INTRODUCTION TO SOLAR POWER
• The energy from the sun is radiated out in all directions as light.
• Much of the energy striking the earth is reflected back into space by the
atmosphere, but a staggering 90,000 TW of power arrives at the earth’s
surface, 6,000 times more power than the entire human race uses.
• solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly
using photovoltaic (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power
• Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking
systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.
• Photovoltaic converts light into electric current using the photoelectric
Benefits solar energy than
1.Unlike other forms it is the cleanest energy and eco-friendly.
2.No harmful gases and fumes.
3.Running cost and maintenance is very less.
4.Most of the renewable energy is ultimately “Solar energy” that is directly
collected from sun light. Energy is released by the Sun as electromagnetic
5.The energy reaching earth’s atmosphere consists of about 8%Uvradiation,
46%visiblelight,46% infrared radiations
Conventional :1.Energy that has been used from ancient times is known as
2.Coal, natural gas, oil, and firewood are examples of conventional energy
sources. (or usual) sources of energy (electricity) are coal, oil, wood, peat,
HOW MUCH SOLAR ENERGY?
The surface receives about 47% of the total
solar energy that reaches the Earth. Only this
amount is usable.
A solar cell is any device that
directly converts the energy in
light into electrical energy
through the process of
The development of solar cell
technology begins with the
1839 research of French
Becquerel observed the
photovoltaic effect while
experimenting with a solid
electrode in an electrolyte
solution when he saw a voltage
develop when light fell upon
A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell or
photoelectric cell) is a solid state device that
converts the energy of sunlight directly into
electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Assemblies
of cells are used to make solar modules, also
known as solar panels.
Photovoltaics (PV) literally means "lightelectricity," and is the process of converting
sunlight into electricity. The term "photo" comes
from the Greek word "phos" or light, and "volt"
was derived from Volta (1745-1827), a pioneer in
the study of electricity.
When some materials are exposed to sunlight, they
release small amounts of electricity giving off what
is known as the "photovoltaic effect.
" Sunlight is composed of photons, or particles of
solar energy that contain various amounts of energy
corresponding to the different wavelengths of the
When photons strike a PV cell, the energy of the
photon is transferred to an electron in a cell's atom.
The cell is made of a semiconductor material.
With its newfound energy, the electron escapes from
its normal position on the atom and becomes part of
the current in an electrical circuit.
O When this happens, the electron creates a "hole."
Special electrical properties of the PV cell, specifically
a built-in electric field, provide voltage that drives the
current through an external load, such as a light bulb,
a hairdryer or a television set.
O Photovoltaic modules are the basic building blocks of
solar electric power systems. PV modules can be
made from several different materials, which vary in
cost and conversion efficiency. Modules are combined
to create panels. Panels are combined to form arrays.
O Solar electric power systems may also have
batteries, charge controllers, and inverters, which
convert the direct current generated by PV system
into an alternating current, the type of electricity sold
by utilities and required to run most appliances and
Photovoltaic modules are the
basic building blocks of solar
electric power systems. PV
modules can be made from
several different materials,
which vary in cost and
Solar electric power systems
may also have batteries, charge
controllers, and inverters,
which convert the direct
current generated by PV
system into an alternating
current, the type of electricity
sold by utilities and required to
run most appliances and
SOLAR CELL OPERATION
TYPES OF SOLAR CELLS
Tandem solar cell
silicon solar cell
Nano crystal solar
Thin film solar cell
• There are mainly three types of solar
• Crystalline cells are wired in series to
produce solar panels. As each cell
produces a voltage of between 0.5 and 0.6
Volts, 36 cells are needed to produce an
open-circuit voltage of about 20 Volts. This
is sufficient to charge a 12 Volt battery
under most conditions.
1.Made from single large
Made from many small
Made from small solar
Most expensive than
4.Better in low light
Better in low light condition
Its not better than other