Zero liquiddischargestudy iwvwd_
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Zero liquiddischargestudy iwvwd_

on

  • 123 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
123
Views on SlideShare
123
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Zero liquiddischargestudy iwvwd_ Zero liquiddischargestudy iwvwd_ Presentation Transcript

    • ©AMTA July 13-16, 2009 1 Pilot Testing of Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) Technologies Using Brackish Ground Water for Inland Desert Communities Renee Morquecho, Ph.D., Tom Mulvihill – Indian Wells Valley Water District Andrew Wiesner , Adam Zacheis, Ph.D., P.E., and Graham Juby, Ph.D., P.E. – Carollo Engineers
    • Filename.ppt Presentation Outline Project Background Pretreatment Reverse OsmosisElectrodialysis Reversal Project Costs
    • Filename.ppt The Indian Wells Valley Water District is Located in the Mojave Desert Ridgecrest, CA
    • Filename.ppt Influent Water Characteristics Present Challenges to Desalting Well Water Quality •pH = 7.1 •TDS = 1500 mg/L •Hardness = 500 mg/L as CaCO3 •Calcium = 140 mg/L •Sulfate = 500 mg/L •Silica = 50 mg/L •Silt Density Index = 1.0 Contaminants of Concern •Iron = 40 μg/L •Manganese = 46 μg/L •Arsenic = 6 μg/L •Selenium = 40 μg/L
    • Filename.ppt Despite the Many Challenges, Potable Water Can Be Obtained by a Zero Liquid Discharge Treatment Train Pre-Treatment Reverse Osmosis Stabilization/ Disinfection Electrodialysis Reversal Brine Concentrator Coagulation Pond Pilot Scale Full-Scale Plant
    • Filename.ppt Pilot Project Objectives Demonstrate feasibility of selected treatment train. 1. 2. Demonstrate primary RO and secondary EDR can achieve predicted recovery with minimal fouling. 3. RO Evaluate the effectiveness of a reversible RO configuration.
    • Filename.ppt Pretreatment Project Background Pretreatment Reverse OsmosisElectrodialysis Reversal Project Costs
    • Filename.ppt Pretreatment Can Effectively Remove RO Constituents of Concern •Fe/Mn Removal •Granular Media Filtration •Filtronics FV-03 Electromedia I
    • Filename.ppt Pretreatment Can Effectively Remove RO Constituents of Concern 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Total Iron Manganese Concentration(μg/L) Well RO Feed
    • Filename.ppt Reverse Osmosis Project Background Pretreatment Reverse OsmosisElectrodialysis Reversal Project Costs
    • Filename.ppt The RO Unit was Operated for Over 4,000 Hours
    • Filename.ppt The RO Process Can Operate at High Recoveries 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Run Time (Days) Recovery(%) Recovery (%)
    • Filename.ppt The RO Process Produces a Low Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Product 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Well RO Feed RO Permeate RO Concentrate at 70% recovery Concentration(mg/L)
    • Filename.ppt The RO Process Can Operate with Minimal Fouling 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Operation (Days) Flow(gpm) Stage 1 flow Stage 2 flow Total system flow Restart Clean #1 Clean #2 Start of Reversible operation
    • Filename.ppt Reversible RO Configuration Has the Potential to Increase Recovery and Decrease Membrane Fouling
    • Filename.ppt Reversible RO Configuration Has the Potential to Increase Recovery and Decrease Membrane Fouling
    • Filename.ppt System Normalized Permeate Flow - Reversible Operation vs. Conventional Operation 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 Throughput (gal x 100,000) NPF/NPFinitial Reversible Conventional
    • Filename.ppt 1st Stage Normalized Permeate Flow - Reversible Operation vs. Conventional Operation 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 Throughput (gal x 100,000) NPF/NPFinitial Reversible Conventional
    • Filename.ppt 2nd Stage Normalized Permeate Flow - Reversible Operation vs. Conventional Operation 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 Throughput (gal x 100,000) NPF/NPFinitial Reversible Conventional
    • Filename.ppt RO Concentrate Silt Density Index (SDI) Indicates Particle Removal After Flow Reversal 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Before Flow Reversal After Flow Reversal SDI
    • Filename.ppt Electrodialysis Reversal Project Background Pretreatment Reverse OsmosisElectrodialysis Reversal Project Costs
    • Filename.ppt The EDR was Operated Continuously for Over 1,600 hours Na + Cl - Cl - Na + Concentrate Compartment Product Compartment Na + Na + Cl - Cationic Membrane Anionic Membrane Cationic Membrane Cl - Cathode -ve Anode +ve
    • Filename.ppt Reduced RO Recovery to Meet EDR Feed Requirements Pre-Treatment Reverse Osmosis Electrodialysis Reversal RO Recovery = 60% RO Bypass EDR Influent Silica Limit = 115 mg/L
    • Filename.ppt EDR can Effectively Remove TDS from the RO Concentrate 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 EDR Feed EDR Product EDR Concentrate TDS(mg/L)
    • Filename.ppt EDR can Achieve High Recoveries 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Run Time (hr) Recovery(%) (-)ve Polarity (+)ve Polarity
    • Filename.ppt EDR Performance has been Stable 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Run Time (hr) Pressure(psi) Feed Pressure Stack Inlet Pressure (+) Stack Inlet Pressure (-)
    • Filename.ppt EDR Performance has been Stable 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Run Time (hr) Resistance(Ohms) Stage 1 (+) Resistance Stage 1 ( - ) Resistance Stage 2 (+) Resistance Stage 2 ( - ) Resistance
    • Filename.ppt RO Primary Desalting and EDR Secondary Desalting can Achieve High Overall Recovery Pre-Treatment Reverse Osmosis Electrodialysis Reversal 31 gpm 28 gpm 3 gpm System Recovery = 90%
    • Filename.ppt RO Primary Desalting and EDR Secondary Desalting can Produce a Low TDS Product 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Well Product Concentrate TDS(mg/L)
    • Filename.ppt Project Costs Project Background Pretreatment Reverse OsmosisElectrodialysis Reversal Project Costs
    • Filename.ppt Limiting the Volume of Brine for Final Treatment Reduces Cost Reverse Osmosis Capital – 1 mgd $2 million $22 million Power (kWh/1000 gal) 2.2 90 Brine Concentration
    • Filename.ppt Impact of Overall Recovery is Significant – Example: 1-mgd Plant 0 50 100 150 200 250 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% Overall Recovery Brine Flowrate (gpm) 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 Brine Concentration (mg/L) Primary RO Brine Secondary EDR Brine 174 gpm 70 gpm
    • Filename.ppt Limiting the Volume of Brine for Final Treatment Reduces Cost – Full-Scale Facility at 2.7 mgd Capital Cost (MM$/yr) O&M Cost (MM$/yr) Total Cost (MM$/yr) RO + BC 2.8 3.7 6.5 RO + EDR + BC 2.4 2.6 5.0
    • Filename.ppt Summary and Conclusions Selected treatment train is feasible.1. 2. Primary RO and secondary EDR can achieve predicted recoveries. 3. RO The reversible function has potential to improve RO performance, but additional testing is needed.
    • Filename.ppt Acknowledgements California Department of Water Resources (Chapter 6(a) of Proposition 50) Staff Indian Wells Valley Water District
    • Questions? Questions? awiesner@carollo.com
    • Filename.ppt Comparing Water Costs Indicates that Costs are Reasonable Given Water Quality and Inland Location Typical Brackish Desalting Ocean Disposal for Brine This Project Primary Desalting Step Zero-Liquid Discharge/ Brine Treatment Bottled Water AWWA – June 2005 Crystal Geyser 500 1000 1500 ~ 450 - 550 ~ 500 ~ 620 ~ 1,160 ~ 974,000 ~ 6,500,000 $/AF Total ~ 1,000 Total ~ 1,780