Quality Function Deployment
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Quality Function Deployment

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  • Promotes teamworkCreates communication at interfacesIdentifies actions at interfacesCreates global view out of detailsProvides documentationIs easy to assimilateAdds structure to the information

Quality Function Deployment Quality Function Deployment Presentation Transcript

  • Quality Function Deployment (Qfd) BITS Pilani Pilani Campus
  • Agenda Introduction QFD Benefits House of Quality (HOQ) QFD Steps to build HOQ Conclusion BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
  • Introduction Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is an approach to design introduced in Japan in 1966 by Yoji Akao. Definition: QFD is a very systematic and organized approach of taking customer needs and demands in the consideration when designing a new products and services or when improving existing products and services. BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
  • QFD Benefits • • • • Customer driven Reduces implementation time Promotes teamwork Provides documentation BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
  • House of Quality (HOQ) Applying the QFD steps builds the house of quality. How Vs. How WHO Who Vs. What How What What vs. How Now Now Vs. What How much BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
  • QFD Steps Step 1: Identify the customers: determine exactly WHO they are. • Customers can be internal or external to the company. • For many products, the most important customers are the consumers, the people who will buy the product and tell other consumers about its quality (or lack thereof). How Vs. How WHO Who Vs. What How What Now What vs. How Now Vs. What How much BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  • QFD Steps Step 2: Determine the customers’ requirements: WHAT do the customers want? • Typically, as customer surveys show, the consumers want a product that works as it should, lasts along time, is easy to maintain, looks attractive, and has many features. • Typically, the production customer wants a product that is easy to manufacture and assemble, uses available resources, uses standard parts and methods, uses existing facilities, and produces a minimum of scarps and rejected parts. • Typically, the marketing/sales customer wants a product that meets consumers’ requirements; is easy to package, store, and transport; is attractive; and is suitable for display. How Vs. How WHO Who Vs. What How Wha t Now What vs. How Now Vs. What How much BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  • QFD Steps Step 3: Determine relative importance of the requirements: WHO versus WHAT • Relative importance can be evaluated by generating a weighting factor for each requirement. • Traditionally, the customers are asked to rate each requirement on a scale from 1 to 10. • A better method, the fixed sum method, is to tell each customer that they have 100 points to distribute among the requirements. How Vs. How WHO Who Vs. What How What Now What vs. How Now Vs. What How much BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  • QFD Steps Step 5: Generate engineering specifications: HOW will the customers’ requirements be met? • Engineering specifications are the restatement of the design problem in terms of parameters that can be measured and have target values. • Parameters are developed in this step and the target values for these parameters are developed in step 8. How Vs. How WHO Who Vs. What How What Now What vs. How Now Vs. What How much BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  • QFD Steps Step 6: Relate customers’ requirements to engineering specifications: HOW to measure WHAT? • This is the central part of HOQ. How Vs. How WHO Strong relationship Medium relationship Weak relationship Blank = no relationship Who Vs. What How What Now What vs. How Now Vs. What How much BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  • QFD Steps Step 7: Set engineering targets: HOW MUCH is good enough? Target values are used to evaluate the product’s ability to satisfy customers’ requirements. Two actions: 1. To ascertain how the competitors (step 4) meets the engineering specifications, and 2. To establish the targets for the new product. How Vs. How WHO Who Vs. What How What Now What vs. How Now Vs. What How much BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  • QFD Steps Step 8: Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the HOWs dependent on each other? Engineering specifications may be dependent on each other. It is best to realize these dependences early in the design process. Negative (-1) Strong negative (-3) Strong positive (9) Positive (3) How Vs. How WHO Who Vs. What How What Now What vs. How Now Vs. What How much BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  • A Reduced HOQ Form Correlation matrix Customer Requirements Relationship matrix Competitive assessment Importance rating Engineering Characteristics Target values BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
  • MARKOV MODELING AND QFD • A Markov chain model is commonly used to study the shortand long-run behavior of certain stochastic systems • Markov chain models assume that a system starts in an initial state but the initial state will be changed over time • If the chain is currently in state si, then it moves to state sj at the next step with a probability denoted by pij, and this probability does not depend upon which states the chain was in before the current state. BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
  • STEADY STATE PROBABILITIES • The probability that the system is in each state j no longer depends on the initial state. • APPLICATION OF MARKOV MODEL IN QFD • Let us consider that the customer requirements which have been found out are denoted by CR and the technical measures are denoted as TM. • The relationship between identified WHATs and HOWs can be STRONG (S), MEDIUM(M), WEAK(W) and NONE(N) each having their respective weights as s, m, w and zero respectively BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
  • Advantages of Markov Model in QFD • The relationship and importance of technical measures is obtained on a timely basis. • It helps the decision makers in absence of much information and past experiences BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
  • Conclusion • The QFD technique ensures that the problem is well understood. • The HOQ automatically documents and records the evolution of the product design. • The HOQ is an excellent communication tool for the design team. • The QFD technique can be applied at any of the design phases. BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus