Understanding nas (network attached storage)
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Understanding nas (network attached storage) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Section 3 – Networked Storage Introduction
  • 2. Section Objectives Upon completion of this section, you will be able to:  Describe the elements, connectivity, and management of: Direct Attached Storage (DAS), Network Attached Storage (NAS), FC and IP Storage Area Networks (SAN), Content Addressed Storage (CAS)  Compare the benefits and challenges of each of the storage models
  • 3. In this Section … This section contains the following modules: 1. Direct Attached Storage (DAS) 2. Networked Attached Storage (NAS) 3. Storage Area Networks (SAN) 4. IP Storage Area Networks (IP SAN) 5. Content Addressed Storage (CAS)
  • 4. Direct Attached Storage (DAS) Module 3.1
  • 5. Direct Attached Storage (DAS) After completing this module you will be able to:  Discuss the benefits of DAS based storage strategy  Describe the elements of DAS  Describe the connectivity options for DAS  Discuss DAS management considerations  Identify the best environments for DAS solutions
  • 6. DAS Benefits  Ideal for local data provisioning  Quick deployment for small environments  Simple to deploy in simple configurations  Reliability  Low capital expense  Low complexity
  • 7. Physical Elements of DAS CPU  Motherboard  Clustered group of processors  Processor cards  Complete system  Internal  External  Hard disk(s)  CD-ROM drive  Optical drive  Removable media  Tape devices/tape library  RAID/intelligent array(s)  Portable media drives Connectivity Storage
  • 8. DAS Management: Internal  Host provides: – Disk partitioning (Volume management) – File system layout – Data addressing  Direct Attached Storage managed individually through the server and the OS
  • 9. DAS Management: External  Array based management  Availability – multi-path I/O  Lower TCO for managing data and storage Infrastructure
  • 10. DAS Performance Considerations Factors to be considered for DAS performance: • Hard disks • Memory cache • Virtual memory (paging) • Storage controllers • Protocol supported (e.g. SCSI, FireWire, USB, etc.) • RAID level • Bus
  • 11. Internal DAS Application Example Hard Drive 40 Pin Ribbon Cable Motherboard
  • 12. External DAS Application Example ESCON HBA Cable for external DAS connectivity
  • 13. DAS Challenges  Hosts must be directly connected  Data availability issues – Many single points of failure Bus, multiple path software, host, application  Data slowdowns possible – CPU congestion, caching, multi-pathing  Volumes are not globally available to all hosts  Scalability concerns
  • 14. DAS Challenges  Hosts must be directly connected  Data availability  Data slowdowns possible – CPU congestion, caching, multi-pathing  Scalability is limited – Number of connectivity ports to hosts – Number of addressable disks – Distance limitations  Downtime required for maintenance
  • 15. Module Summary Key points covered in this module:  DAS can be: – An integrated part of the host computer – Directly connected to a single server  DAS is made up of a CPU, connectivity, and storage devices – There are several options within each of these categories  DAS connectivity uses block-level access protocols
  • 16. Check Your Knowledge  What are the physical elements of DAS?  Give an example of when DAS is a good solution.  Describe internal DAS connectivity.  Describe external DAS connectivity.  What are some areas that you need to consider as part of DAS management? 
  • 17. Network Attached Storage (NAS) Module 3.2
  • 18. NAS – Network Attached Storage After completing this module, you will be able to:  Discuss the benefits of NAS based storage strategy  Describe the elements of NAS  Discuss connectivity options for NAS  Discuss NAS management considerations by environment  Identify the best environments for NAS solutions
  • 19. In this Module … This module contains the following lessons:  What is NAS?  Managing a NAS Environment  NAS Application Examples
  • 20. Lesson: What is NAS? Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:  Define NAS and describe its key attributes  List the benefits of NAS  Describe NAS connectivity
  • 21. NAS Evolution Network Attached Storage (NAS) Stand Alone PC Networked File SharingNetworked PCsPortable Media for File Sharing
  • 22. What is NAS? NAS is shared storage on a network infrastructure. Clients Application Server Print Server NAS Device NAS Head Storage
  • 23. General Purpose Servers vs. NAS Devices Network Operating System I/O File System Print Drivers Applications General Purpose Server (NT or Unix Server) Network Operating System File System Single Function Device (NAS Server)
  • 24. Why NAS?  Supports global information access  Improves efficiency  Provides flexibility  Centralizes storage  Simplifies management  Scalability  High availability – through native clustering  Provides security integration to environment (user authentication and authorization)
  • 25. NAS Device Components NAS Device CIFSNFS Network Interface Storage Interface NAS Device OS SCSI, FC, or ATA IP Network
  • 26. NAS File Services Protocols: NFS and CIFS NAS Device Network Interface Storage Interface NAS Device OS SCSI, FC, or ATA CIFSNFS IP Network Windows Unix NFS CIFS
  • 27. Network File System (NFS)  Client/server application  Uses RPC mechanisms over TCP protocol  Mount points grant access to remote hierarchical file structures for local file system structures  Access to the mount can be controlled by permissions
  • 28. Common Internet File System (CIFS)  Public version of the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol  Client applications access files on a computer running server applications that accept the SMB protocol  Better control of files than FTP  Potentially better access than Web browsers and HTTP
  • 29. NAS Physical Elements  Data movers/filers  Management interface – Configure network interfaces – Create, mount, or export file system – Install, configure and manage all data movers/filers – Can be accessed locally or remotely  Connectivity – NAS head to storage – NAS head to network  Storage
  • 30. Integrated vs. Gateway NAS Integrated NAS NAS Gateway IP Network IP Network FC Fabric NAS Head NAS Head
  • 31. Integrated NAS System Integrated NAS System NAS Head Storage Direct Attach IP Network
  • 32. Gateway NAS System Clients Application Servers Storage NAS Gateway FC Switch IP Network
  • 33. Lesson Summary  A NAS server is an appliance optimized for file serving functions.  Generally it has a specialized operating system  NAS supports multiple protocols  NAS can be implemented as an integrated system or as a gateway
  • 34. Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN) Module 3.3
  • 35. Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN) Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:  Describe the features and benefits of SAN.  Describe the physical and logical elements of SAN.  List common SAN topologies.  Compare and contrast connectivity devices.  Describe connectivity options of SAN.  Describe the I/O flow in the SAN environment.  List SAN management considerations.  Describe applications of a SAN strategy.
  • 36. In this module … This module contains the following lessons:  Fibre Channel SAN Overview.  The Components of a SAN.  FC SAN Connectivity.  SAN Management.  SAN Deployment Examples.  Case Study and Applications of FC SAN.
  • 37. Lesson: Fibre Channel SAN Overview Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Define a FC SAN.  Describe the features of FC SAN based storage.  Describe the benefits of an FC SAN based storage strategy.
  • 38. Business Needs and Technology Challenges  Information when and where the business user needs it  Integrate technology infrastructure with business processes  Flexible, resilient architecture
  • 39. What is a SAN?  Dedicated storage network  Organized connections among:  Storage  Communication devices  Systems  Secure  Robust.
  • 40. Evolution of Fibre Channel SAN SAN Islands FC Arbitrated Loop Interconnected SANs FC Switched Fabric Enterprise SANs FC Switched Fabric HUB
  • 41. Benefits of a SAN  High bandwidth – Fibre Channel  SCSI extension – Block I/O  Resource Consolidation – Centralized storage and management  Scalability – Up to 16 million devices  Secure Access – Isolation and filtering
  • 42. Lesson Summary Topics in this lesson included:  Definition of a SAN  Features and Benefits of SANs
  • 43. Lesson: The Components of a SAN Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe the elements of a SAN. – Host Bus Adapter (HBA) – Fiber Cabling – Fibre Channel Switch /Hub – Storage Array – Management System
  • 44. Components of a Storage Area Network  Host Bus Adapter (HBA)  Fiber Cabling  Fibre Channel Switch /Hub  Storage Array  Management System HBAHBA SAN-attached Server SAN
  • 45. Nodes, Ports, & Links Node HBA Port 0Port 0 Port 1Port 1 Port nPort n Link Port 0Port 0 Rx Tx
  • 46. HBA Host Bus Adapters  HBAs perform low-level interface functions automatically to minimize the impact on host processor performance HBA
  • 47. Connectivity Single Mode Fiber Storage Multimode Fiber Host
  • 48. Connectivity Devices  Basis for SAN communication – Hubs, Switches and Directors HBA
  • 49. Storage Resources  Extension of the basic disk drive to an array. – Provides storage consolidation and centralization  Features of an array – High Availability/Redundancy – Performance – Business Continuity – Multiple host connect HBA
  • 50. SAN Management Software  A suite of tools for managing SAN including access of host to storage arrays.  Provides integrated management of SAN environment.  Web based GUI or CLI
  • 51. Lesson: Summary Topics in this lesson included:  The elements of a SAN: – Host Bus Adapter (HBA) – Fiber Cabling – Fibre Channel Switch /Hub – Storage Array – Management System
  • 52. Lesson: Fibre Channel SAN Connectivity Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe the Fibre Channel SAN connectivity method and topologies  Describe Fibre Channel devices  Describe Fibre Channel communication protocols  Describe Fibre Channel login procedures
  • 53. Fibre Channel SAN Connectivity  Core networking principles applied to storage  Servers are attached to 2 distinct networks – Back-end – Front-end Users & Application Clients Storage & Application Data Servers & Applications SAN switches directors IP network
  • 54. What is Fibre Channel?  SAN Transport Protocol – Integrated set of standards (ANSI) – Encapsulates SCSI  A High Speed Serial Interface – Allows SCSI commands to be transferred over a storage network.  Standard allows for multiple protocols over a single interface.
  • 55. World Wide Names  Unique 64 bit identifier.  Static to the port. – Used to physically identify a port or node within the SAN. – Similar to NIC MAC address  Additionally, each node is assigned a unique port ID (address) within the SAN – Used to communicate between nodes within the SAN – Similar in functionality to an IP address on a NIC.
  • 56. World Wide Names: Example World Wide Name - HBA 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c 9 2 0 d c 4 0 Reserved 12 bits Company OUI 24 bits Company Specific 24 bits World Wide Name – Array 5 0 0 6 0 1 6 0 0 0 6 0 0 1 B 2 0101 0000 0000 0110 0000 0001 0110 0000 0000 0000 0110 0000 0000 0001 1011 0010 Company ID 24 bits Port Model seed 32 bits
  • 57. Fibre Channel Addressing  Fibre Channel addresses are used for transporting frames from source ports to destination ports.  Address assignment method varies with the associated topology (loop vs switch) – Loop – self assigning – Switch – centralized authority  Certain addresses are reserved – FFFFFC is Name Server – FFFFFE is Fabric Login
  • 58. What is a Fabric?  Virtual space used by nodes to communicate with each other once they are joined.  Component identifiers: – Domain ID – Worldwide Name (WWN) Fabric
  • 59. Fibre Channel Topologies  Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) – Devices attached to a shared “loop” – Analogous to Token Ring  Switched Fabric (FC-SW) – All devices connected to a “Fabric Switch” – Analogous to an IP switch – Initiators have unique dedicated I/O paths to Targets Switch HUB
  • 60. Switch versus Hub Comparison  Switches (FC-SW) – FC-SW architecture scalable to millions of connections. – Bandwidth per device stays constant with increased connectivity. – Bandwidth is scalable due to dedicated connections. – Higher availability than hubs.  Hubs (FC-AL) – FC-AL is limited to 127 connections (substantially fewer connections can be implemented for ideal system performance). – Bandwidth per device diminishes with increased connectivity due to sharing of connections. – Low cost connection.
  • 61. Topology: Mesh Fabric  Can be either partial or full mesh  All switches are connected to each other  Host and Storage can be located anywhere in the fabric  Host and Storage can be localized to a single switch Partial Mesh Full Mesh
  • 62. Full Mesh Benefits and Tradeoffs  Benefits – All storage/servers are maximum of one ISL hop away. – Hosts and storage may be located anywhere in the fabric. – Multiple paths for data using the Fabric Shortest Path First (FSPS) algorithm. – Fabric management made simpler.
  • 63. Topology: Simple Core-Edge Fabric  Can be two or three tiers – Single Core Tier – One or two Edge Tiers  In a two tier topology, storage is usually connected to the Core  Benefits – High Availability – Medium Scalability – Medium to maximum Connectivity Storage Tier Host Tier
  • 64. Core-Edge Benefits  Simplifies propagation of fabric data. – One ISL hop access to all storage in the fabric.  Efficient design based on node type. – Traffic management and predictability.  Easier calculation of ISL loading and traffic patterns.
  • 65. Lesson: Summary  Topics in this lesson included:  The Fibre Channel SAN connectivity methods and topologies  Fibre Channel devices  Fibre Channel communication protocols  Fibre Channel login procedures
  • 66. Lesson: SAN Management Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe SAN management functions – Infrastructure protection – Provisioning – Capacity Management – Performance Management
  • 67. SAN Management Overview  Infrastructure protection  Fabric Management  Storage Allocation  Capacity Tracking  Performance Management
  • 68. Infrastructure Security  Physical security – Locked data center  Centralized server and storage infrastructure – Controlled administrator access Storage Arrays Switch Switch Secure VPN or Firewall Servers Control Station Corporate LAN Management LAN (Private) In-band (FC) Out-band (IP)
  • 69. Switch/Fabric Management Tools  Vendor supplied management software – Embedded within the switch – Graphical User Interface (GUI) or Command Line Interface (CLI)  Functionality – Common functions Performance monitoring Discovery Access Management (Zoning) – Different “look and feel” between vendors  Additional third party software add-ons – Enhanced functionality, such as automation
  • 70. Fabric Management: Zoning
  • 71. Zoning Components Zone Zone Zone Zones (Library) Zone SetZones Sets (Library) Members (WWN’s) Member Member Member MemberMember Member
  • 72. Provisioning: LUN Masking  Restricts volume access to specific hosts and/or host clusters.  Servers can only access the volumes that they are assigned.  Access controlled in the storage and not in the fabric – Makes distributed administration secure  Tools to manage masking – GUI – Command Line
  • 73. Capacity Management  Tracking and managing assets – Number of ports assigned – Storage allocated  Utilization profile – Indicates the percent usage of a given resource over time – Allows for forecasting  SAN management software provides the tools – Inventory databases – Report writers
  • 74. Performance Management  What is it? – Capturing metrics and monitoring trends – Proactively or Reactively responding – Planning for future growth  Areas and functions – Host, Fabric and Storage Performance – Building baselines for the environment
  • 75. Lesson: Summary  Topics in this lesson included: – Infrastructure protection – Provisioning – Capacity Management – Performance Management
  • 76. Internet Protocol Storage Area Networks (IP SAN) Module 3.4
  • 77. IP Storage Area Networks Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:  Describe the benefits of IP SAN.  Describe IP convergence in the SAN and its implications.  Describe and discuss the basic architecture of – FCIP – iFCP – iSCSI  Explain potential applications of IP SAN technology.
  • 78. In this module … This module contains the following lessons:  IP SAN Overview.  IP SAN Protocols.  Applications of IP SAN.
  • 79. Lesson: IP SAN Overview Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe the benefits of IP SAN.  Describe the IP convergence in the SAN and its implications.  List the three common IP SAN approaches.  List the three deployment models (topologies) for IP SAN.
  • 80. Introduction  Traditional SAN technology is built around Fibre Channel.  IP technology is emerging as an alternative or supplemental transport for storage traffic. = IP = FC
  • 81. FCFC IPIP IPIP FCFCIP FC/ IP FC/ IP FC/ IP FC/ IP IP IP/ FC IP/ FC IP/ FC IP/ FC Block Storage over IP – Protocol options  iSCSI – SCSI over IP  IP encapsulation done on host / HBA(host bus adapter)  Hardware-based gateway to Fibre Channel storage  FCIP – Fibre Channel-to-IP bridge / tunnel (point to point)  Fibre Channel end points  iFCP – IP as the inter-switch fabric  Fibre Channel end points IPIPIP IPIP FCFC
  • 82. IP Storage Approaches iSCSI FCFC FC FC FC IP Network IP Network IP Network IP Network iFCPFCIP iFCP Switch iFCPSwitch FCIP Router FCIP Router iSCSI/FC Gateway
  • 83. Market Drivers for SAN Internetworking  Fibre Channel SAN challenges.  IP SAN enablers.  Easy to leverage IP equipment and expertise to help manage data in conjunction with Fibre Channel SANs.
  • 84. Benefits of IP SAN  Cost Effective  Extend the reach of a SAN
  • 85. IP is Cost Effective  Most organizations already have IP networks and familiarity with traditional network management.  Leverages existing Fibre Channel applications.
  • 86. Extend the Reach of Your SAN  Standard Fibre Channel Distances.  IP Extends Fibre Channel applications over regional/global distances.  At higher link speeds, IP can handle synchronous applications.
  • 87. Lesson Summary Topics in this lesson included:  Describe the benefits of IP SAN.  Describe the IP convergence in the SAN and its implications.  List the three common IP SAN approaches.  List the three deployment models (topologies) for IP SAN.
  • 88. Lesson: IP SAN Protocols Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe and discuss the basic architecture of – FCIP – iFCP – iSCSI
  • 89. Fibre Channel over IP - FCIP  Encapsulates FC frames in IP packets.  Creates virtual FC links that connect devices and fabric elements.  Includes security, data integrity, congestion and performance specifications. IP Datagram IP Header TCP Header FCIP Header IP PayloadIP Payload Fibre Channel Frame SOF FC Header CRC EOF SCSI DataSCSI Data FCIP EncapsulationFCIP Encapsulation
  • 90. FCIP Benefits  FCIP – Best of both technologies – Support for existing applications – Cost effective – Multi-point networking Fibre Channel • Widely available • Low latency • High reliability • Off-the-shelf solutions • Mature standards IP • Widely available • Accepted technology • Trained user base • Affordable • Mature standards
  • 91. Internet Fibre Channel Protocol - iFCP  Gateway-to-gateway protocol – IP switches & routers replace FC switches – Transparent to FC drivers  FC transport uses TCP connections – Point-to-multipoint networking possible IP Header TCP Header iFCP Header IP PayloadIP Payload Fibre Channel Frame SOF FC Header CRC EOF SCSI DataSCSI Data iFCP Address Translation & Encapsulation iFCP Address Translation & Encapsulation
  • 92. iFCP Benefits  Works with wide range of devices.  Flexible.  Less potential bottlenecking vs. FCIP.
  • 93. iSCSI  A method to transfer blocks of data using the TCP/IP network.  Serialized service delivery subsystem.  SCSI protocol over IP.
  • 94. iSCSI Model Layers IP Header TCP Header iSCSI Header IP PayloadIP Payload SCSI DataSCSI Command Descriptor SCSI CDB encapsulation IP Datagram Storage
  • 95. Lesson Summary Topics in this lesson included:  The basic architecture of FCIP.  The basic architecture of iFCP.  The basic architecture of iSCSI.
  • 96. Content Addressed Storage (CAS) Module 3.5
  • 97. Content Addressed Storage (CAS) Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:  Describe the features and benefits of a CAS based storage strategy.  List the physical and logical elements of CAS.  Describe the storage and retrieval process for CAS data objects.  Describe the best environments for CAS solutions.
  • 98. In this Module … This module contains the following lessons:  CAS Description and Benefits  Elements of CAS  Data Object Storage and Retrieval  CAS Applications and Case Scenarios
  • 99. Lesson: CAS Description and Benefits Upon completion of this lesson, you be able to:  Define CAS.  Describe the key attributes of CAS.  List the features, benefits and drawbacks of CAS.
  • 100. What is Content Addressed Storage (CAS)?  Object-oriented, location-independent approach to data storage.  Repository for the “Objects”.  Access mechanism to interface with repository.  Globally unique identifiers provide access to objects.  Extensible metadata that enables automated data management practices and applications.
  • 101. What Is Fixed Content? Electronic Documents • Contracts, claims, etc. • E-mail and attachments • Financial spread sheets • CAD/CAM designs • Presentations Digital Records • Documents – Checks, securities trades – Historical preservation • Photographs – Personal / professional • Geophysical – Seismic, astronomic, geographic Digital Assets Retained For Active Reference And Value Leverage Historical Value Improve Service Levels Generate New Revenues Rich Media • Medical – X-rays, MRIs, CTI • Video – News / media, movies – Security serveillance • Audio – Voicemail – Radio
  • 102. Challenges of Storing Fixed Content  Most new digital content is fixed content.  Fixed content is growing at more than 90% annually.  Long-term preservation is required (years- decades).  Simultaneous multi-user access.  Need for faster access to records for business and legal reasons.  Need for location independent data, enabling technology refresh and migration.  Emerging regulations require retention. 
  • 103. Shortcomings of Traditional Storage Options  Tape is slow, and standards are always changing.  Optical is expensive, and requires vast amounts of media in order to store data of any size.  Many times companies retire tape products without warning.  Many times recovering files from tape and optical is time consuming.  Data on tape and optical is subject to media degradation.
  • 104. Benefits of CAS  Immutability and authentication  Location independence  Single instance storage  Faster record retrieval  Record-level retention, protection and disposition  Technology independence  Online (like Disk)  Optimized TCO  Scalability
  • 105. Drawbacks of CAS There are some drawbacks with CAS:  Can be slower than SAN, NAS, or DAS.  Application integration.  Initial cost of ownership is higher even though TCO is significantly lower.
  • 106. Lesson: Summary Key points covered in this lesson:  CAS Definition  CAS Description  Benefits and Drawbacks
  • 107. Lesson: Elements of CAS Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe the Physical Elements of CAS.  Describe the Logical Elements of CAS.
  • 108.  Storage devices (CAS Based)  Servers (to which storage devices get connected)  Client Physical Elements of CAS API ServerClient CAS-based Storage
  • 109. Logical Elements of CAS  The Logical Elements of CAS include the Object-Level Access Protocols. CAS API API Metadata 39HLTTT2H0404EU6M4A9MUR7TE4 Content Address
  • 110. Lesson Summary Key points covered in this lesson:  Physical Elements of CAS  Logical Elements of CAS
  • 111. Lesson: Data Object Storage and Retrieval Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe how data gets stored in a CAS environment.  Describe how data is retrieved from a CAS environment.
  • 112. How CAS Stores a Data Object API Application Server Client CAS Object ID Client presents data to API to be archived 1 Unique Content Address is calculated 2 Object is sent to CAS via CAS API over IP 3 CAS authenticates the Content Address and stores the object 4 Acknowledgement returned to application 5 Object-ID is retained and stored for future use 6
  • 113. How CAS Retrieves a Data Object Application Server Client CAS Object is needed by an application 1 CAS authenticates the request and delivers the object 4 Application finds Content Address of object to be retrieved 2 Retrieval request is sent to the CAS via CAS API over IP 3 API Object ID
  • 114. Lesson: Summary Key points covered in this lesson:  How data gets stored in a CAS environment.  How data is retrieved from a CAS environment.