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  • 1. Renewable Energy: “The Key to Achieve Sustainable Development” Sagar Kumar sankhala School of petroleum technology, PDPU, Gujarat Email: Sagar.sbt12@spt.pdpu.ac.in It no longer comes as a surprise to be told that nearly 2 billion people on this planet live without benefit of electricity. And while we may all recoil with dismay at such a frighteningly high number, we are at the same time numbed by the magnitude of the problem. Without access to electricity a vast proportion of the world’s population is stripped of any real hope of breaking out of the endless cycle of poverty. Without access to electricity, the quest for sustainable development - today’s organizing principle for development experts and public policy makers on both sides of the equator - will remain an abstract theory. A great deal of attention has been paid to the needs of the rural poor in their pursuit of economic, social and political development. In this light the merits of rural electrification are often debated with mixed conclusions and conjectures. The positive role renewable energy plays in the drama of human development is enjoying greater receptivity by both policy makers and villagers. However, institutional barriers still inhibit increased adoption of renewable energy technologies. This paper argues that the question of how renewable energy services can be delivered to and paid for by the rural and per-urban populations is answered not so much by the technology selected as by the institutional and organizational structures erected. By addressing financial infrastructure, capacity building, and village empowerment sustainable rural electrification programs are possible. Any program that is designed to effectively provide energy to the rural population must address the issue of sustainability. In this context, sustainability goes beyond the now familiar definition of “meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.” This statement of “Generational Sustainability” focuses on the time-dependent aspects of sustainable development and is more of an overarching goal than a definition of a clear path for defining a sustainable program. Island regions and isolated communities represent an understudied area of not only clean energy development but also of innovation. Caribbean states have for some time shown interest in developing a regional sustainable energy policy and in implementing measures which could help to protect its member states from volatile oil markets while promoting reliance on local resources.