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  1. 1.  A sum total of a person’s whole psychological system. Summary of the way an individual reacts and interacts with others.
  2. 2. “first comprehensive theory of personality” University of Vienna 1873 Voracious Reader Medical School Graduate(1856-1939) Specialized in Nervous Disorders Some patients’ disorders had no physical cause!
  3. 3. “the mind is like an iceburg - mostly hidden” Conscious Awareness Unconscioussmall part above surface below the surface (Preconscious) (thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories) Repression banishing unacceptable thoughts & passions to unconscious Dreams & Slips
  4. 4.  Hereditary  Temperament  Energy levels  Height  Facial attractiveness … Environment  Culture establishes norms, values and attitudes  Social groups  Family and friends Situation
  5. 5. Enduring characteristics which describe anindividual’s behavior. As many as 17953 traits have beenidentified.
  6. 6.  Reserved vs. talkative Less intelligent vs. more intelligent Affected by feelings vs. emotionally stable Submissive vs. dominant Serious vs. happy go lucky Expedient vs. conscientious Timid vs. venturesome Tough minded vs. sensitive Trusting vs. suspicious Practical vs. imaginative Forthright vs. shrewd Self assured vs. apprehensive Conservative vs. experimenting Group dependent vs. self sufficient Uncontrolled vs. controlled Relaxed vs. tense
  7. 7. Emotional Stability • Calm /Anxious • Secure/Insecure Extraversion • Sociable/Retiring • Fun Loving/Sober Openness • Imaginative/Practical • Independent/Conforming Agreeableness • Soft-Hearted/Ruthless • Trusting/Suspicious Conscientiousness • Organized/Disorganized • Careful/Careless
  8. 8.  Clinical Interview Objective Tests  MMPI  Myers-Briggs Projective Tests  Rorschach Ink Blots  Thematic Apperception Test
  9. 9.  Locus of control (internals and externals) Self esteem (degree of self liking)  High esteem gives confidence to take risks, unconventional jobs, faith in own abilities Machiavellianism (pragmatic, maintains emotional distance and feels end justifies means)  Manipulate more  Persuade more  Winners
  10. 10.  Self monitoring  Higher on this scale, higher is the ability to adapt. Risk taking
  11. 11.  Type A  Restless  Impatient  Multi task  Cannot cope with leisure  Obsessed with numbers (measure success in numbers) Type B  No sense of urgency of time / no impatience  Feel no need to discuss / display their achievements  Play for fun and relaxation  Can relax without guilt
  12. 12.  Type A  Operate under moderate to high levels of stress  Fast workers  Work long hours  Display competitiveness  Rarely creative  More concerned with quantity and speed  Easier to predict their behavior  Poor research skills Type B
  13. 13. Personality and National Culture
  14. 14.  Realistic: mechanic, assembly line worker Investigative: biologist, environmentalist, journalist Social: social worker, teacher, counselor Conventional: accountant, teller Enterprising: lawyer, public relations Artistic: painter, musician, interior decoratorWhat would be the personality traits of amagician?
  15. 15. When you changethe way you look at things, the things you look at change. Organizational Behavior Perception PPT for PGDM( RM) 2010 16 16
  16. 16. Organizational Behavior RM) 2010Organizational BehaviorPerception PPT for PGDM( 17 17
  17. 17. Organizational Behavior RM) 2010Perception PPT for PGDM( 18 18
  18. 18. Word Color Test In this test DO NOT READ the words, say aloud the COLOR of each word.YELLOW BLUE ORANGE BLACK RED GREEN PURPLE YELLOW REDORANGE GREEN BLACK BLUE RED PURPLE GREEN BLUE ORANGE Organizational Behavior Perception PPT for PGDM( RM) 2010 19 19
  19. 19. Wavy Squares? No!The background of concentric circles makes the squares appear distorted. Organizational Behavior Perception PPT for PGDM( RM) 2010 20 20
  20. 20. The Vertical lines are both the same length.The center circles are both the same size. Organizational Behavior Perception PPT for PGDM( RM) 2010 21 21
  21. 21. A process by virtue of which individualsorganize and interpret their sensoryimpressions in order to give meanings t theirenvironment.
  22. 22.  The perceiver  Attitudes  Motives  Interests  Experience  Expectations
  23. 23.  The target  Novelty  Motion  Sounds  Size  Background  Proximity The situation  Time  Work setting  Social setting
  24. 24.  Attribution theory  When individuals observe behavior, they tend to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.  Determination depends on: ▪ Distinctiveness: whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations (high: external and low: internal) ▪ Consensus: is shown when everyone faced with same situation responds in a similar way (high: external and low: internal) ▪ Consistency (over a period of time) (high: internal and low: external)
  25. 25. Organizational BehaviorPerception PPT for PGDM( RM) 2010 2626
  26. 26.  Fundamental attribution error Self serving bias
  27. 27.  Selective perception (interpretation based on interests, background, experience etc. of perceiver) Halo effect Stereotyping Projection Contrast effects
  28. 28.  Employment interviews Performance evaluation Employee effort Employee loyalty  Whistle blowing Performance expectations  Self fulfilling prophesy Absenteeism, job satisfaction and turnover are based on perception.
  29. 29.  Optimizing model  Ascertain need for decision  Identify decision criteria  Allocate weights  Develop alternatives  Evaluate alternatives  Select best alternative
  30. 30.  Satisficing model  Bounded rationality Implicit favorite model Intuitive model
  31. 31.  Ethics  Utilitarianism  Influencing factors ▪ Stage of moral development ▪ Locus of control ▪ Organizational environment Impact of culture (ethical culture, problem solving culture etc.) Escalation of commitment
  32. 32. Evaluative statements or judgmentsconcerning objects, people or events.Components Cognitive Affective Behavioral
  33. 33.  Parents Teachers Peer group Genetic dispositions Those we admire or respectAttitudes are less stable.Influence job behavior.
  34. 34.  Job Satisfaction  A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics Job Involvement  Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth Psychological Empowerment  Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy
  35. 35.  Organizational Commitment  Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization.  Three dimensions: ▪ Affective – emotional attachment to organization ▪ Continuance Commitment – economic value of staying ▪ Normative - moral or ethical obligations  Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees.  Less important now than in past – now perhaps more of occupational commitment, loyalty to profession rather than a given employer.
  36. 36.  Perceived Organizational Support (POS)  Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.  Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in decision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive.  High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance. Employee Engagement  The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job.  Engaged employees are passionate about their work and company.
  37. 37.  Leon Festinger – No, the reverse is sometimes true! Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes  Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency  Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization  Desire to reduce dissonance depends on: ▪ Importance of elements ▪ Degree of individual influence ▪ Rewards involved in dissonance
  38. 38.  Leon Festinger – No, the reverse is sometimes true! Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes  Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency  Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization  Desire to reduce dissonance depends on: ▪ Importance of elements ▪ Degree of individual influence ▪ Rewards involved in dissonance
  39. 39. Attitudes are used after the fact to make senseof an action that has already occurred.
  40. 40.  Attitude surveys Diversity management  Training aimed at self evaluation to examine ethnic and cultural stereotypes  Volunteer work social service in order to meet face to face with people from diverse backgrounds
  41. 41.  One of the primary job attitudes measured.  Broad term involving a complex individual summation of a number of discrete job elements. How to measure?  Single global rating (one question/one answer) - Best  Summation score (many questions/one average) - OK Are people satisfied in their jobs?  In India no, in the U. S., yes, but the level appears to be dropping.  Results depend on how job satisfaction is measured.  Pay and promotion are the most problematic elements.
  42. 42.  Mentally challenging work Equitable rewards Supportive working conditions Supportive colleagues Personality job fit
  43. 43.  Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point.  After about $40,000 a year, there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction.  Money may bring happiness, but not necessarily job satisfaction. Personality can influence job satisfaction.  Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs.  Those with positive core self-evaluation are more satisfied with their jobs.
  44. 44. Active Exit Voice • Behavior directed • Active and toward leaving constructive the organization attempts to improve conditionsDestructive Constructive Neglect Loyalty • Allowing • Passively waiting conditions to for conditions to worsen improve Passive
  45. 45.  Job Performance  Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied!  The causality may run both ways. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors  Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness. Customer Satisfaction  Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Absenteeism  Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work.
  46. 46.  Turnover  Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.  Many moderating variables in this relationship. ▪ Economic environment and tenure ▪ Organizational actions taken to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers Workplace Deviance  Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize, abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw. Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of job satisfaction on the bottom line, most managers are either unconcerned about or overestimate worker satisfaction.
  47. 47.  What are organizations? Why do organizations exist? Organizational effectiveness
  48. 48.  OB refers to the behavior of individuals and groups within organizations and the interaction between organizations and their external environment. OB is a field of study that investigates the impact of that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness.
  49. 49.  A study of behavior, attitudes and performance and attitudes of people in organizations. Emphasis on applied psychology A cause and effect study A branch of social science
  50. 50.  Description of human behavior Understanding it  Individual behavior  Interpersonal  Group  Inter group Prediction of human behavior
  51. 51. To determine your likeability, add the tennumbers you selected as your answers. Thenumber will range from 10 to 50. A higher scoreindicates a higher likeability.
  52. 52.  Control (belief that organisms respond to stimulus)  Leadership  Motivation  Communication  Organizational change and development  Organizational climate
  53. 53.  Caused / motivated behavior A whole person Individual differences Human dignity
  54. 54. OB is an applied behavioral science whichderives heavily from: Psychology Sociology Anthropology Political Science Economics Medicine and many others
  55. 55.  Planning Organizing Leading Controlling
  56. 56.  Interpersonal roles  Figurehead  Leader  Liaison
  57. 57.  Informational  Monitor  Disseminator  Spokesperson Decisional  Entrepreneur  Disturbance handler  Resource allocator  Negotiator
  58. 58. Situation 1Sam works for you. He is technically capableand a good worker, but does not get along wellwith people in the group. When Sam gets anopportunity to get a transfer, you encouragehim to take it. What would you say to Sam’spotential supervisor when he asks about Sam?
  59. 59. Situation 2Your boss has told you that you must reduceyour work group by 30 percent. Which criteriawould you use to lay off workers?
  60. 60. Probable answers to situation 2 Lay off older, higher paid employees Lay off younger, lower paid employees Lay off workers based on seniority only Lay off workers based on performance only
  61. 61. Situation 3You are engineer employed with ABC Ltd. but notworking on the company’s Department ofTransportation project. You overhear a conversation inthe cafeteria that a large contract is going to be givento ABC company to develop a DOT subsystem. Thiscontract is likely to positively influence the shareprices of the company. Would you buy shares of ABC Ltd.? Would you share this information with some one else?
  62. 62. Situation 4You work for a cigarette company and up tillnow you have not been convinced thatcigarettes cause cancer. Recently you have gotconclusive evidence of the same. What wouldyou do?
  63. 63. Situation 5You are the CEO of a company, a closecompetitor of which has made an unpatentable discovery likely to boost profits.Would you attempt to hire employees of thecompetitor company who know all the intricatedetails of this company?
  64. 64.  What if everyone acted this way? Would you want someone to do this for / to you? Can you comfortably defend your actions? Are there any other alternatives which are more ethical?
  65. 65.  Diversity management Changing demographics of workforce Changed employee expectations Globalization Promoting ethical behavior Technology transformation
  66. 66.  Dimensions of diversity  Age  Gender  Sexual orientation  Ethnic heritage  Race  Mental/physical abilities / characteristics
  67. 67.  Dimensions of diversity  Geographic location  Cultural experience  Work experience  Income  Religion  First language  Organizational role and level  Communication style  Family status  Work style  Education
  68. 68.  Prejudice Ethnocentrism Stereotypes Discrimination Harassment Sexual harassment Backlash
  69. 69.  Biographical characteristics Abilities (mental and physical)Study of individual behavior is aimed at findingthe right ability job fit.
  70. 70. Any permanent change in behavior that occursas a result of experience.Steps in the process: Acquiring new input Assimilating new input Internalization of the input Availability of internalized input for use (generally involves creativity) Improved capacity for learning
  71. 71.  Classical conditioning  Smells and sounds evoke memories  Unconditioned stimulus evokes unconditioned response  Conditioning is required to produce a conditioned response ▪ Goof off when no one is watching ▪ Arrive on time / late
  72. 72.  Operant conditioning  Good acts are positively reinforced and bad acts are negatively reinforced leading to desired voluntary behavior. ▪ We automatically pull back our hand when it comes in contact with a hot object.
  73. 73.  Social Learning Theory  People learn through observation and direct experience. ▪ Pay attention ▪ Retain ▪ Do ▪ Reinforce
  74. 74.  Cognitive dissonance Adult learning theories (CAL)  Capitalize on experience  Adapt to limitation  Learning programmes
  75. 75.  Reinforcement  Positive  Negative  Extinction ▪ Some type of reinforcement is required to change behavior ▪ Some types of rewards are more effective in changing behavior ▪ Timing of reinforcement is important (continuous or intermittent)
  76. 76.  Reduction in absenteeism (rewarding no absence) Well pay (sick pay reinforces wrong behavior) Discipline (match severity of crime with punishment) Training (provide opportunity to practice new behaviors and internalize positive ones) Mentoring Self management (to reduce external negative reinforcement)