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  • 1. Dividend Decisions Meaning Types of Dividend policies Factors influencing dividend policy Forms of dividend
  • 2. Meaning
    • The term dividend refers to that part of profits of a company which is distributed by the company among its shareholders.
    • It is the reward of the shareholders for investments made by them in the shares of the company.
  • 3. Dividend policy and significance of dividend policy
    • It refers to the policy that the management formulates in regard to earnings for distribution as dividends among shareholders. it determines the division of earnings between payments to shareholders and retained earnings.
  • 4. Significance of dividend policy
    • The firm has to balance between the growth of the company and the distribution to the shareholders
    • It has a critical influence on the value of the firm
    • It has to also to strike a balance between the long term financing decision( company distributing dividend in the absence of any investment opportunity) and the wealth maximisation
  • 5. Contd.....
    • The market price gets affected if dividends paid are less.
    • Retained earnings helps the firm to concentrate on the growth, expansion and modernisation of the firm
    • To sum up, it to a large extent affects the financial structure, flow of funds, corporate liquidity, stock prices, growth of the company and investor’s satisfaction.
  • 6. Factors influencing the dividend decision
    • Stability of earnings
    • Financing policy of the firm
    • Liquidity of funds
    • Dividend policy of competitive firms
    • Past dividend rates
    • Debt obligation
    • Ability to borrow
    • Growth needs of the company
    • Profit rates
    • Legal requirements
    • Policy of control
    • Corporate taxation policy
    • Tax position of shareholders
    • Effect of trade policy
    • Attitude of the investor group
  • 7. Stability of dividends/ regularity
    • It is the desirable policy of the management to distribute the shareholders a certain percentage of earnings as a reward for their investment. It may not always relate to the earnings of the company.
    • Dividend practices:
    • Constant dividend per share
    • Constant percentage of net earnings
    • Small constant dividend per share plus extra earnings
    • Dividend as a fixed percentage of market value
  • 8. Significance of stability of dividend
    • Confidence among shareholders
    • Investors desire for current income
    • Institutional investor’s requirement
    • Stability in market prices of shares
    • Raising additional finances
    • Spreading of ownership of outstanding shares
    • Reduces the chances of loss of control
    • Market for debentures and preference shares.
  • 9. Forms of Dividend
    • Scrip Dividend- An unusual type of dividend involving the distribution of promissory notes that call for some type of payment at a future date.
    • Bond Dividend- A type of liability dividend paid in the dividend payer's bonds .
    • Property Dividend- A stockholder dividend paid in a form other than cash, scrip, or the firm's own stock .
    • Cash Dividend- A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders , normally out of the its current earnings or accumulated profits
    • Debenture Dividend
    • Bonus share or Stock dividends- A dividend payment made in the form of additional shares, rather than a cash payout.
    • Optional Dividend- Dividend which the shareholder can choose to take as either cash or stock .
  • 10. Objectives of stock dividend
    • Conservation of cash
    • Lower rate of dividend
    • Financing expansion programmes
    • Transferring the formal ownership of surplus and reserves to the shareholders
    • Enhanced prestige
    • Widening share market
    • True presentation of earning capacity
  • 11. Merits of Stock dividend
    • To the company
    • Maintenance of liquidity position
    • Satisfaction of shareholders
    • Economical issue of capitalisation
    • Remedy for under capitalisation
    • Enhance prestige
    • Widening the share for market
    • Finance for expansion programmes
    • Conservation of control
    • To the shareholders
    • Increase in their equity
    • Marketability of shares increases
    • Increase in income
    • Increase demand for shares
  • 12. Demerits of stock dividend
    • To the company
    • Increase in the capitalisation of the company
    • It results in more liability
    • Denies other investors to shareholders
    • Management control not diluted it may lead to fraud
    • To the shareholder
    • It lowers the market value
    • Shareholders prefers cash dividend
    • EPS also falls