Types of evidence


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Types of evidence

  1. 1. Danielle Carlock
  2. 2.  Based on the scientific method (i.e. an experiment is done to test a hypothesis)  Published in scholarly journals  Authors of the article carried out the study, i.e. it is firsthand information Primary research studies are the bread and butter of EBP. Other, higher levels of evidence are based on them.
  3. 3.  Primary research articles  Obituaries   Book reviews  Advertisements Review articles  Case studies  News  Letters to the editor  Job announcements NOTE: not everything in a scholarly journal is research based!
  4. 4.  Primary research studies and other evidence based articles published in scholarly journals undergo peer review  Peer review=Experts in the field of study (peers) evaluate an article’s methodology, merit, and overall unique contribution to knowledge PRIOR to publication in a scholarly journal  In the sciences and medicine, research is almost universally peer reviewed  A journal is considered peer reviewed if it uses this process for any of its material  An article is considered peer reviewed if it undergoes this process
  5. 5.  Usually multiple authors in a research study. Why?  Authors are credentialed.  Authors’ affiliations are given. Authors are typically affiliated with a research institution.
  6. 6.  Who is the intended audience?  How could you tell?
  7. 7.  Other researchers, clinicians  Clues:  Purpose  Jargon  Reading level
  8. 8.  In addition to text, what other types of information are there and why?
  9. 9.  Graphs Charts Statistics Images  Why?   
  10. 10.       Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion/Conclusions Works Cited/References
  11. 11. How would you characterize it (what is in it and what is its purpose)?
  12. 12.   To summarize the article Includes:  Why-purpose of the study  How-how the study was conducted  What was found  What does it mean
  13. 13.  How would you characterize it (what is in it and what is its purpose)?
  14. 14. 1. To introduce the purpose of the study 1. To set the study within the context of previous research on the topic (i.e literature review).
  15. 15.  How would you characterize it (what is in it and what is its purpose)?  What is the relationship between the authors and this section?  What was sample size of the article?
  16. 16.  To describe exactly how the study was completed:  Describe the study population ▪ How obtained, characteristics, size  How the study was structured  How the data was analyzed
  17. 17.  The authors actually carried out these methods to complete the study-i.e. they are both the authors and the researchers
  18. 18.  Sample size=Size of the study population  Article 1:
  19. 19.  How would you characterize it (what is in it and what is its purpose?)
  20. 20.  What the study found-i.e. presents the data and an analysis of it (in the form of charts, graphs, etc)
  21. 21.  How would you characterize it (what is in it and what is its purpose?)
  22. 22.  An interpretation of the results (i.e. what do they mean), including:  Any limitations of the study  An integration of the results with other similar studies  Suggestions for future research
  23. 23.  How would you characterize it (what is in it and what is its purpose?)
  24. 24.  To document each of the sources used.  Follows a particular style (ex: APA)
  25. 25.  Present findings/results of a research study for the first time.  The authors conducted the actual research (i.e the authors and researchers are one and the same).  Undergoes peer review prior to publication in scholarly journals  The article will include:  Why? Purpose of the study  How? Detailed description of methods  What? What was found and what it means  A works cited that documents references
  26. 26.  Use this section to distinguish a review from a primary research article.  If the methods section concerns itself with explaining how the articles were found (i.e. library research) and analyzed (statistics) then you are looking at a REVIEW article
  27. 27.  A critical evaluation of the primary research on a topic  Are considered secondary sources  Generally are subject to peer review  Three main types:  Literature reviews  Systematic reviews  Meta analyses
  28. 28.  An overview of a topic written by an expert in the field  No new contributions to research; instead are summarizing the work of others  In some ways similar to a research paper you might write in college  Example
  29. 29.  Uses a rigorous, pre-planned process to find and synthesize the results of many primary studies  Involves a search of the literature using inclusion/exclusion criteria and then a systematic synthesis of the results  Considered a high level of evidence Example 
  30. 30.       Abstract Introduction Methods-describes how the primary research was obtained (which is the study population) Results Discussion/Conclusions Works Cited
  31. 31. 1. A systematic review is carried out to locate high quality primary research on a topic 2. The results from these studies are statistically combined in order to summarize the overall outcome.  This is a very high level of evidence  Example
  32. 32.  How would you characterize the authorship of the article?
  33. 33. What is the purpose of the “What we know” section?
  34. 34. What is the purpose of the “What we know” section?  To summarize the current research/evidence on the topic
  35. 35. What is the “What we know” section based on, in other words where are they getting this information?
  36. 36. What is the “What we know” section based on, in other words where are they getting this information?  Evidence from:  Primary research  Reviews  Other types of evidence (see the “coding matrix”)
  37. 37. What is the purpose of the “What we can do” section and who is the intended audience?
  38. 38. What is the relationship between this article and primary research and review articles?
  39. 39. Type of evidence Coverage Authorship Primary research Describes/reports one study Authors are reporting Peer reviewed on their own study journals (primary) Review Describes/summarizes/sy Authors are nthesizes many primary synthesizing the research studies research of others (secondary) Peer reviewed journals Evidence Summary Appraises available evidence on a topic in order to provide clinicians with actionable information Proprietary databases such as CINAHL, Dynamed, UptoDate, Clinical Evidence Authors are synthesizing and appraising the research of others (secondary) Where Published
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