What is a source of energy ?
A source of energy is one which can provide
adequate amount of energy in a conventional form
over a long period of time.
Primary energy sources are sources created directly
from the actual resource. They can be classified in
Renewable Energy Sources
Non-Renewable Energy Sources
Renewable Energy Sources
• Energy that comes from a source that’s
constantly renewed, such as the sun and wind,
can be replenished naturally in a short period
• Examples include: solar, wind, biomass and
• Energy from the ground that has limited
supplies, either in the form of gas, liquid or
solid, are called nonrenewable resources.
They cannot be replenished, or made again, in
a short period of time.
• Examples include: oil (petroleum), natural gas,
coal and uranium (nuclear). Oil, natural gas
and coal are called “fossil fuels”
What is a Good Source of Energy ?
• A good source of energy is one :
i. Which would do a large amount of work per
unit volume or mass.
ii. Which is cheap and easily available
iii. Which is easy to store and transport
iv. Which is safe to handle and use
v. Which does not cause environmental
What are Fuels ?
• Fuels are any materials that store potential
energy in forms that can be practicably
released and used as heat energy.
• The amount of heat produced by burning 1
gram of fuel completely is called its calorific
What are characteristics of an Ideal Fuel ?
1. It should have a high calorific value.
2. It should burn without giving any smoke or
3. It should have a proper ignition temperature.
4. It should be cheap and easily available.
5. It should be easy to handle, safe to transport, and
conventional to store.
6. It should burn smoothly.
7. It should not leave much ash behind after burning.
Conventional Sources Of Energy
• The traditional sources of energy
which are familiar to most people are
called conventional sources of
What are Fossil Fuels?
• Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural
processes such as anaerobic decomposition of
buried dead organisms. The age of the
organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is
typically millions of years, and sometimes
exceeds 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain
high percentages of carbon and
include coal, petroleum and natural gas.
• Coal is the largest source of energy for
the generation of electricity worldwide, is also
the largest world wide anthropogenic sources
of carbon dioxide releases. Coal-fired electric
power generation emits around 2,000 pounds
of carbon dioxide for every megawatt-hour
• Petroleum is a naturally occurring flammable liquid
consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of
various molecular weights and other liquid organic
compounds, that are found in geologic
formations beneath the Earth's surface.
• Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. It is
refined and separated, most easily by boiling point,
into a large number of consumer products, from
gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical
reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.
Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of
• Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture
consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes
varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser
percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen
sulfide. Natural gas is an energy source often used for heating,
cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for
vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture
of plastics and other commercially important organic
• Natural gas is found in deep underground natural rock
Non-Conventional sources of Energy
• Those sources of energy which are not based
on the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of
atoms or nuclear fuels, called alternative
sources of energy or non – conventional
sources of energy.
• Hydroelectric converts sources of energy like
the kinetic energy of flowing water or
potential energy of water at a height into
• Since there are very few hilly terrains and falls
which could be used as a source of potential
energy , hydro power plants are associated
• Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a
useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to
make electrical power, windmills for mechanical
power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage,
or sails to propel ships.
• Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is
plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean,
produces no greenhouse gas emissions during
operation and uses little land
• Wind power is very consistent from year to year but
has significant variation over shorter time scales.
• Solar energy is basically the heat energy tapped from the Sun
with the help of Solar panels consisting of Special grade
Silicon cells and then transformed into electrical energy.
• The principal advantages associated with solar energy are
that the solar cells have no moving parts, require little
maintenance and works without the need of any focusing
• There are certain limitations which include that they are
useful only in the day and the outputs are very low.
• Under the clear sky , the daily average of solar energy varies
from 4 to 7 kWh/m2
• Biomass is biological material derived from
living, or recently living organisms. It most often
refers to plants or plant-derived materials which
are specifically called lignocelluloses biomass. As
a renewable energy source, biomass can either
be used directly via combustion to produce
heat, or indirectly after converting it to various
forms of biofuel.
• Geothermal energy is thermal
energy generated and stored in the Earth.
Thermal energy is the energy that determines
the temperature of matter. The geothermal
energy of the Earth's crust originates from the
original formation of the planet (20%) and
from radioactive decay of minerals (80%).
• Nuclear energy, is the use
of exothermic nuclear processes, to
generate useful heat and electricity.
The term includes the following heat
producing processes, nuclear
fission, nuclear decay and nuclear
• Presentation made by :
• SAGAR BAHL X-B Roll No. 31
• SARTHAK MISHRA X-B Roll No. 33
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SAURABH GUPTA X-B Roll No. 34
SHREYA SHARMA X-B Roll No. 35
SANYA ANAND X-B Roll No. 32