Project proposal writing civil engg

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  • Sources of project ideasProject ideas can be drawn from a number of different sources. Most people start with a problem or something that they want to achieve. A project may be used to implement a policy, or, in our case, for capacity building for IWRM implementation. The following are possible sources of project ideas:@From an analysis of environmental problems and opportunities.@There may be a need to implement new legislation, or institutional arrangements@There may be a national invitation for organisations to prepare projects proposals.@Partly or fully developed ideas may already exist@Ideas may have been generated in the course of evaluating and implementing earlier projects.  In other cases, you may have identified a problem, but do not know yet how to address it. Common ways of generating project ideas and alternatives are:@By brain-storming within your organisation;@By adapting good practice used in other regions or countries to suit local conditions;@By inviting proposals to solve an identified problem (from members and partners in the case of networks)
  • Preliminary assessment of a project ideaOnce the idea has been identified, it is time to develop a full description of the project. What is needed is sufficient information to judge whether the project addresses the identified problem and whether it is realistic and likely to be affordable.  A first test of your ideas so far is to answer the following questions: What? – the objective Why? – the background How? – the activities and outputs When? – the duration How much? – the budget required This will provide the basis for the further discussion and development of the full proposal. Preliminary assessment includes identifying whether domestic funding is likely to be available for the project and, if so, from what source. If money will be needed from external (foreign) sources, it is necessary to know about the types of funding possible, potential sources, implications of borrowing money, and requirements of the different funders.  
  • Solicited: Responds to an RFPFormal—complete with all the parts (cover, title page, front and back matter)Informal—typically an internal memoUnsolicitedFormalInformal
  • @@@ The recommended length of proposal should be less than 20 A4 sizedtyped pages. This is including the preliminary pages and annexes.Cover page and table of contentsThe cover page for your proposal should provide key information and look professional. It should include:Name and logo of the organisationName of the projectName of the potential donorMonth and year of submissionContact person(s) at your organisation, with complete contact information (address, phone and fax numbers, e-mail, web site)Optional: duration of project and budget amount and request If your proposal is longer than five pages, include a Table of Contents. This will help the donor reading it to know what to expect, and know that you have considered different aspects of project development. It is often helpful to create the Table of Contents before you begin to write the proposal and use it as an outline for your writing. The use of many abbreviations will require the insertion of a list of abbreviations.Executive summary (1-2 pages)The recommended length for the Executive Summary is one page (or two pages for a larger proposal). Why should you write an executive summary? Donors receive a large number of proposals, and in reading an executive summary, donors can determine whether your project interests them. A well written executive summary demonstrates that you know what your project is about because you can highlight the key elements. An executive summary is a summary of the entire proposal. This means that it should include brief descriptions of key information from each section of the proposal. The text of the executive summary should answer the following questions: Who (what organisation) is requesting a grant?Why are you requesting it?What problems will you address and where?How long will the project last?What are your goals and objectives?How will you meet those goals and objectives? (What are the activities?)What results do you expect to achieve?What is the project budget? How much are you requesting from the donor? Are there counterpart funds that your organisation or another organisation is offering?How will your project continue once funding ends (sustainability)? Remember, sometimes the executive summary is the only section of the proposal that a decision maker has time to read. The executive summary should be placed right after the Table of Contents in the proposal. Introduction and Justification (2-3 pages)If the funder reads beyond the executive summary, you have successfully piqued his or her interest. Your next task is to build on this initial interest in your project by enabling the funder to understand the problem that the project will remedy.  The introduction to a proposal must cover two themes: the problem the project intends to address and the credibility and qualifications of the organisation planning to implement the project.  Describe the problem or need for the project:The statement of need will enable the reader to learn more about the issues. It presents the facts and evidence that support the need for the project. Convey a sense of urgency. Why should a donor pay attention to the problem you describe? Be thorough but brief.Provide up to date statistics and the most recent research findings. Draw on information obtained from the needs assessment, if one was conducted. Properly cite your findings; donors may want to know how recent your information is and the credibility of your sources. If the only available statistics seem out of date, mention that they are the most recent ones, if, in fact, they are the only statistics available.Refer to the review of theories and programmes that have dealt with similar issues. Take note of results and lessons learnt, gaps in knowledge, strategies and programme areas that need to be expanded or tested. Discuss the type of project that is needed to address the problem.Provide a brief overview of the proposed project, including beneficiaries and expected results (no more than one paragraph).  Describe the organisation that proposes to address the problem:An accurate understanding and definition of the problem should lead logically to a description of why the problem is of concern to your organisation. Describe your organisation, including when it was established, its mission and goals, and particularly, the skills or experience the organisation has that makes it a good candidate for the proposed project. Name other organisations (collaborators) that will participate in the project, if any. Many donors are interested in funding collaborations, in order to draw on the expertise of various organisations, scale up programmes, and obtain a greater return on their investment. Describe your previous involvement with other collaborators and why the alliances were successful.Describe how the future beneficiaries were involved in the development of the proposal, if relevant.Goal and ObjectivesThe listing of goals and objectives should take up less than half a page. Prior to writing the proposal, it is recommended that you complete a logical framework. A brief introduction and guidelines for the preparation of a logical framework analysis for project design is presented in annex 1. Objectives are the measurable outcomes of the program. Your objectives must be tangible, specific, concrete, measurable, and achievable in a specified time period. You might, for example, use numbers, bullets, or indentations to denote the objectives in the text. Above all, be realistic in setting objectives. Don't promise what you can't deliver. Remember, the funder will want to be told in the final report that the project actually accomplished these objectives.Activities (3 – 5 pages)This is an important section because you can explain to the donor exactly what you will do with the donor’s funds. Activities should support the achievements of objectives and be related to the indicators. The activities must address the objectives and the expected results and must explain how the project is going to achieve these objectives. The activities described must be practical and realistic, and must take account of the human, material and financial resources, as well as the time needed for implementation. Be descriptive in the Activities section of the proposal. For each activity, discuss:How will it be done or carried out?Why did you choose these activities?Who will conduct the activity?Who are the beneficiaries? Will the beneficiaries be involved in the design, implementation or evaluation of the activity?How many beneficiaries will be directly involved? How will you recruit or attract them? How can you maximize their participation in the activity?When will the activity occur? For how long? What will be the frequency of the activity? (Will it happen once, or will it be repeated?)What materials will you need to conduct the activity? Will materials or curricula have to be developed or do the materials already exist? Will the materials need to be adapted, and if so, how?Will your organisation collaborate with other organisations to carry out the activity? What will be the role of each one? The activities described in this section need to be consistent with the budget. How the activities will accomplish each objective must be explained clearly. The activities for each objective will also be listed in the Work Plan. This is a grid that list all the activities, the persons to carry them out, and when the activities will be conducted.Monitoring and evaluationThis is an integral part of the project proposal. An evaluation plan should not be considered only after the project is over; it should be built into the project. Including an evaluation plan in your proposal indicates that you take your objectives seriously and want to know how well you have achieved them. This section provides details on how the effects of the intervention will be measured. In addition, a well-designed monitoring and evaluation plan will enable project staff to understand how the project is functioning and to make programmatic decisions throughout the life of the project.  The monitoring and evaluation section should answer the following questions:What indicators will be measured? (refer to the logical framework)Where will the information or data come from?Who will collect the data?How and how often will reporting occur? Remember that the Monitoring and Evaluation section of your proposal should be consistent with the budget. For example, if the section states that staff members will work on evaluation activities, then there should be a budget line to cover the corresponding portions of their salaries. Key personnel (half a page or less)Details about individual staff members involved in the project can be included either as part of this section or in the appendix, depending on the length and importance of this information. An interest donor will want to be convinced that the project will be carried out successfully, and that the human resources are adequate for the tasks proposed. In this section of the proposal describe: Who will work on the project?What responsibilities will they have?What proportion of their time will be used to support the project?What qualifications do they have? Remember to be consistent with job titles in the Key Personnel and Budget sections of the proposal. If the Project Coordinator is described as working 50% of his/her time, then this same time percentage should be included in the Budget. If there are any staff who will work on the project but are not included in the budget, then present this staff time as counterpart funding.  Strengths and innovation (half a page)Donors realize that providing their funds to an organisation is not only an opportunity to address important issues, but also a risk. To help minimize the risk and to reassure a potential donor that the project will meet its objectives, it is important to convey the donor the strengths of the project. This may relate to your organisation, your partners, your experience with the beneficiaries, the fact that the strategies have been successful elsewhere, and so on. This section of the proposal is a place to reiterate what is innovative or interesting about your project, what sets it apart from other projects.  Normally a resume of your organization should come at the end of your proposal. Your natural inclination may be to put this information up front in the document. But it is usually better to sell the need for your project and then your agency's ability to carry it out. It is not necessary to overwhelm the reader with facts about your organization. This information can be conveyed easily by attaching a brochure or other prepared statement. Also consider that valuable information on your organisation has also been mentioned in section 3 (Introduction and Justification), so you should be careful not to be repetitive. SustainabilityA clear message from funders today is that applicants will be expected to demonstrate in very concrete ways the long-term financial viability of the project to be funded. Sustainability refers to the ability of a project to continue once the initial grant or external source of funding has ended. Although assuring the continuation of activities beyond a period of donor funding is a challenge, it is possible. Some strategies to generate local income or to cover the costs of the project that could be explored are: Integrate the project into your organisation’s budget and cover its costs through normal fundraising means.Seek other local, national, or international donors who can support the project and may have a long-term interest in the project’s success.Sign agreements or enter into collaboration with other institutions, such as governmental agencies, which can assume some responsibility for the project or can finance the project. Involve the community or beneficiaries in planning for the sustainability of a project that affects them.Offer to sell your organisational expertise gained from the project to other organisations, through the provision of technical assistance or training. Collect fees from clients or users for services and products provided, as appropriate.  In the proposal, it is important to demonstrate to the donor that you have thought about the issue, and will explore strategies that are feasible to achieve some level or sustainability. Show commitment to the sustainability of the project by including sustainability activities in the work plan of the project. BudgetThe budget section of the proposal should reflect the staffing and resource requirements for the project. It should include costs for personnel, materials, equipment, and activities mentioned in the proposal. Be sure to include the costs for monitoring and evaluation.  The budget, presented in a table, should be accompanied by narrative Budget Notes on a separate page. A staff member at a donor organisation should be able to look at a budget and the accompanying notes and see almost everything he or she needs to know to make a decision about the project. The budget relates directly to the activities described in the proposal. Consider the following tips relating to the budget format and costs:Format-If a donor has a particular budget format for applicants, follow it.-At the top of the page, include the project title, the name of the organisation, and the project period.-The staff persons listed in the budget should be consistent with the staff persons described in the Key Personnel section, using the same job titles.-For a multiyear project, provide costs for each year in a separate column.-The budget that is sent to a donor with the proposal should be a summary and should fit on one page. -Many donors like to see what other donors are contributing to the project, so if there are several donors, include a column listing the amounts they will be contributing to each budget line. -On a separate page(s), include “budget notes.” This is a narrative description of the budget that explains to the donor what is included in each budget line.  Costs-Staff costs should reflect salaries by monthly rate, and the proportion of their time to be spent on the project. For example:Project Coordinator (100%) @ Rs60000.00/month x 12 months = Rs.720000.00-Include a budget line for “indirect” or “overhead” costs normally accepted by the donor organisation. Some donors may be unwilling to fund indirect or overhead costs. Therefore, it is usually best to include as many costs as possible as “direct” costs (that is, in the main budget lines). -If a planning phase is proposed, make sure to include costs associated with it.-Equipment costs must be well researched and justified. From the activities section, and the budget narrative, it should be clear why your project needs new equipment. Conclusion and annexesEvery proposal should have a concluding paragraph or two. This section is also the place to make a final appeal for your project. Briefly reiterate what you want to do and why it is important. Underscore why your organisation needs funding to accomplish it. Don't be afraid at this stage to use a bit of emotion to solidify your case. Several annexes are normally attached to the proposal. The material in the attachments will complement the text in the proposal. An interested donor will have the chance to review the annexes after reading the proposal. Common annexes are the Logical Framework, Work Plan, and Letters of support from collaborating organisations.     
  • Sample Work Plan format (completed and included in the annexes section of the proposal) A table must be prepared listing the activities and indicating when they will start and when they are expected to finish. Sufficient time must be allotted for starting up and winding up the project.
  • -Interview past and prospective beneficiaries. Though feedback was likelyreceived when the previous project ended, new benefits and conditions may havearisen since that time. Speak to prospective beneficiaries to ensure that what youare planning to offer is desired and needed.■ Review past project proposals. Avoid repeating mistakes and offering to reproduceresults that have already been achieved. Donors will be unlikely to provide morefunding for something that should already have been done.■ Review past project evaluation reports. Don’t count on project members toremember all the mistakes and areas for improvement from previous efforts.■ Organise focus groups. Make sure that the people you need are willing and ableto contribute.■ Check statistical data. Don’t let others discover gaps and inaccuracies in thedata you are relying on.■ Consult experts. Outside opinions will give you ideas and credibility.■ Conduct surveys, etc. Gather as much preliminary information as possible todemonstrate commitment to the project and to refine the objectives.■ Hold community meetings or forums. When the public feels that they havebeen consulted on an issue, they will be much more likely to cooperate and supportthe project.
  • -Is the stakeholder analysis done and complete?Have I established a coherent problem tree and a concrete problem ?Have objectives, results and activities been discussed with all partners and accepted ?Do I know the donor to whom I will send my proposal (e.g. mandate, criteria, specific format, etc.)?Is there an internal organisation that has been set up within your organisation around this proposal ? Does each person know her tasks ?
  • 1. Preliminary pages should be numbered: i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, etc. A page number should not be shown on the title page even though it is counted as i. 2. Margins should be maintained on all pages as follows: i. Left margin = 3 cm (wider for binding) ii. Top margin = 2.5 cm iii. Right & bottom margins = 2 cm 3. Page number should be placed at the bottom, center or bottom, right of page. 4. For labeling of Chapters and Sections follow the systematic order: Abstract Introduction i. Background ii. Scope/Importance/Rationale iii. Objectives Materials and methods i.Approachii.Gantt chart iii.Cost estimation iv.Design/layout Expected outcome Conclusions References Annexes 5. Use 1.5 line spacing for all text in the main body6. Use Times New Roman (12 point size) fonts, for text. 7. Label Appendices or Annexes as: A, B, C, etc.; and give name (title) to each. 8. Label figure captions at bottom of the figure. 9. Label table headings at the top of the table. 10. Cite references in the text according to the convention: a. "author's last name (date)" -- in case there is only one author b. "last name of first author" and "last name of second author" (date) -- in case of two authors c. "last name of first author" et al. (date) -- in case of multiple authors 11. List references alphabetically and using correct citations for books, journal articles and conference/seminar proceedings as shown in the examples (following pages). 12. If more than one reference of the same author exists then the references with the same author should be listed chronologically according to publishing date (year). 13. If more than one of the same author's publications exist in the same year (date), then use suffixes a, b, c, etc., after the publication year {e.g., 1998a; 1998b; etc.)
  • 9. Label table headings at the top of the table. 10. Cite references in the text according to the convention: a. "author's last name (date)" -- in case there is only one author b. "last name of first author" and "last name of second author" (date) -- in case of two authors c. "last name of first author" et al. (date) -- in case of multiple authors 11. List references alphabetically and using correct citations for books, journal articles and conference/seminar proceedings as shown in the examples (following pages). 12. If more than one reference of the same author exists then the references with the same author should be listed chronologically according to publishing date (year). 13. If more than one of the same author's publications exist in the same year (date), then use suffixes a, b, c, etc., after the publication year {e.g., 1998a; 1998b; etc.)
  • Project proposal writing civil engg

    1. 1. Project Proposal Writing Guidelines
    2. 2. What Is A Project ? • A practical means of doing something • Specific goal, specific inputs, • Defined starting point and completing timeframe • Changes ideas/concepts into reality consuming resources • May be standalone or comprising other number of projects/activities
    3. 3. What Is Not A Project ? • Repeated past activities in periodic and same way • No clear goals • Probable repetition or transplantation in future • Regular activities
    4. 4. Sources of Project Ideas • Analysis of environmental problems and opportunities • Need to implement new legislation, or institutional arrangements • Partly or fully developed ideas may already exist • Evaluating and implementing earlier projects • By brain-storming within your organisation • By adapting good practice used in other regions or countries to suit local conditions • By Inviting Proposals to solve an identified problem
    5. 5. Preliminary Assessment of a Project Idea Answer ??? • What? – the objective • Why? – the background • How? – the activities and outputs • When? – the duration • How much? – the budget required
    6. 6. 6 • A proposal is a persuasive document • Any proposal should reflect thoughtful planning What is a proposal?
    7. 7. . Project Proposal Types Proposal Known to Reader Unknown to Reader Known to Reader Unknown to Reader Solicited Unsolicited FORMAL/INFORMAL
    8. 8. Proposal Structure 1. Executive Summary 2. Organisation description 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology: 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and Evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes -Partners -Project implementation -Activities -Risks and assumptions -Means
    9. 9. 9 1. Executive Summary Summary • What do you propose to do? • Where? • Why? • For whom? • With whom? • For how long? 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    10. 10. 10 Why is it important ?  It is the first part that is read  Sometimes the only part that is read…  It can be used by the donor to communicate to others about your project 1. Executive Summary 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    11. 11. 11 1. Executive Summary DO :  Write it last  Do it carefully  Keep it short DON’T :  Cut and paste 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    12. 12. 12 2. Presentation of the organisation Why is it important?  Purpose: to establish credibility and image of a well-managed organization that meets critical needs in its area of work Tips  Should not be too long  If you are approaching a new donor, attach in appendix an organisation brochure and the last annual report 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    13. 13. 13 2. Presentation of the organisation Contents  Who are you?  Philosophy / mandate?  History and significant interventions / track record  Expertise in addressing the problem or need  Organisational structure  Major sources of support  Affiliations / accreditations / linkages 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    14. 14. 14 3. Project Background Contents  Who took the initiative?  Does the project fit into an existing development plan or programme?  Is this the first phase of the project, or continues an activity already started?  If continuing, what have been the main results of the previous phase?  What studies have been done to prepare the project?  Who else operates in this field? 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    15. 15. 15 3. Project Background Tips You need to demonstrate that :  The project arises from the beneficiaries and/or the local partners  You know the local context very well  You have the experience needed to run the project successfully  You have been successful before 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    16. 16. 16 4. Problem Statement Why is it important? Unless donors are convinced that there is a real problem, they will not agree to pay for our project! Tips A “good” problem should:  concern people  be concrete and demonstrated  be solvable  come from a demand  be an emergency or priority 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    17. 17. 17 4. Problem Statement Contents  Describe the scope and size of the problem  What are the immediate causes?  What are the underlying causes?  What are the effects?  How does it affect people?  Why does it have to be addressed?  Why now and not later? 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    18. 18. 18 5. Goal and Objectives Goals (or overall objectives): Describes the long-term goals your project will contribute to. Project Purpose or Specific Objective: Describes the objective of your project in response to the core problem. Expected Results: Describes the outputs (or outcomes) - the concrete results of your project. 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    19. 19. 19 Objectives should be SMART:  Specific = they must meet the needs (problems) identified  Measurable = they should be measured by concrete indicators which should reflect the extent to which they have been attained  Acceptable = by all involved partners  Relevant = they must be adequate to the project socio-cultural environment  Timely = must be reached by the end of the project 5. Goal and Objectives 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    20. 20. 20 6. Beneficiaries Contents  Clearly identify direct and indirect beneficiaries: • Direct support to target group • Indirect benefits to others • How many? • Where? • Characteristics?  Specify how and at what stage they will be involved in the project 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    21. 21. 21 7. Proposed Methodology 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes Contents  Partners  Project implementation  Activities  Risks and assumptions  Means Why is it important?  Shows how objectives will be achieved 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    22. 22. 22 Partners:  Clearly divide main partners and other partners  Provide background information:  Goals/philosophy?  Area of intervention?  Relationship with beneficiaries?  Cooperation track-record?  Type of partnership you set up  Specify each partner’s role 7. Proposed Methodology 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    23. 23. 23 Project implementation:  Rationale for selecting this methodology  Project implementation structure: roles and responsibilities of all the project stakeholders Tip Use a chart to show the project implementation structure 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes 7. Proposed Methodology
    24. 24. 24 Activities:  What will be done?  How?  By whom?  Where?  By when? Tips  Be as precise as possible  Cluster activities by expected result  Use a work plan to summarise 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes 7. Proposed Methodology
    25. 25. 25 Example: Training:  How many persons?  For how long? Starting when?  Which methodology will be used (seminars, in-house training, ad hoc courses, etc.)  Why is the training necessary?  Which new skills will the trainees acquire? Year Year 1 Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes 7. Proposed Methodology
    26. 26. 26 Risks/Assumptions:  Risks are external factors that could potentially jeopardise your project and are beyond your control  Assumptions are things you are expecting to be a certain way Why is it important?  It helps assess the factors which could jeopardise your project  It helps examining the project for completeness and consistency 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes 7. Proposed Methodology
    27. 27. 27 Means:  Human resources:  Explain the responsibilities and tasks of each key person in the project.  Justify the need for expatriate personnel  Material resources:  Give an explanation of the most important budget lines  Justify vehicles 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes 7. Proposed Methodology
    28. 28. 28 8. Budget Contents  Budget spreadsheet  Budget explanations and justifications Tips  Prepare it using your action plan  Don’t inflate the budget  Carefully follow donor’s requirements  Divide your budget into years 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    29. 29. 29 9. Monitoring & Evaluation Why is it important?  Monitoring: to assess whether your project activities are on track  Evaluation: to assess whether your project is effective, efficient, has an impact, is relevant and sustainable Contents  What will be monitored and why?  By whom?  How often?  Using which tools and methods? 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11. Annexes
    30. 30. 30 10. Sustainability Contents  Institutional sustainability  Technical sustainability  Socio-cultural sustainability  Financial sustainability Why is it important? Because donors want to be sure that their investment will not be lost at the end of the project and that you are already planning the phasing out of the project. 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10.Sustainability 11. Annexes
    31. 31. 31 Contents  Glossary  Maps  Statistics/ policy documents  Proof of registration and tax benefits for donors  Financial statement  Composition of Board of Directors  List of major donors  Annual report, brochures & publications  Specific studies or evaluation reports  Memorandum of agreement with partners  Letters of support  Pictures, case studies  Other... 11. Annexes / Appendices 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11.Annexes
    32. 32. 32 Tips  Refer to the appendices in the proposal (see appendix a), but....  If something is crucially important, write it in the proposal!  Add a table of contents for the appendices  Put the appendix number on the top of each page “appendix no xy”  Separate each appendix by a coloured page 11. Annexes / Appendices 1. Executive summary 2. Presentation of the organisation 3. Project background 4. Problem statement 5. Goal and objectives 6. Beneficiaries 7. Proposed methodology 8. Budget 9. Monitoring and evaluation 10. Sustainability 11.Annexes
    33. 33. Proposal package • Cover page and table of contents • Executive summary (1-2 pages) • Introduction and Justification (2-3 pages) • Goal and Objectives • Activities (3 – 5 pages) • Monitoring and evaluation • Key personnel (half a page or less) • Strengths and innovation (half a page) • Sustainability • Budget • Conclusion and annexes
    34. 34. Sample Work Plan format completed and included in the annexes section of the proposal Title Of the Project Goal Outputs Activiti es Responsibili ty Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3
    35. 35. Final check Ask someone outside the project team to read the proposal before sending to a donor.
    36. 36. Before Writing The Proposal • Interview past and prospective beneficiaries • Review past project proposals • Review past project evaluation reports • Organize focus groups • Check statistical data • Consult experts • Conduct surveys, etc. • Hold community meetings or forums What To Do ?
    37. 37. Before Writing The Proposal • Is the stakeholder analysis done and complete? • Coherent problem tree and a concrete problem ? • Have objectives, results and activities been discussed with all partners and accepted ? • Do I know the donor to whom I will send my proposal ? • Is there an internal organisation within your organisation around this proposal ? Answer The Questions ?
    38. 38. Guidelines for Layout and Format of Proposal • Preliminary pages should be numbered: i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, • A page number should not be shown on the title page even though it is counted as I • Left margin = 3 cm (wider for binding) • Top margin = 2.5 cm • Right & bottom margins = 2 cm • Page number should be placed at the bottom center or bottom right of page • Use 1.5 line spacing for all text in the main body • Use Times New Roman (12 point size) fonts, for text
    39. 39. • Label Appendices or Annexes as: A, B, C, etc.; and give name (title) to each • Label figure captions at bottom of the figure • Label table headings at the top of the table • Cite references in the text according to the convention – List references alphabetically and using correct citations for books, journal articles and conference/seminar proceedings as shown in the examples – Examples Guidelines for Layout and Format of Proposal
    40. 40. Reference Examples • [1] Didier Le Gall, “MPEG: A video compression standard for multimedia applications,” Communications ACM, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 46–58, April 1991. Journal Paper
    41. 41. Reference Examples • [2] Gulistan Raja and M. J. Mirza, “Performance comparison of advanced video coding H.264 standard with baseline H.263 and H.263+ standards,” in Proc. 4th IEEE International Symposium on Communications & Information Technologies, ISCIT 04, Sapporo, Japan, 2004, pp. 743–746 Conference Paper
    42. 42. Reference Examples • [4] MPEG Software Simulation Group, “The MSSG homepage”, available on-line at http://www.mpeg.org/MPEG/ MSSG, 2004 Web Link
    43. 43. Reference Examples • [3] Iain E.G. Richardson, Video Codec Design, Great Britain, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, ISBN: xx-yyyy-zzzz Book
    44. 44. Reference Examples • [5] “Plain And Reinforced Concrete Code Of Practice,” Indian Standard IS 456; Fourth Revision , Oct 2000 Standard
    45. 45. 45 Pay attention to the language: • Use simple language • Use future tenses • Be concise and logical • Avoid spelling mistakes • Find a catchy title Pay attention to the layout/ presentation: • Use your organization’s logo on the first page • Use headers and footers • Clear titles and paragraphs • Break the monotony • Add table of contents • Print on standard format paper Editing and layout
    46. 46. Thank You Er. Buddhi Sagar Bastola United Technical College Bharatpur
    47. 47. Student Job Project Proposal writing Need of Ring Road in Bharatpur Municipality Submitted to Bharatpur Municipality
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