MDGs in nepal
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  • 1. ‘‘ANALYZE THE PROGRESS TOWARDS ACHIEVING MDGs IN NEPAL’’ A Term Paper Presentation to fulfill the partial requirement of BPH second semester [Public Health PBH TPP 111.3]Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 1
  • 2. Prepared by: Presented with:  Samjhana Gurung ‘A’ SAgun PAudel Health Assistant  Samjhana Gurung ‘B’ Student of BPH @ LA GRANDEE  Sabita Timilsina & International college, Simalchour Pokhara, Nepal  Sarala KumalFriday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 2
  • 3. IntroductionThe UN global conferences of the 1990s drew up anumber of different key global Development goals andtargets to focus equalize and harmonize the needs andstatus of the people all over the world.These goals and targets were known as the InternationalDevelopment targets. Again in 2000, the representativesof 189 nations, including 147 heads of state andGovernment adopted the Millennium Declaration duringthe Millennium Development Summit (September 6-8,2000) of the United Nations.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 3
  • 4. The Millennium Declaration focused on peace, security and development concerns comprising environment,human rights and good governance. In this connection, the Declaration tried to mainstream a set of interconnected and mutually reinforcing development goals into a global agenda.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 4
  • 5. The international development targets and thedevelopment goals were merged together and renamed asthe Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger2. Achieve universal primary education3. Promote gender equality and empower women4. Reduce child mortality5. Improve maternal health6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases7. Ensure environmental sustainability8. Develop a global partnership for development.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 5
  • 6. These goals had been decided and fixed earlier in manyinternational forums and conventions. What is new about the MDGs is setting of targets under each goal, a jointmeeting of UN Secretariat, and specialized UN agencies, the World Bank, IMF and OECD.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 6
  • 7. Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger• Target 1:Halve between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 per day. Indicator:• Proportion of population below $1 (1993 PPP) per day• Poverty gap ratio (incidence * depth of poverty) Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 7
  • 8. Target 2:• Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Indicator:• Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age (UNICEF-WHO)• Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 8
  • 9. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary educationTarget 3:• Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.Indicator:• Net enrollment ratio in primary education• Proportion of population starting grade 1 who reach grade 5• Literacy rate of 15-24 years oldFriday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 9
  • 10. Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower womenTarget 4:• Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015. Indicator:• Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education• Ratio of literate women to men, 15-24 years old Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 10
  • 11. • Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality RateTarget 5:• Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the Under five mortality rate.Indicator:• Under-five mortality rate (UNICEF-WHO)• Infant mortality rate (UNICEF-WHO)• Proportion of eye year children immunized against measles. Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 11
  • 12. Goal 5: Improve Maternal HealthTarget 6:• Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.Indicator:• Maternal mortality ratio (UNICEF-WHO)• Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel (UNICEF-WHO) Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 12
  • 13. • Goal 6: Combat HIV/ AIDS, malaria, and other diseasesTarget 7:• Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV / AIDS.Indicator:• HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 years• Condom use rate of contraceptive prevalence rate• Condom use at last high- risk sex• Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV / AIDS• Contraceptive prevalence rate• Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non orphans aged 10-14 years Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 13
  • 14. Target 8:• Have halted by 2015 and began to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.Indicator:• Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria• Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures• Prevalence and death rate associated with tuberculosis• Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS (internationally recommended TB control strategy) Analyze the progress of MDGs in NepalFriday, May 11, 2012 14
  • 15. Goal 7: Ensure Environmental SustainabilityTarget 9:• Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programme; reverse loss of environmental resources Indicator:• Proportion of land area covered by forest• Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area• Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP)• Carbon dioxide emission per capita and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons)• Friday, May 11, 2012 of populationprogress of MDGs in Nepal fuels Proportion Analyze the using solid 15
  • 16. Target 10:• Halve, by 2015,the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation( for more information see the entry on water supply) Indicator:• Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural• Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban and rural Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 16
  • 17. Target 11:• By 2020, to have achieved a significance improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers.Indicator:• Proportion of households with access to secure tenure (UN-HABITAT) Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 17
  • 18. Target 12-18:• Develop further an open, rule –based, predictable, non- discriminatory trading and financial system. Address the Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDC). Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and Small Island developing States.• Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term. In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, drugs in developing countries.• In co-operation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications. Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 18
  • 19. Indicator:• Net ODA as percentage of Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donor’s Gross National Income• Unemployment rate of young people aged 15-24 years, each sex and total• Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basisFriday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 19
  • 20. Objective: General Objectives:• To analyze the progress towards achieving MDGS in Nepal.Specific Objectives:• To compare the various indicators in different years such as;• % of population below $1 per day (PPP value)• % of the population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption• % of underweight children under 5• Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), Under-5 mortality rate, Maternal mortality ratio• Proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendant• Contraceptive prevalence rate (%)• HIV prevalence among people 15–49 years old Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 20
  • 21. The MDGs and Nepal• Nepal has set up its long-term development targets in line with the MDGs. The MDG programs are linked with the programs of the ongoing 10th Plan (2002-2007).• The achievements attained by the end of the final year of the 12th Plan (2016/17) will be assessed with the achievements of the MDGs.• If the objectives and targets of the 12th Plan are not fulfilled, the targets of MDGs will also become futile and incomplete.• Nepal faces problems pertaining to project design, implementation and attainment of the targeted results. At times, policy ambiguity becomes an acute barrier. Still, the implementing pitfalls and rampant corruption have been primarily responsible for the failure of the projects. Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 21
  • 22. Key Strategies of NepalWhile the Nepal Government is committed to achievingthe MDGs by putting the right policies in place,improving efficiency and effectiveness of theinterventions that contribute to reaching the goals, andpursuing the required policy and institutional reforms,Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) shouldserve as a medium-term roadmap to get to the longer-term goals set out by the MDGsFriday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 22
  • 23. • All development activities must be strategically geared towards attainment of the Goals, which calls for enhanced coordination and harmonization among development actors. This, in turn, requires a comprehensive development framework which1. prioritizes MDG based programs, and sufficient resources allocated to such programs and2. Addresses the gender, caste, ethnicity, and spatial dimensions of poverty. Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 23
  • 24. • The current MDG Needs Assessment (MDG NA) covers only agriculture, education, gender, health and rural infrastructure sector. In order to achieve all the Goals, the needs assessment needs to incorporate other remaining MDGs related sectors such as energy, forestry, slum and global partnership.• The government has introduced MTEF since 2002/03 for linking annual budget with PRSPFriday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 24
  • 25. • Business Plans for major sectors like education, health, drinking water, agriculture and irrigation, and rural infrastructure (road and electricity) have been prepared.• District Periodic Plans (DPPs) are instrumental in linking MDGs to annual development programs of the districts. Currently, 52 districts have periodic plans prepared under the guideline provided by NPC.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 25
  • 26. • For localization of MDGs, there is huge area for mobilizing the local bodies including the VDCs and Municipalities. The current MDG Project has started to prepare the District MDG Progress report in some districts.The importance of this program would be:o awareness generation to general public at the district level;o getting commitment and ownership on the MDGs by local government bodies – particularly from the district level policy makers, planners and bureaucrats, external development partners, non-governmental sectors including the private sectors; ando Mobilization of all these stakeholders for preparing their MDG based time bound action plan. Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 26
  • 27. Findings Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and Targets Goals and Targets Current Status, against 2015 TargetGoal 1:Eradicate Extreme Poverty Item 1990 Latest 2015and % of population below $1 per day 33.5 24.1 (2005) 17Hunger (PPP value) Poverty gap ratio at $1.25 a day - 6.1 (2008) -Target 1.A: (PPP) (%) Halve, between 1990 and2015, the proportion of Item 1990 Latest 2015people whose income is Employment-to-population ratio - 81.7 (2008) -less than $1 a day. Proportion of own-account and - 81.9 (2010) - contributing family workers in total employmentTarget 1.B:Achieve full and productive Item 1990 Latest 2015Employment and decentwork for all, including % of the population below the 49 22.5 (2006) 25women and young people. minimum level of dietary energy consumption % of underweight children under 5 57 38.6 (2006) 29Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and2015, the proportion ofpeople who suffer fromhunger.Goal 2:Achieve Universal Primary Item 1990 Latest 2015Education Net enrollment rate in primary 64 93.7 (2009) 100 education (%)Target 2.A: Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 38 77.9 (2009) 100 Ensure that, by 2015, and reaching grade 5 (%)children everywhere, boys Literacy rate of people 15–24 years 49.6 86.5 (2008) 100and girls alike, will be able old (%)to complete a full course ofprimary schooling.Goal 3:Promote Gender Equality Item 1990 Latest 2015and Empower Women Ratio of girls to boys at primary level 0.56 1.0 (2009) 1.0 Ratio of girls to boys at secondary 0.43 0.93 (2009) 1.0 levelTarget 3.A: Ratio of women to men at tertiary 0.32 0.63 (2007) 1.0Eliminate gender disparity levelin primary and secondary Share of women in wage 18.9 19.9 (2009) -education, preferably by employment in the Non agricultural2005, and in all levels of sector (%)education no later than2015. Proportion of seats held by women in 3.4 32.8 (2010) - Parliament (%) Item 1990 Latest 2015Goal 4: Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live 108 41 (2010) 34Reduce Child Mortality births) Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000 live 162 50 (2010) 54Target 4.A: births)Reduce by two thirds, % of 1 year-old children immunized 42 85.6 (2009) >90Friday, May 11, 2012between 1990 and 2015, theunder-5 mortality rate. Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal against measles 27
  • 28. Nepal’s Progress in Attaining MDGs: Nepal is among many least developed countries with high risk of not attaining many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). When the first MDG progress report was published in 2002, only two goals (child mortality and drinking water) were seen to be potentially achievable. The recent set of information, however, indicates that Nepal would be able to meet some more of the goals if necessary interventions could be made with adequate institutions and resources at place. The supportive environment for some other goals is also improving despite conflict intensifying in the country.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 28
  • 29. Discussion:• Nepal improves the percentage of population below $1 per day in 2005 [24.1%] from [33.5] which is nearer to the target i.e. 17%.• The percentage of population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption in 1990 is 49 this is reduced in 2006 by ½ and more percentage i.e. 22.5 which is nearer to the target i.e. 25.• Percentage of underweight children under 5 yrs was also decreased from 57%[1990] to 38.5 [2006] where target is 29%.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 29
  • 30. • In education percentage of net enrollment of primary education is 93.7 in [2009] this shows that nepal can achieve this target easily.• Similarly the literacy rate of people among 15-25 years old is 86.5%[2008] .• Data shows that nepal can successfully achieve the target of gender equity i.e in primary, secondary & tertiary education the ratio of boys & girls is 1[target], which is achieved in 2009.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 30
  • 31. • Similarly the proportion of seats held by women is increased by 3.4 % [1990] to 32.8 [2010].• Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) is decrease by ½ and more: from 108 [1990] to 41[2010].• Similarly,Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) is also decrease from 162 [1990] to 50 [2010] which is nearer to the target i.e. 54.• % of 1 year-old children immunized against measles in 1990 is 42 which is increase by the year 2009 [85.6]. Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 31
  • 32. • Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births) in 1990 is 850 which is reduced in year 2009 [229] from this indicator nepal was awarded.• Contraceptive prevalence rate (%) is 24 in 1990 and 45 in 2010. this shows that just nearer to double % CPR is increased.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 32
  • 33. • Prevalence rate associated with malaria(number of cases per 1000 of the population) is 1.96 in 1990 and decrease in the year 2009 [0.16].• Prevalence associated with tuberculosis is 460 in 1990 and decrease in year 2005 [280].Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 33
  • 34. • Proportion of the population with sustainable access to improved water sources (%) is 46 in 1990 which is improved in year2010 i.e.80 where the target is just 73.• Proportion of the population with sustainable access to improved sanitation in 1990 is only 6% whereas it is increased in the year 2010 [43] which is nearer to the target [53].Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 34
  • 35. ConclusionNepal has made marked progress in some social indicators leading to the attainment of some MDGs by 2015. But the progress has halted in the recent years. The country faces added difficulty in achieving MDGs in the current political scenario- weak resource base, violence, conflict and weak governance.The conflict affect towards achieving MDGs for a number of reasons including the risk of domestic resource crowd out, ineffectiveness of service delivery, prolonged absence of elected representatives at the local bodies, and setbacks in social mobilization and community participation. Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 35
  • 36. MDGs are reinforcing to each other and the attainment of one goal would help the attainment of others.MDGs can be achieved only through a strategic partnership among government, local bodies, NGOs, CBOs, and donors, strategic partnership in project formulation, execution, coordination of development activities, donor harmonization, and participatory monitoring and evaluation system are highly essential.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 36
  • 37. References• A report on ‘‘Achieving the Health Millennium Development Goals in Asia and the Pacific Policies and Actions within Health Systems and Beyond’’ by Asia- Pacific MDG Study Series.• A statistical data published by ‘‘The World Bank Group’’• ‘‘Achieving Millennium Development Goals: Challenges For Nepal’’ by Research Department, International Finance Division, Nepal Rastra Bank• http://www.undp.org• Nepal MDGs Progress Reports 2010.• ‘‘Nepal’s progress towards Millennium Development Goals’’ by Asian Development Bank.Friday, May 11, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 37