Researches on Childhood Accidents and Injuries-Term paper Presentation

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Some research related to child accidents and injuries

Some research related to child accidents and injuries

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  • 1. Term paper Presentation on ‘‘Researches on Childhood Accidents and Injuries’’ 1 12/31/2013
  • 2. Presented by Prepared by: SAgun PAudel HA, Student of BPH LAGRANDEE INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE SIMALCHOUR, POKHARA Sagun paudel Deepika gaire Sarala kumal Renuka ojha Student of BPH LAGRANDEE INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE SIMALCHOUR, POKHARA 2 12/31/2013
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescent. The term childhood is non-specific and can imply a varying range of years in human development. In common terms, childhood is considered to start from birth. there is no universally agreed age range for what constitutes childhood. 3 12/31/2013
  • 4. Injury is defined as “the physical damage that results when a human body is suddenly subjected to energy in amounts that exceed the threshold of physiological tolerance – or else the result of a lack of one or more vital elements, such as oxygen” (1). Injury can be mechanical, thermal, chemical or radiated. Injury may be Falling, drowning, poisonings, burns and falls. 1. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, tenth revision. Volume 1: Tabular list;Volume 2: Instruction manual; Volume 3: Index. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1992–1994. 4 12/31/2013
  • 5. Common injuries/accidents Road traffic injuries Drowning Burns, scalds and exposure to smoke, fire or flames Falls Poisonings Choking Examples of 'serious' injury Fracture Internal injury Severe cuts Crushing Burns (excluding friction burns) Concussion Severe general shock requiring hospital treatment 5 12/31/2013
  • 6. OBJECTIVES: General objectives: To Study the research on childhood Accidents and Injuries. Specific Objectives To study about the burden of Accident and Injuries among children. To study the vulnerability to child injuries and accidents. To study the socio-economic factors associated to injuries and accidents. 6 12/31/2013
  • 7. METHODOLOGY To prepare this term paper Google was used to retrieve journal and articles. The articles related To childhood accidents and Injuries are downloaded and studied.. To collect the further information advanced Google search was also done and various books from library were also studied for the preparation of the term paper. This report was prepared by using various secondary data sources available on internet. 7 12/31/2013
  • 8. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Childhood injury is a major public health problem that requires urgent attention. Injury and violence is a major killer of children throughout the world, responsible for about 950 000 deaths in children and young people under the age of 18 years each year (WHO Global Burden of Disease: 2004). Unintentional injuries account for almost 90% of these cases. They are the leading cause of death for children aged 10–19 years. 8 12/31/2013
  • 9. Worldwide, childhood injuries are a growing problem. Every year, approximately 875,000 children are killed and nonfatal injuries affect the lives of between 10 million and 30 million more globally. Moreover, 95% of these deaths and injuries occur in low and middle income countries. (2) 2. Child and adolescent injury prevention: a global call to action. Geneva, World Health Organization and UNICEF, 2005. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2005/9241593415_eng.pdf. 9 12/31/2013
  • 10. Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of death among children and young adults. (3) Over 875 000 children less than 18 years of age die annually in the world as a result of injuries, mostly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where injuries account for 13% of the total burden of morbidity among children less than 15 years of age.(4,5). 3. Krug EG, Sharma GK, Lozano R. The global burden of injuries. Am J Public Health 2000;90:523-6. PMID:10754963 doi:10.2105/AJPH.90.4.523 4. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause, 1990-2020: global burden of disease study. Lancet 1997; 349:1498-504. PMID:9167458 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07492-2 352 Bull World Health Organ 2009;87:345–352 | doi:10.2471/BLT.08.055798 Special theme – Childhood injuries and violence Unintentional child injury surveillance in developing countries Adnan A Hyder et al. 5. Deen JL, Vos T, Huttly SR, Tulloch J. Injuries and noncommunicable diseases: emerging health problems of children in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 1999;77:518-24. PMID:10427938 10 12/31/2013
  • 11. A child's environment plays a critical role, both in the occurrence and the severity of an injury. Most injuries take place in or near a child's home where unsafe play areas and play things may often be found, as well as access to chemicals, medicines, poisons and other dangers. 11 12/31/2013
  • 12. Age, sex and economic factors are important determinants of injury incidence and severity. Not only are children particularly prone to injuries, but also the types of injuries depend on age: very young children tend to be more at risk for poisoning, drowning and burns while older children and adolescents are more at risk for road traffic injuries. Males are nearly two times more at risk than females, both in terms of disease burden and death from injuries 12 12/31/2013
  • 13. Children from the poorest families are 38 times more likely to die from exposure to smoke, fire or flames than children whose parents work in higher managerial or professional occupations. (6) 6. Child Accident Prevention Trust (2012). Fire Safety topic briefing [Online] Available at: http://makingthelink.net/topic-briefings/fire-safety 13 12/31/2013
  • 14. Global concern (7) • In Asia, 900,000 deaths from injury Take place every year. • In the low and middle income countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region, road traffic injuries are the second leading cause of death in the 5 to 14 year age range. Africa has the highest mortality rate from injuries in the world. • The Western Pacific region reports 220,000 child deaths (ages 0-14) per year due to injuries. • Road traffic injuries and drowning were the two leading contributors to healthy years of life lost in Latin America and the Caribbean as reported in 2002. • Over one-third of child deaths, age 1-14 years, in Europe are due to injuries. 7. ssue Brief Series: Accidents and Injuries: Healthy Environments for Children Alliance 14 12/31/2013
  • 15. Road traffic injuries are among the top causes of child disability and death in the world and are the leading cause of death in children ages 5-14 in high-income countries. Children under five have the highest drowning mortality rate in the world. 15 12/31/2013
  • 16. Over half of the global mortality and 60% of healthy days of life lost due to drowning occur among children under 15. Globally, fire-related burns are one of the 15 leading causes of death and burden of disease among children and young adults, ages 5-29 years. Over 90% of fatal fire-related burns occur in low- and middle income countries. 16 12/31/2013
  • 17. Children, more than any other age group, suffer injury from falls. Where and how children fall is closely related to their age, with the very young most frequently falling in and around the home, and older children likely to fall from playground equipment. Children can encounter toxic exposures, or poisonings, in many different places but most occur in the home setting. Some workplaces may pose poisoning risks to child and adolescent workers. 17 12/31/2013
  • 18. Children's Vulnerability to Injuries Behavioral: Young children explore by touching and putting things in their mouths, which can lead to burns, poisonings and other ill-health effects. Older children play, take on new responsibilities and seek out adventures. When they have not attained the judgment to do these things safely, injuries often result. World report on child injury prevention 18 12/31/2013
  • 19. Physiological: Being smaller and closer to the ground, they may be exposed to risks that go unnoticed by adults. For example, children's size makes them hard to see from a vehicle, increasing their risk of involvement in a road crash. Developmental: Children, being immature and lacking the psychological development to recognize and manage danger situations, may more readily take actions that they do not comprehend to be risky. They are easily distracted, tend to focus on immediate tasks and have not yet gained the skills, strength and endurance to manipulate certain physically challenging situations for their own safety. www.who.int/heca/ 19 12/31/2013
  • 20. Socioeconomic factors and risk for injury A broad range of socioeconomic factors associated with injury risk has been identified . these factors include: economic factors – such as family income; social factors – such as maternal education; factors related to family structure – including single parenting, maternal age, numbers occupying the household, and number of children; Factors related to accommodation – such as type of tenancy, type of housing, level of overcrowding and various factors describing the neighborhood. 20 12/31/2013
  • 21. Socioeconomic factors affect injury risk in a number of ways; In poor households, parents may not be able to: Properly care for and supervise their children, who may need to be alone or in the care of siblings– afford safety equipment, such as smoke alarms or safety helmets. Children living in poverty may be exposed to hazardous environments, including: a high volume of fast-moving traffic; lack of space and facilities for safe play; Cramped living conditions, with no proper kitchen and open cooking fires; Unprotected windows and house roofs, and stairs without handrails. 21 12/31/2013
  • 22. Injury prevention Injuries can be prevented or controlled. Because of their many causes and the close interrelationship between them, a wide range of prevention approaches is called for. Various prevention models have been proposed, but for the purpose of this report the classic model is used, including: primary prevention: preventing new injuries; secondary prevention: reducing the severity of injuries; tertiary prevention: decreasing the frequency an Severity of disability after an injury. 22 12/31/2013
  • 23. The public health approach to injury prevention 23 12/31/2013
  • 24. Summary Accidents and injuries are a leading cause of preventable death and ill health among children and young people. Injuries have emerged as the leading cause of child and adolescent morbidity and mortality in developed countries. To reduce the mortality and morbidity special types of public health interventions are need to apply. 24 12/31/2013
  • 25. References 1. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, tenth revision. Volume 1: Tabular list; Volume 2: Instruction manual; Volume 3: Index. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1992–1994. 2. Child and adolescent injury prevention: a global call to action. Geneva, World Health Organization and UNICEF, 2005. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2005/9241593415_eng.pdf. 3. Krug EG, Sharma GK, Lozano R. The global burden of injuries. Am J Public Health 2000;90:523-6. PMID:10754963 doi:10.2105/AJPH.90.4.523 4. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause, 19902020: global burden of disease study. Lancet 1997; 349:1498-504. PMID:9167458 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07492-2 352 Bull World Health Organ 2009;87:345–352 | doi:10.2471/BLT.08.055798 Special theme – Childhood injuries and violence Unintentional child injury surveillance in developing countries Adnan A Hyder et al. 5. Deen JL, Vos T, Huttly SR, Tulloch J. Injuries and non-communicable diseases: emerging health problems of children in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 1999;77:518-24. PMID:10427938 6. Child Accident Prevention Trust (2012). Fire Safety topic briefing [Online] Available at: http://makingthelink.net/topic-briefings/fire-safety 7. ssue Brief Series: Accidents and Injuries: Healthy Environments for Children Alliance • www.who.int/heca/ • World report on child injury prevention • CDC Childhood Injury Report: Patterns of Unintentional Injuries among 0-19 Year Olds in the United States, 2000-2006 • Healthy Environments for Children Alliance 25 12/31/2013
  • 26. FEEDBACK • Mail4sagun@gmail.com www.facebook/sagun.paudel THANKYOU! 26 12/31/2013