Fiber fabrications
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Fiber fabrications

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Fiber fabrications Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Fiber Fabrication
  • 2. Optical Fiber Fabrication Technology Optical fiber is used worldwide for transmission of voice, data, and content because of its ability to transmit at speeds in excess of 10 GB/second over very long distances.
  • 3. Optical fibers consist of: 1. A core, having high refractive index. 2. Cladding. 3. Buffer, protective polymer layer. 4. Jacket, protective polymer layer.
  • 4. Types of Fiber Based on Materials 1. Glass Fibers 2. Plastic Fibers 3. Photonic Crystal Fibers
  • 5. Glass Fibers: • Glass Is Made by Fusing Mixtures of Metal Oxides, Sulfides or Selenite.
  • 6. • Glass fiber is a dimensionally stable engineering material. Glass fiber does not stretch or shrink after exposure to extremely high or low temperatures. • Glass fibers do not absorb moisture or change physically or chemically when exposed to water. • Glass fiber is an inorganic material and will not burn or support combustion. It retains approximately 25% of its initial strength at 1000°F (540°C).
  • 7. Plastic Optical Fibers: • Plastic optical fiber (POF) (or Polymer optical fibre) is an optical fiber which is made out of Plastic. • POF standard is based on multilevel PAM modulation a frame structure, Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding and Multilevel coset coding modulation. • For telecommunications, the more difficult-to-use glass optical fiber is more common. • Although the actual cost of glass fibers are similar to the plastic fiber, their installed cost is much higher due to the special handling and installation techniques required.
  • 8. Photonic Crystal Fibers:
  • 9. • Photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) is a new class of optical fiber based on the properties of photonic crystals. • PCF is now finding applications in fiber-optic communications, fiber lasers, nonlinear devices, high-power transmission, highly sensitive gas sensors, and other areas • PCFs guiding light by a conventional higher-index core modified by the presence of air holes. • Photonic crystal fibers may be considered a subgroup of a more general class of microstructured optical fibers, where light is guided by structural modifications, and not only by refractive index differences.
  • 10. Fiber Fabrication • • • • Outside Vapor-Phase Oxidation(OVPO) Vapor-Phase Axial Deposition(VAD) Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition(MCVD) Plasma-Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition(PCDV) • Photonic Crystal Fiber Fabrication.
  • 11. Outside Vapor-Phase Oxidation(OVPO):
  • 12. • The preform, as mentioned above, is nothing more than an optical fiber but on a much larger scale. • Drawing enables the manufacturer to obtain the fiber in the actual size desired. • First a Layer of Sio2 Particles Called a Soot is deposited from a burner onto a Rotating Graphite Or Ceramic Mandrel.
  • 13. Vapor-Phase Axial Deposition (VAD):
  • 14. • This was the first successful mass-fabrication process. It was developed by Corning in 1972. In fact, the first optical fiber with attenuation less than 20 dB/km was manufactured by Corning using this process. • The process consists of four phases: laydown, consolidation, drawing, and measurement .
  • 15. Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition(MCVD):
  • 16. • This process was developed by Bell Laboratories in 1974 and has been widely accepted for the production of graded-index fiber. • First, reactant gases flow through a rotating glass tube made from fused silica while a burner heats its narrow zone by traveling back and forth along the tube. • SiO2, GeO2, and other doping combinations form soot that is deposited on the inner surface of the target tube.
  • 17. Plasma-Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition(PCDV):
  • 18. • This process was developed in 1975 by Phillips, a Dutch consumerelectronics and telecommunications company. • The process differs from MCVD in its method of heating the reaction zone: Instead of delivering heat from the outside through a burner, PCVD uses microwaves to form ionized gas—plasma—inside the silica tube. • The capacity of this preform is about 30 km of fiber.
  • 19. Photonic Crystal Fiber Fabrication: