The person generally in charge of the entire production is the producer.
S/he is the team leader
comes up with the program concept
lays out the budget for the production
makes the major decisions
hires a writer to write the script
works with the writers
hires the director
decides on the key talent
and guides the general direction of the production.
sets up schedules for the talent and crew
generally assists the producer.
In a large production, the producer sets things in motion, he then hires a director who
works out preproduction (before the production) details
coordinates the activities of the production staff and on-camera talent
works out camera and talent positions on the set
selects the camera shots during production
supervises postproduction work.
is in charge of taking the script from the beginning to the very end of the production process.
I n smaller productions, the producer may also take charge of the more mundane activities.
And in small productions, the director may handle the producer's responsibilities.
In this case, the combined job title becomes producer-director.
A ssisting a director in the control room is a technical director who operates the video switcher .
He is also responsible for coordinating the technical aspects of the production.
O ne or more production assistants (PAs) may be hired to help the producer and director.
Among other things, PAs keep notes on ongoing production needs and changes.
Lighting is a key element in the overall look of a production
the lighting director (LD) designs the lighting plan
arranges for the lighting equipment,
sets up and checks the lighting
The script is like a written plan or blueprint for the production.
The scriptwriter writes the script (the document that tells everyone what to do and say).
Set Designer & Wardrobe Person
S ome productions have a set designer
works along with the producer and director and designs the set
supervises its construction, painting, and installation.
Major dramatic productions have a wardrobe person who sees that the actors have clothes appropriate to the story and script.
T he makeup person, with the help of, cosmetics and hair spray, sees that the talent look their best -- or worst, if that's what the script calls for. T he use of makeup is divided into three categories:
Basic - designed to compensate for undesirable changes in appearance introduced by the television process.
Corrective - designed to enhance positive attributes and downplay flaws.
Character - which introduces major changes in appearance.
In general, the talent includes anyone whose voice is heard or who appears on camera
Sometimes talent is broken down into three sub-categories:
actors - who portray other people in dramatic productions
performers - who appear on camera in nondramatic roles
announcers - who generally don't appear on camera
The audio director or audio technician
arranges for the audio recording equipment
sets up and checks mics (microphones)
monitors audio quality during the production
strikes (disassembles and, if necessary, removes) the audio recording equipment and accessories after the production is over.
The microphone boom/grip operator
watches rehearsals and decides on the proper mics and their placement for each scene.
During an on-location (out-of-the-studio) shoot, this person may need strong arms to hold the mic boom over the talent for long periods of time.
The video recorder operator
arranges video recording equipment and accessories
sets up video recordings
performs recording checks
monitors video quality.
In dramatic productions, the continuity secretary (CS)
carefully makes notes on scene and continuity details as each scene is shot to ensure that these details remain consistent among takes and scenes.
This is a very important job especially in single-camera, on-location production.
Once production concerns are taken care of, the continuity secretary is responsible for releasing the actors after each scene or segment is shot.
Camera operators help set up the cameras and ensure their technical quality,
they work with the director, lighting director, and audio technician in blocking (setting up) and shooting each shot.
On a field (out-of-the-studio, or on-location) production, they may also coordinate camera equipment pickup and delivery.
D epending on the production, there may be a floor manager or stage manager
who's responsible for coordinating activities on the set. One or more floor assistants, or stagehands, may assist him or her.
After shooting is completed, the editors use the video and audio recordings to blend the segments together. Technicians add music and audio effects to create the final product.
The importance of editing to the success of a production is far greater than most people realize. As we will see, an editor can make or break a production.
After shooting is completed, the editors use the video and audio recordings to blend the segments together.
Technicians add music and audio effects to create the final product.
The importance of editing to the success of a production is far greater than most people realize.
As we will see, an editor can make or break a production.
Electronic Character Generator Operator
The electronic character generator operator (CG Operator) designs/types into a computer based device that inserts the text over the video
In preproduction the basic ideas and approaches of the production are developed and set in motion.
In this phase the production is set on a proper course and all the major elements are planned.
key talent and production members selected
In a series of production meetings interrelated aspects are carefully coordinated such as
After all the basic elements are in place, rehearsals can start.
A simple on-location segment may involve only a quick check of talent positions so that camera moves, audio, and lighting can be checked.
A complex dramatic production may require many days of rehearsals.
These generally start with a table reading or dry rehearsal where the talent along with key production personnel sit around a table and read through the script.
Often, script changes take place at this point.
Finally, there's a dress rehearsal where the talent dresses in the appropriate wardrobe, and all production elements are in place.
This is the final opportunity for production personnel to solve whatever production problems remain.
The Production Phase
T he production phase is where everything comes together in a kind of final performance.
Productions can be broadcast either live or recorded .
Live - news shows, sports coverage, and some special-event broadcasts,
Recorded - Most other programmes for later broadcast or distribution. Recording the show or program segment provides an opportunity to fix problems by either making changes during the editing phase or stopping the recording and redoing the segment.
striking (taking down) sets
dismantling and packing equipment
handling final financial obligations
evaluating the effect of the program
Even though postproduction includes all of these after-the-production jobs, most people associate postproduction with editing.
originally editing was merely a concept of joining segments in a desired order
today computer-controlled editing techniques and postproduction special effects have become very sophisticated.
editing is now a major focus of production creativity.
with the latest digital effects, the editing phase can add much in the way of razzmatazz to a production.
Different types of Shots
Opening shot or sequence, frequently an exterior 'General View'.
Used to set the scene.
Extreme Long Shot (ELS)
In this type of shot the camera is at its furthest distance from the subject
Emphasizes the background.
Long shot (LS)
Shot which shows all or most of a fairly large subject (for example, a person) from head to toe and usually some of the surroundings.
Medium Long Shot (MLS)
In the case of a standing actor, the lower frame line cuts off the feet and ankles.
This keeps the circumstances rather than the individual as the focus of attention.
Medium shots (MS) or Mid-Shot
In such a shot the subject or actor and its setting occupy roughly equal areas in the frame.
In the case of the standing actor, the lower frame passes through the waist. There is space for hand gestures to be seen.
Medium Close-up (MCU)
The lower frame line passes through the chest of the actor. head and shoulders are seen.
In interviews MCUs are preferred, the camera providing a sense of distance.
Note that in western cultures the space within about 24 inches (60 cm) is generally felt to be private space, and BCUs may be invasive.
A picture which shows a fairly small part of the scene, such as a character's face, in great detail so that it fills the screen. It abstracts the subject from a context.
Extreme Close-up (ECU)
Forehead to chin.
Extreme Close-ups focus attention on a person's feelings or reactions
sometimes used to show people in a state of emotional excitement, grief or joy.