehli’s acid hematin method </li></ul>Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008 Visual Comparative Technique
  9. 9. Result Interpretation <ul><li>Reference ranges: </li></ul><ul><li>Children at birth - 13.5-19.5 g/dl </li></ul><ul><li>Children (2-5 years) - 11.0-14.0 g/dl </li></ul><ul><li>Children (6-12 years) - 11.5-15.5 g/dl </li></ul><ul><li>Adult men - 13.0-18.0 g/dl </li></ul><ul><li>Adult women - 12.0-15.0 g/dl </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women - 11.0-13.8 g/dl </li></ul>Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  10. 10. Result Interpretation Contd… Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008 <ul><li>Anaemia: </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with low hemoglobin level, due to: </li></ul><ul><li>Acute blood loss, </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased erythropoitic activity, or </li></ul><ul><li>Hemolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Classification: </li></ul><ul><li>Microcytic Hypochromic </li></ul><ul><li>Normocytic Normochromic </li></ul><ul><li>Macrocytic Normochromic </li></ul>
  11. 11. Result Interpretation Contd… Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008 <ul><li>Polycythaemia: </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with raised hemoglobin level, PCV and red cell count. </li></ul><ul><li>True Polycythaemia (Inc. in number of red cells) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apparent or relative (Dec. in total plasma volume) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Quality Control <ul><li>Use of appropriate anticoagulant. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample should be checked of having clot. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of standards and controls. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage and stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood samples and controls must be allowed to sit at room temperature prior to testing. </li></ul>Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008
  13. 13. <ul><li>Sample rejection criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemolyzed or clotted samples are unacceptable for testing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood collected in sodium citrate, or in tubes containing a gel separator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When using anticoagulated blood, not mixing the sample appropriately. </li></ul></ul>Quality Control Contd… Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS November 7, 2008

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