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Sanitation Issues In The Developing World
 

Sanitation Issues In The Developing World

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    Sanitation Issues In The Developing World Sanitation Issues In The Developing World Presentation Transcript

    • Sanitation Issues In The Developing World
    • Introduction
      According to WaterAid, an international charity organization, “Sanitation can be defined as access to safe, clean and effective human urine and feces disposal facilities (WaterAid.org).”
      “Wherever humans gather, their waste also accumulates. Progress in sanitation and improved hygiene has greatly improved health, but many people still have no adequate means of disposing of their waste (who.int).” There is an even greater problem in heavily populated developing countries.
      To the right you’ll see a map indicating what percentage of countries around the globe are lacking or experiencing sanitary drinking water.
      (mofa.go)
    • Impacts:
      • 2.5 billion people live without essential sanitation services. (Wateraid.org )
      • 884 million people in the world do not have access to safe water. (WHO/UNICEF)
      • 40% of the world's population is still without basic sanitation. (who.int)
      Social Impacts:
      Sick children are unable to go to school. The sick cannot receive adequate care due to polluted water. Adults who are ill and are unable to work.
      (wateraid.org)
      Economic Impacts:
      Attaining sustainable sanitation and water delivery systems is key to reducing poverty. The UN estimates the cost of not achieving the Developmental Goal is costing $35 billion per year.
      (who.int)
    • Causes:
      Water pollution is caused by:
      • Animal and human waste
      • Over-application of fertilizers
      • Industrial chemicals,
      • Urban runoff
      • General lack of pollution prevention(waterencyclopedia.com)
      Access to adequate wastewater treatment facilities in the developing countries is very limited. As a result, water bodies in the developing nations are often used as open sewers for human waste products and garbage which only contributes to the problem.
      (waterencyclopedia.com)
    • Effects:
      “Water-related diseases are a human tragedy, killing millions of people each year, preventing millions more from leading healthy lives, and undermining development efforts. About 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from diseases that are linked to water (Population Reports).”
      Unsanitary water contains micro organisms called pathogens which can cause the following diseases:
      • Hepatitis
      • Polio
      • Cholera
      • Typhoid
      • Dysentery
      • Giardiasis
      • Bilharzia
      • Guinea worm infections
      • Hookworm infections(wateraid.org)
      Annually:
      • 1.4 million child deaths from diarrhea;
      • 500 000 deaths from malaria;
      • 860 000 child deaths from malnutrition(who.int)
    • What Can be Done?
      According to Population Reports, “It may already be too late for some water-short countries with rapid population growth to avoid a crisis.” Population increases are just as much to blame as pollution and inefficient water extraction practices so its no surprise that population must be considered when brainstorming solutions.
      (Population Reports)
      Effective strategies must consider not only managing the water supply better but also managing demand with better conservation and management through appropriate policies and strategies.
      (Population Reports)
    • Solutions?
      More than likely a solution will come in two parts; what we can do as an entire population, and what we can do as individuals.
      As a Population:
      “To avoid catastrophe over the long term, it also is important to act now to slow the growth in demand for freshwater by slowing population growth. Family planning programs have played an important role in assuring individual reproductive health and in reducing national fertility levels. Continuing and expanding these programs also can help assure that population growth eventually slows to sustainable levels in relation to the supply of freshwater (Population Reports).”
      As Individuals:
      There are a number of ways those of us who aren't being effected by the crisis to help, a few ways are to:
      • Contribute financially to the organizations set up to help resolve this problem
      • Participate in programs and projects aimed at resolution to the crisis
      • Get involved locally to help preserve the benefits you have as well as conserve them
      • Influence others to act and be environmentally aware and responsible
    • Conclusion
      “There is not one single solution to ensuring everyone gains access to water,” says the UK charity WaterAid (Africa Renewal).” The previous statement is very unfortunate but very true, there is plenty of water, however it just isn't possible to distribute to each and every water hungry nation.
      It is our ethical responsibility to help in anyway we can to the point of diminishing returns or to the point in which we are losing out on our own resources where it will then be the people of these “water-short” nations to do what they can for themselves.
      It is every persons right to the land and resources needed to survive and make a living, and they should be guaranteed that. In some countries problems arise anywhere from geographical implications to problems in policy and governmental control as well as a governments contribution to its people. So in some cases it just isn't an option to better some water resources, the best thing you could do is to help teach better ways to get quality out of what they have.
      Around the globe there have been efforts by world agencies such as the United Nations, World Health Organization and WaterAid International as well as individuals from nations not even experiencing the crisis first hand, together they have helped alleviate some of the hardships faced by the people.
    • Conclusion Continued
      Example of success from the African Renewal Journal:
      “Until six years ago, Eugenia Uwamahoro and several of her eight children had to trek 2 kilometers each day to a river to get about 140 liters of water for drinking, cooking, washing and feeding her four cows. There was a water pump in her village, but it hardly functioned. Then the Rwandan government, with financial support from UNICEF, repaired the pump, and the community contracted a private manager to maintain it. “It has improved my life,” Ms. Uwamahoro told African Renewal. “Now we can rest.” Not only has the pump saved her considerable time and effort, but she also gets her household’s daily water supply at lower cost than she would have from the private village water carriers who cart it up from the river (African Renewal).”
      It is examples like these that help show that there is something being done and that some people and organizations do feel an ethical responsibility to help out. There is much more to be done and much more that can be done, it is up to those who are able to help actually do and that advancements and improvements keep going to these people. We wouldn’t allow such a horrible crisis to take place among us so it is important that we don’t neglect those who are experiencing it, we must keep an open mind and an ethical motivation to dedication to help those in need.
    • Sources:
      Text:
      http://www.wateraid.org/international/what_we_do/policy_and_research/6240.asp
      http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/sanitproblems/en/
      WaterAid moves ahead. Water & Environment International; Apr/May2001, p18, 2p
      http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Da-En/Developing-Countries-Issues-in.html
      http://www.infoforhealth.org/pr/m14edsum.shtml
      Bringing Water to Africa’s Poor. From Africa Renewal, Vol.21 #3 (October 2007), page 7
      Pictures:
      http://www.whale.to/a/image/sanitation1.jpg
      http://www.mofa.go.jp/Mofaj/gaiko/oda/shiryo/pamphlet/wasabi/image/J-3-7.jpg
      http://www.hobotraveler.com/uploaded_images/207-82-togo-africa-water-779750.jpg
      http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_1CMkoQPHaeA/SJ_Fmk9Xa0I/AAAAAAAAAPQ/EzkQrw_hzd0/s400/africa-water2.jpg