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Microprocessor systems (4)
 

Microprocessor systems (4)

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    Microprocessor systems (4) Microprocessor systems (4) Presentation Transcript

    • Microprocessor SystemMicroprocessor System Engr. Shafiullah SoomroEngr. Shafiullah Soomro
    • ReviewReview  Computer?Computer?  Input=>Process=>Output, StorageInput=>Process=>Output, Storage  Generations of ComputerGenerations of Computer
    • ReviewReview Processing Devices
    • SESSION NO.2SESSION NO.2 Introduction to MicroprocessorIntroduction to Microprocessor ⇒Simplified CPU Organization ⇒Bus System ⇒Fetch Execute Cycle
    • What is Microprocessor?What is Microprocessor?  A microprocessor incorporates most or all of theA microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a computer's central processing unitfunctions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC, or(CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC, or microchip)microchip)  A silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the worldA silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the world of personal computers, the termsof personal computers, the terms microprocessormicroprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. It is the heartand CPU are used interchangeably. It is the heart of computerof computer  A microprocessor, sometimes called aA microprocessor, sometimes called a logic chiplogic chip,, is a computer processor on a microchip. Theis a computer processor on a microchip. The microprocessor contains all, or most of, themicroprocessor contains all, or most of, the central processing unit (CPU) functionscentral processing unit (CPU) functions
    • John von Neumann Model for Digital ComputerJohn von Neumann Model for Digital Computer a design model for a stored-program digital computer that uses a central processing unit (CPU) and a single separate storage structure ("memory") to hold both instructions and data.
    • MicrocomputerMicrocomputer  What is a microcomputer?What is a microcomputer?  Ans. A microcomputer is a system which isAns. A microcomputer is a system which is capable of processing a stream of inputcapable of processing a stream of input informations and will generate a stream ofinformations and will generate a stream of output informations taking the help of aoutput informations taking the help of a program which is stored in the memory ofprogram which is stored in the memory of the system.the system.  Called “Micro” because of its small size andCalled “Micro” because of its small size and low costlow cost  Contains Five Element:Contains Five Element: 1. Input Unit1. Input Unit 2. Control Unit (in CPU)2. Control Unit (in CPU) 3. Arthmetic Unit (in CPU)3. Arthmetic Unit (in CPU) 4. Memory (RAM, ROM)4. Memory (RAM, ROM) 5. Output Unit5. Output Unit
    • Typical Microcomputer OperationTypical Microcomputer Operation Fig from book page 5
    • Practical ApproachPractical Approach
    • Instruction?Instruction? What is meant by instruction? Ans: An instruction is a command which asks the microprocessor to perform a specific task or job. Practical Example: Kill the enemy Mathametical Example: 2 + 4 = ? Operation / Operational Code (Op-Code) Operand / Data
    • Program?Program?  Series or Collection of InstructionsSeries or Collection of Instructions Practical Example: Program for making a Coffee??? Mathematical Example: Let A = 10 Let B = 5 C = A + 2 D= C + B Print D
    • Computer Programming LanguagesComputer Programming Languages  Low Level / Machine LanguageLow Level / Machine Language  Assembly LanguageAssembly Language  High level LanguageHigh level Language 10110100 11011101 11110110 11001010 01011100 MOVE AX, 2 MOVE BX, 4 ADD AX,BX STA AX, 10BH Let A = 2 Let B = 4 A = A+B Print A
    • Programming LanguagesProgramming Languages What is machine language programming? Ans. Programming a computer by utilizing hex or binary code is known as machine language programming. What is meant by assembly language programming? Ans. Programming a microcomputer by writing mnemonics is known as assembly language programming. Assembly is Machine dependent language What are meant by low level and high level languages? Ans. Programming languages that are closer to natural languages, these languages are machine independent, also called high level languages. Examples are BASIC, FORTRAN, C, ALGOL, COBOL, etc.
    • What is mnemonic?What is mnemonic?  It is very difficult to understand a program if it is written inIt is very difficult to understand a program if it is written in either binary or hex code. Thus the manufacturers have devised aeither binary or hex code. Thus the manufacturers have devised a symbolic code for each instruction, called a mnemonic.symbolic code for each instruction, called a mnemonic.  In assembly language a mnemonic is a code, usually from 1 to 5In assembly language a mnemonic is a code, usually from 1 to 5 letters, that represents an opcode, followed by one or moreletters, that represents an opcode, followed by one or more numbers (the operands).numbers (the operands). Examples of mnemonics are:Examples of mnemonics are: INR A, ADD M, etc.INR A, ADD M, etc.
    • TranslatorsTranslators  InterpreterInterpreter Translate the program into Machine language code line by lineTranslate the program into Machine language code line by line  CompilerCompiler Translate the whole program at once into machine language codeTranslate the whole program at once into machine language code  AssemblerAssembler Special translator used for translating the Assembly languageSpecial translator used for translating the Assembly language program into Machine Language codeprogram into Machine Language code
    • Bus SystemBus System Note: You can also use fig:1-2 on page 3 (typical microcomputer organization) of book Microprocessor Fundamentals by Roger Tokhiem, to understand bus system
    • Bus System DescriptionBus System Description  A bus is a bunch of wires through which data or address or control signalsA bus is a bunch of wires through which data or address or control signals flow.flow.  The MPU communicates with memory and I/O using the system busThe MPU communicates with memory and I/O using the system bus consisting of:consisting of:  Address Bus:Address Bus: unidirectional and carries memory and I/O addressesunidirectional and carries memory and I/O addresses (From where the Data will come or to where the Data would go?)(From where the Data will come or to where the Data would go?)  Data Bus:Data Bus: bidirectional; transfers binary data and instructions betweenbidirectional; transfers binary data and instructions between MPU and memory and I/O (Who will bring the data to and from?)MPU and memory and I/O (Who will bring the data to and from?)  Control lines:Control lines: Read and Write timing signals asserted by MPU (WhatRead and Write timing signals asserted by MPU (What to do with Data?)to do with Data?)
    • Inside CPU/MicroprocessorInside CPU/Microprocessor Fig from Page 72 Simplified CPU Organization
    • Inside ALUInside ALU
    • Description ofDescription of Simplified CPU Organization Accumulator: Its is the general purpose register(s) associated with the ALU operations and sometimes I/O operations. Temporary Register: It is also a general purpose register, use with Accumulator to perform ALU operations Program Counter: It holds the address of the next instruction to be fetched from the memory. Airthmetic Logic Unit: Performs all calculations of CPU using Adder & Shifter and results are sent back to Accumulator and it also expresses status or conditions (if occur) in result of operation through Status Register. Instruction Register: holds the instruction (op-code) Instruction Decoder: it translates the instruction that is in Instruction Register Timming and Control Section: most complex section of CPU, It affects and sequences all events within the CPU
    • Description ofDescription of Simplified CPU Organization Primary Function of the CPU of a microcomputer: 1. Fetch, decode and execute program instructions in proper order 2. Transfer data to and from memory and to and from input/output sections 3. Respond to external interrupts 4. Provide overall timming and control signals for entire system
    • Fetch Execute CycleFetch Execute Cycle Computer Memory Addressing
    • Fetch Execute CycleFetch Execute Cycle
    • Fetch Execute CycleFetch Execute Cycle
    • Bit Size/Word SizeBit Size/Word Size of Microprocessorof Microprocessor  It is the width of accumulator.It is the width of accumulator.  Microprocessors are commonly classified as 4-Microprocessors are commonly classified as 4- bit, 8-bit, 16-bit or 32-bit units.bit, 8-bit, 16-bit or 32-bit units.  8080/8085, 6800, 6502 and Z80 are common 8-8080/8085, 6800, 6502 and Z80 are common 8- bit microprocessorsbit microprocessors  8086, 8088, 68000, 65816 and Z8000 are typical8086, 8088, 68000, 65816 and Z8000 are typical 16-bit microprocessors16-bit microprocessors  80386, 68020, 32000 and Z-80000 are examples80386, 68020, 32000 and Z-80000 are examples of 32-bit microprocessorof 32-bit microprocessor
    • End of Session no. 2End of Session no. 2