As part of a study day between the British library, LSE Library and Oxford University, Karen Phillips, Editorial Director at SAGE in London, gave a presentation on the future of research and its possible impact.
Research communication will be driven primarily by how much research there is to communicate. From National Science Board, policy advisory body to the US government on scientific research and education. Tables from Key Science and Engineering indicators, 2010 Digest. Shows consistent growth in worldwide research spending. From 1996-2007 spending on research more than doubled from $525billion to $1.1 trillion. Not sure it can keep going at this pace. The US is the leading country in research and publication of that research with a long history of public and private funding, believing that investment in research correlates with economic growth and health and social benefits. Many other countries increasingly recognise these benefits and have increased investment in research. We have seen enormous growth worldwide, with a marked increase in Asia. The % of GDP spent on research has remained steady in the US and Europe, and is higher in many asian countries ie. Japan, Sth Korea. The bulk of academic, and particularly social science, research is funded by government.
From National Science Board, policy advisory body to the US government on scientific research and education. Tables from Key Science and Engineering indicators, 2010 Digest. The global distribution of R&D expenditures has shifted from 1996 to 2007. Asia's share has risen to nearly one-third, driven mostly by China's rapid R&D growth. Asia’s share of research spending has risen to nearly a third of the global total of research.
National Science Board chart. Key Science and Engineering Indicators, 2010 Digest. The EU-27 leads the world in numbers of S&E articles published, but the United States continues to be the top country producer. China, with a rapidly developing science base, produced 8% of the world's research publications in 2008, becoming the second largest single-country producer. It ranked 14th in 1995, with 2% of world share
Based on research done for SAGE by Outsell – market research firm for publishing and information industries. No of research papers refers to: Source: Essential Science Indicators from Thomson Reuters. Figure relates to number of papers published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals from January 1998 – August 31 2008.
NSB data again. Balance between social science, medical and natural science research. US, UK, Netherlands, Australia and Canada are the leaders in social science research published. More than half of U.S. articles report on research in the medical and life sciences. In contrast, more than half of the research articles published by Asian researchers are in the natural sciences and engineering.
I’ve shown the growth in research and changing geographical composition; and split between medical, biological, natural science and humanities and social science. The growth in the publication of research via journals may not be able to keep pace. Publishers can increase the number of articles published in journals, and launch new journals, BUT it’s becoming increasingly difficult to get financial returns for publishing more research articles in either of these ways. Library budgets aren’t keeping pace with the growth in research output; and the increased prices of journals.
Academic Library spending is challenged. Academic library expenditure will remain challenged due to the economic downturn. There is a growing disconnect between the rates of investment in research and library budgets which puts pressure on the publishing system. Typical budget growth rates for 2011 look like between 0-2%. Analytics demand will soar. • The STM information industry is largely supported by governments and industry . As the level of investment has increased, so has the complexity of the management processes associated with the use of STM information . The advent of widespread digitization and of web-based communication technologies means that analytic software and decision support tools can perform some of these management functions. As the costs of inefficiency become known, there will be an increasing demand for products that can be used to improve outcomes and lower costs. er.
OA is an answer to the fact that library funding isn’t keeping pace with the growth in research output. Author or research funder pays for article publication. It is now an established model of journal publishing. 8% of all articles published are Gold OA. The proportion of articles that are OA as a % of the total number of articles published has grown very little over the last five years. Stevan Harnard, American Scientist Open Access Forum
What is Open Access Publishing? “ Free availability and unrestricted use” Unrestricted (i.e., free) online access to articles published in scholarly journals No paid subscriptions Publication often supported by author fees Brief History of Open Access “ Open Access Movement” dates back to 1960s, heightened prominence in 1990s Brief History of Open Access (cont’d) Institutional repositories NIH mandate COPE Open Access and Science/ Technology/ Medicine Journals Longer-established relationship with OA Ties between research and external funding (public and private) Funding bodies stipulate that research be made freely available Time-sensitive research (health, medical) The NIH Public Access Policy a.k.a., the NIH “Mandate” In effect from April 2008 All NIH-funded work must be publicly accessible Scientists submit final peer-reviewed manuscripts to PubMed Central upon acceptance Compromise with publishers: 12-month embargo Advantages of Open Access Maximized research access Broader, faster research impact Fewer restrictions on authors’ use of work Easy on library budgets Tim Brody and Stevan Harnad, “The Research Impact Cycle” Open Access and the Social Sciences: Why now? More government OA mandates coming Stagnant or declining university serials budgets: OA eliminates price barriers Declining department budgets: social scientists increasingly require outside funding to support research More support for OA at university level: COPE OA Funding Authors pay out of pocket or seek external funding Grant funding: ask for publication support as part of grant Increasing amount of external funding available specifically for Open Access Federal agencies University-level funding Department-level funding Private funding COPE: Compact for OA Publishing Equity Group of universities and research centers Pledged to support &quot;the timely establishment of durable mechanisms for underwriting reasonable publication charges for articles written by its faculty and published in fee-based open-access journals and for which other institutions would not be expected to provide funds.&quot; Cornell University Dartmouth College Harvard University MIT University of California at Berkeley University of Ottawa Columbia University University of Michigan Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Duke University Universitat de Barcelona Simon Fraser University University of Calgary What is SAGE Open? First large-scale open-access product tailored to the social sciences, behavioral sciences, humanities, and other disciplines offered by a professional academic publisher What is SAGE Open? In practical terms: Peer-reviewed , original research and review articles Interdisciplinary Interactive , open access format: readers help judge article quality Articles accepted solely on the basis of research quality Low introductory publication fee: $195 Further Advantages of SAGE Open: Global Distribution Global distribution on SAGE Journals Online HighWire 2.0 platform: Discoverability Reference linking User-friendly & customizable Interactive Further Advantages of SAGE Open: Interdisciplinary Enhanced discoverability. Locate papers by: Discipline/keywords Publication date References in other papers Search Cross-disciplinary discoverability citations Discover relationships between papers, disciplines Further Advantages of SAGE Open: Quick and Professional Quick peer-review and decision Continuous publication model: quick publication time Unlimited by issue/volume page budget Same professional production as SAGE’s traditional journals Authors can leverage SAGE’s long-standing good reputation in social sciences Further Advantages of SAGE Open: The Peer-Review Process Action Editor 2-3 reviewers Quick turnaround: 2-3 weeks in review Constructive reviewer evaluations: research quality vs. significance or thematic suitability
Launch spring 2011 Opened to accept articles Dec 31 st 2010, by Jan 11 th 77 articles submitted.
Technology is key. • Social networking and other Web 2.0 tools are now becoming integral components of many publishers’ offerings. Text mining and related semantic or Web 3.0 technologies have developed rapidly and are now widely used. Mobile channel technology has made significant steps in recent years, chiefly driven by the user interface design of the iPhone, Android-powered smart phones, and the iPad. Together, these three technology strands will enable the development of new products aimed at the researcher, teacher, and student.
User engagement - Microsites – increasingly cheap to build, targeted, connect to online community sites, with blog, polling and survey features, much more interactive. Combine community site type content with core research content.
Develop ontologies Structure knowledge Concepts, authors, locations Tag content – consistently Indexing content using the terms and rules Enables the connecting of related content
The future of research communication jan 2011
The Future of Research Communication Karen Phillips January 2011
The future of research communication <ul><li>Growth of research investment </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical and disciplinary spread </li></ul><ul><li>Role and funding of library </li></ul><ul><li>New models of publishing and product types </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in technology </li></ul>
Key factors <ul><li>The global landscape of research </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the library </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in format of research published </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in technology </li></ul>
Global research Academic libraries Research papers library content spend USA 3,617 2,959,661 $2,375m (NCES) Japan 1,064 796,807 $319m (LibEcon) UK 166 784,895 $371m (Lisu) China circa. 2,703 573,486 - France 95 548,279 $108m (LibEcon) Canada circa. 90 414,248 $237m (CARL) Australia 221 267,134 $236m (CAUL) India circa. 490 237,364 -
Research output <ul><li>3.5% pa increase in quantity of research articles published </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in number of journals likely to slow down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals sold as collections to library consortia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to generate revenue from adding a new journal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasingly competitive to get published </li></ul>
The role of the library <ul><li>Primary information resource for academic institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Budget holder for acquiring academic research content </li></ul><ul><li>Guide to researchers and students in navigating an huge quantities of research knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>We think that it is likely to keep it’s role as a filter between excess information and useful knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly complex landscape, students and researchers are going to need support </li></ul></ul>
New models for publishing research - Open Access <ul><li>Growth in open access as an alternative model of research communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top three OA publishers are growing fast: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- BMC (18k articles in 2009, +21%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- PLOS (6k articles in 2009, +50%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindawi(4k articles in 2009, +75%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8% of articles published </li></ul><ul><li>4% of articles indexed by ISI 2009 </li></ul>
New Models - SAGE Open <ul><li>More government OA mandates coming </li></ul><ul><li>Stagnant or declining university serials budgets: OA eliminates price barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Declining department budgets: social scientists increasingly require outside funding to support research </li></ul><ul><li>More support for OA at university level: COPE </li></ul>
New formats for publishing research <ul><li>In an online environment will new formats emerge for publishing research? </li></ul><ul><li>Something between a research article and research monograph </li></ul><ul><li>New product combining content types </li></ul>
New formats for content <ul><li>Concise summaries of cutting-edge research, 50 to 125 pages </li></ul><ul><li>bridge between journal articles and a contextual literature review </li></ul><ul><li>report of analytical techniques </li></ul><ul><li>new or emerging topic </li></ul><ul><li>case study or clinical example </li></ul><ul><li>core concepts explained for students </li></ul>
Changes in technology <ul><li>Improved accessibility/discoverability of research </li></ul><ul><li>Richer functionality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased mobile delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic enrichment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted and personalised sites </li></ul></ul>
User engagement & personalization <ul><li>Commenting, discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing: bookmarking, facebooking, tweeting, emailing, blogging </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher in turn can communicate with better understanding of end user </li></ul>
Community sites <ul><li>Methodspace </li></ul>
The future of research communication <ul><li>Depends on changes in: </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity and spread of research </li></ul><ul><li>library resourcing </li></ul><ul><li>models of publishing </li></ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul>