Thermal power plant
Submitted by
MUKESH KUMAR
mechanical
Contents
• Classification of power plants
• Introduction of thermal power plant
• Working principle
• Power plant layout
•...
Classification of power stations
• By fuels Fossil fuel power stations, nuclear
power plants, geothermal power
plants,biom...
Introduction
• A thermal power plant converts the heat
energy of coal into electrical energy. Coal is
burnt in boiler whic...
Working on Rankine cycle
Layout of steam power plant
`comprises of following circuits
• Coal and ash circuit
• Air and gas circuit
• Feed water and steam flow circuit
• Coolin...
Main and auxiliary Equipment
• Coal handling plant
• Pulverizing plant
• Draft fans
• Boiler
• Ash handling plant
• Turbin...
Coal and handling
• Coal is transported to power station by rail or road
and stored in coal storage plant and then pulveri...
Ash handling plant
• The ash from the boiler is collected in two
forms-
• 1 Bottom ash(slurry): it's a waste which is
dump...
Pulverizing plant
• In modern thermal power plant, coal is pulverized
i.e. ground to dust like size and carried to the
fur...
Boiler
• The function of boiler is to generate steam at
desired pressure and temperature by transfering
heat produced by b...
TURBINE
• In thermal power plants generally 3 turbines are
used to increases the efficiency.
• 1 high pressure turbine
• 2...
condenser
• The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat
exchanger where cooling water flows through tubes
and exhaust s...
Cooling tower and ponds
• A condenser needs huge quantity of water to
condense the steam.
• Most plants use cooled cooling...
Feed water heater
• ADVANTGES
1. Feed water heating improves overall plant
efficiency.
2. The dissolved oxygen and carbon ...
Economizer
• Flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of
heat. An economizer extracts a part of this
heat from flue g...
Air preheater
• The function of air preheaters is to preheat the air
before entering to the furnace by utilizing some of
t...
Advantages and disadvantages
Selection parameters of power plant
• Supply of fuel
• Availability of water
• Transportation facilities
• Cost and type o...
limitations
• Generally The power plant limitations must be established so that
they do not exceed the corresponding limit...
Thermal plants in Rajasthan
• Kota thermal power plant
• Suratgarh super thermal power plant
• Giral lignite thermal power...
Kota thermal power plant
Sanction of schemes
Stage Unit No. Capacity(MW) Synchronizing Date Cost(Rs.Crore)
I 1 110 17.1.1983 143
2 110 13.7.1983
II...
Suratgarh super thermal power plant
• It has generation capacity of 1500 mw and
installed with 6 units of 250mw each
• It ...
SANCTION OF SCHEMES
Stage Unit No. Capacity(MW) Cost(Rs.Crore)
I I & II 2x250 2300
II III & IV 2X250 2057
III V 1X250 753
...
Giral lignite thermal power plant
• giral lignite power plant of RVUNL has two
lignite fired turbines. the fuel for the pl...
SANCTION OF SCHEMES
Stage Unit
Number
Installed
Capacity
(MW)
Date of
Commissio
ning
Status COD
Stage I 1 125 February
200...
Chhabra thermal power station
• It is located at Chowki Motipura (Village) of tehsil
CHHABRA in RAJASTHAN's BARAN district...
SANCTION OF SCHEMES
Phase Unit No. Capacity(MW) Cost(Rs.Crore)
I I & II 2x250 2820
II III & IV 2X250 2991
Kalisindh thermal power project
• SD
• Kalisindh Thermal Power Station is located 12 km away
from Jhalawar town in Jhalawa...
SANCTION OF SCHEMES
Stage Unit
Number
Installed
Capacity
(MW)
Date of
Commissi
oning
Status
Stage I 1 600 1998 Running
Sta...
Ramgarh gas thermal power station
• It has an installed capacity of 220 MW
Stage Unit
Number
Installed
Capacity
(MW)
Turbi...
Operational Performance of Plant
Particulars
2004
-05
2005
-06
2006
-07
2007
-08
2008
-09
2009
-10
2010
-11
2011
-12
2012
...
Dholpur combined cycle power station
• Is has an installed capacity of 330 MW
Stage
Unit
Number
Installed
Capacity
(MW)
Tu...
References
 Thermal power plant
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Thermal power plant

  1. 1. Thermal power plant Submitted by MUKESH KUMAR mechanical
  2. 2. Contents • Classification of power plants • Introduction of thermal power plant • Working principle • Power plant layout • Main and auxiliary Equipment's • Advantages , disadvantages and limitations • Choice of site for thermal plants • Thermal power plants in Rajasthan • Reference •
  3. 3. Classification of power stations • By fuels Fossil fuel power stations, nuclear power plants, geothermal power plants,biomass power plants, • By prime mover Steam turbine plants, gas turbine plants, combined cycle plants,
  4. 4. Introduction • A thermal power plant converts the heat energy of coal into electrical energy. Coal is burnt in boiler which converts water into steam. The expansion of steam in turbine produces mechanical power which drives the alternator coupled to the turbine. • Steam power plants contribute about 65% of total electrical energy generated in India.
  5. 5. Working on Rankine cycle
  6. 6. Layout of steam power plant
  7. 7. `comprises of following circuits • Coal and ash circuit • Air and gas circuit • Feed water and steam flow circuit • Cooling water circuit
  8. 8. Main and auxiliary Equipment • Coal handling plant • Pulverizing plant • Draft fans • Boiler • Ash handling plant • Turbine • Condenser • Cooling tower and ponds • Feed water heater • Economizer • Superheater and reheater • Air preheater
  9. 9. Coal and handling • Coal is transported to power station by rail or road and stored in coal storage plant and then pulverized. • Mine m Main storage yard truckst ruck hopper (crusher) m storage tank mboiler m ash comes tank
  10. 10. Ash handling plant • The ash from the boiler is collected in two forms- • 1 Bottom ash(slurry): it's a waste which is dumped into ash pond • 2 fly ash: fly ash is separated from flue gases in esp.
  11. 11. Pulverizing plant • In modern thermal power plant, coal is pulverized i.e. ground to dust like size and carried to the furnace in a stream of hot air. Pulverizing is a means of exposing a large surface area to the action of oxygen and consequently helping combustion. • Pulverizing mills are further classified as: • 1 contact mill • 2 Ball mill • 3 Impact mill
  12. 12. Boiler • The function of boiler is to generate steam at desired pressure and temperature by transfering heat produced by burning of fuel in a furnace to change water into steam. • The boiler is fed with HFO and LDO initially to ignite the coal in boiler. • Types of boiler a. Water tube boiler b. Fire tube boiler
  13. 13. TURBINE • In thermal power plants generally 3 turbines are used to increases the efficiency. • 1 high pressure turbine • 2 intermediate pressure turbine • 3 low pressure turbine
  14. 14. condenser • The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger where cooling water flows through tubes and exhaust steam fed into the shell surrounds the tubes. as a result, steam condensed outside the tubes
  15. 15. Cooling tower and ponds • A condenser needs huge quantity of water to condense the steam. • Most plants use cooled cooling system where warm water coming from condenser is cooled and reused • Cooling tower is a steel or concrete hyperbolic structure with the height of 150m.
  16. 16. Feed water heater • ADVANTGES 1. Feed water heating improves overall plant efficiency. 2. The dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide which known as Deaeration. 3. Thermal stresses due to cold water entering the boiler drum are avoided. 4. Quantity of steam produced by the boiler is increased.
  17. 17. Economizer • Flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of heat. An economizer extracts a part of this heat from flue gases and uses it for heating feed water. • Advantages 1. Saving coal consumption and higher boiler efficiency
  18. 18. Air preheater • The function of air preheaters is to preheat the air before entering to the furnace by utilizing some of the energy left in the flue gases before exhausting them to the atmosphere
  19. 19. Advantages and disadvantages
  20. 20. Selection parameters of power plant • Supply of fuel • Availability of water • Transportation facilities • Cost and type of land • Nearby to load centers • Distance from populated area
  21. 21. limitations • Generally The power plant limitations must be established so that they do not exceed the corresponding limits for which the engines or propellers are type certificated • Takeoff operation. The power plant takeoff operation must be limited by— 1. The maximum rotational speed (rpm); 2. The maximum allowable manifold pressure (for reciprocating engines); 3. The maximum allowable gas temperature (for turbine engines) • Continuous operation. • Fuel grade or designation. The minimum fuel grade (for reciprocating engines), or fuel designation (for turbine engines), must be established so that it is not less than that required for the operation of the engines within the limitations .
  22. 22. Thermal plants in Rajasthan • Kota thermal power plant • Suratgarh super thermal power plant • Giral lignite thermal power plant • Chhabra thermal power station • Kalisindh thermal power project • Ramgarh gas thermal power station • Dholpur combined cycle power station
  23. 23. Kota thermal power plant
  24. 24. Sanction of schemes Stage Unit No. Capacity(MW) Synchronizing Date Cost(Rs.Crore) I 1 110 17.1.1983 143 2 110 13.7.1983 II 3 210 25.9.1988 480 4 210 1.5.1989 III 5 210 26.3.1994 480 IV 6 195 31.7.2003 635 V 7 195 30.5 2009 880
  25. 25. Suratgarh super thermal power plant • It has generation capacity of 1500 mw and installed with 6 units of 250mw each • It is coal based thermal station • Coal is received from coal fields of MP, Jharkhand • Water is received from Indira Gandhi canal
  26. 26. SANCTION OF SCHEMES Stage Unit No. Capacity(MW) Cost(Rs.Crore) I I & II 2x250 2300 II III & IV 2X250 2057 III V 1X250 753 IV VI 1X250 1117 TOTAL 6227
  27. 27. Giral lignite thermal power plant • giral lignite power plant of RVUNL has two lignite fired turbines. the fuel for the plant is from the mines near by giral. the fuel is supplied by rsmml, giral mines barmer. lime is also supplied by rsmml. lignite cost is nearly Rs 700/- (almost nearby) per ton. this is the first plant of the country which is using lime with lignite to control sox level. it was developed in 2 stages.
  28. 28. SANCTION OF SCHEMES Stage Unit Number Installed Capacity (MW) Date of Commissio ning Status COD Stage I 1 125 February 2007 Running 18 Dec. 2011 Stage II 2 125 December, 2008 Running 12 March 2011
  29. 29. Chhabra thermal power station • It is located at Chowki Motipura (Village) of tehsil CHHABRA in RAJASTHAN's BARAN district . The planned capacity of power plant is 2650MW at the end of 12th Five year plan • The first and second unit at Chhabra super thermal power plant was set up at a cost of Rs2,350 crore. Chhabra is all set to become a power generation hub in the state as in the second phase two more units with a capacity of 250 MW each will be installed.
  30. 30. SANCTION OF SCHEMES Phase Unit No. Capacity(MW) Cost(Rs.Crore) I I & II 2x250 2820 II III & IV 2X250 2991
  31. 31. Kalisindh thermal power project • SD • Kalisindh Thermal Power Station is located 12 km away from Jhalawar town in Jhalawar district. The power plant is operated by Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd . • Source of water for the plant is from Kalisindh Dam near village Bhanwarasi. And coal for the plant will be sourced from Paras east and Kanta basin coal blocks in chatisgarh state. • Its chimney has a height of 275 metres. The two cooling towers of the facility are 202 metres tall and the tallest in the world.
  32. 32. SANCTION OF SCHEMES Stage Unit Number Installed Capacity (MW) Date of Commissi oning Status Stage I 1 600 1998 Running Stage I 2 600 2014 May expected under constructi on
  33. 33. Ramgarh gas thermal power station • It has an installed capacity of 220 MW Stage Unit Number Installed Capacity (MW) Turbine type Date of Commission ing Status 1 1 35.5 Gas Turbine 1996 January Running 2 2 37.5 Gas Turbine 2002 August Running 2 3 37.5 Steam Turbine 2003 April Running 3 4 110 Steam Turbine 2013 March Running
  34. 34. Operational Performance of Plant Particulars 2004 -05 2005 -06 2006 -07 2007 -08 2008 -09 2009 -10 2010 -11 2011 -12 2012 -13 Gross Generation (LU) 3611 .392 4356 .209 4041 .440 4141 .153 3486 .782 3539 .44 3028 .85 5367 .94 4979 .06 Plant Load Factor (%) 37.3 0% 45.0 0% 41.7 5% 42.7 8% 36.0 0% 36.5 7% 31.2 9% 55.3 0% 51.4 4% Aux. Power Consumption (LU) 241. 28 311. 662 268. 179 551. 61 333. 116 279. 029 161. 452 95.7 96 90.2 45 Gas Consumption(SCM) 2196 7105 7 2383 6464 7 2404 8250 8 2488 7577 3 2097 8202 1 2136 3529 8 1834 8182 5 2971 5109 0 2730 1221 3
  35. 35. Dholpur combined cycle power station • Is has an installed capacity of 330 MW Stage Unit Number Installed Capacity (MW) Turbine type Date of Commissionin g Status 1 1 110 Gas Turbine 2007 March Running 1 2 110 Gas Turbine 2007 June Running 1 3 110 Steam Turbine 2007 December Running
  36. 36. References
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