Petroleum refining technology and economics
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Petroleum refining technology and economics

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Petroleum refining technology and economics Petroleum refining technology and economics Document Transcript

  • “PETROLEUM REFINING TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS” -Sagar Kumar Sankhala Spt12, PDPU, Gandhinagar Email: sagar.sbt12@spt.pdpu.ac.in Petroleum refining processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gas. Processing units used in refineries Crude such as Oil Distillation unit, Vacuum distillation unit, Naphtha hydrotreater unit, Catalytic reforming unit, Alkylation unit, Isomerization unit, Distillate hydrotreater unit, Merox (mercaptan oxidizer) or similar units: Desulfurize LPG, kerosene or jet fuel by oxidizing undesired mercaptans to organic disulfides. Amine gas treater, Claus unit, and tail gas treatment for converting hydrogen sulfide gas from the hydrotreaters into end-product elemental sulfur. The large majority of the 64,000,000 metric tons of sulfur produced worldwide in 2005 was byproduct sulfur from petroleum refining and natural gas processing plants. Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit, Hydrocracker unit, Visbreaker unit, delayed coking and fluid coker units. Most researches are focused on treating singular contaminants found in petroleum refinery effluents (PRE), e.g., phenols, sulphides, oil, grease and other organic components. This review focused on works that investigated PRE treatment by monitoring general refinery wastewater parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), oil and grease (O&G), sulphate and phenols at the advanced treatment steps. In the 21st century, the petroleum industry must prepare to address many important challenges. Major forces for change include: continuing concern for the environment; governmental regulation and policy; higher consumer expectations for fuels and fuel delivery systems; and global competition. In many cases, technology research and development will be needed to meet these challenges and maintain the health and profitability of the industry. By 2020, it is envisioned that the petroleum industry will exhibit a number of desirable characteristics that represent continuous improvements to current practices. These relate to the efficient use of energy as a fuel and feedstock in refining processes, the environmental performance of refineries and fuel delivery systems, and the reliability and safety of plant equipment.