Reflections on Session 1  The world we live in     A. K. Shiva Kumar
On Millennium Development Goals        The Millennium Declaration6 fundamental values - essential to international  relati...
IndiaWhat we find
Recognize…• Significant expansion and diversification in  production• Enviable growth record• Impressive expansion in phys...
Poor performance• India’s IMR is 50   – Malaysia 6, Thailand 12• India’s MMR is 230   – Malaysia (29), Thailand (12)• 28% ...
Persistent inequality• Across states• Between rural and urban areas• Between women and men• Across communities – SC, ST an...
An unequal India                                        Kerala      Tamil     India     Uttar    Bihar                    ...
More differences...                             Kerala    Tamil   India    Uttar  Bihar                                   ...
Anti-female biases• Men continue to outnumber women.  – 927 in 1991    933 in 2001  – 940 in 2011• Sex ratio of the child ...
How is India faring     vis-à-visSub-Saharan Africa?
Better on growth and survival…                                                 India    Sub-Saharan AfricaPopulation in mi...
Not too different on some health and education                                       indicators …                         ...
Even worse than Sub-Saharan Africa on                  nutrition…                                                India    ...
How effectively has economic growthtranslated into improvements in health?
India has fared better than Bangladesh on             the economic front…                                                 ...
But Bangladesh moves ahead…                                                India              BangladeshGNI per capita (US...
China-India:Racing towards what goals?
Country classificationsThe World Bank uses Gross National Income per  capita to classify countries into three categories: ...
Country classificationsAccording to the World Bank:                           GNI per capita 2009Low Income               ...
Catching up with China:                  What it means?                                        India         ChinaGNI per ...
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India we live In

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India and the World - Where we stand as far as the human development goals are concerned,

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India we live In

  1. 1. Reflections on Session 1 The world we live in A. K. Shiva Kumar
  2. 2. On Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Declaration6 fundamental values - essential to international relations in the 21st century. Freedom Equality Solidarity Tolerance Respect for nature Shared responsibility 2
  3. 3. IndiaWhat we find
  4. 4. Recognize…• Significant expansion and diversification in production• Enviable growth record• Impressive expansion in physical and social infrastructureBut…in terms of MDGs – and in particular health, education, nutrition and gender equality… 4
  5. 5. Poor performance• India’s IMR is 50 – Malaysia 6, Thailand 12• India’s MMR is 230 – Malaysia (29), Thailand (12)• 28% babies born low birth weight – 11% in Malaysia, 9% in Thailand 5
  6. 6. Persistent inequality• Across states• Between rural and urban areas• Between women and men• Across communities – SC, ST and others 6
  7. 7. An unequal India Kerala Tamil India Uttar Bihar Nadu PradeshPopulation in millions - 2011 33 72 1200 200 104Per capita SDP in 2009-10 at Rs. 52,984 52,112 38,142 18,564 12,6832004-05 pricesGrowth in per capita GSDP: 2004- 7.7 8.5 7.1 5.1 8.82010 (%)Education:Literacy rate (%) - 2011 94 80 74 70 64Female literacy rate (%) 92 74 65 59 53% of females with no education 4 22 41 54 62% girls 6-17 years attending school 90 85 71 69 56Health:Infant mortality rate - 2009 12 28 50 63 52Children under 3 who are under- 29 33 46 47 59weight (%)Source: Census of India, NFHS-3; Census of India 2011
  8. 8. More differences... Kerala Tamil India Uttar Bihar Nadu PradeshTotal Fertility Rate 1.9 1.8 2.7 3.8 4.0% of children 12-23 75 81 44 23 31months fully immunizedInstitutional births (%) 100 90 41 22 22Female-to-male ratio 1084 995 940 908 916% of girls getting married 17 25 46 52 64before 18Source: NFHS-3; Census of India 2011
  9. 9. Anti-female biases• Men continue to outnumber women. – 927 in 1991 933 in 2001 – 940 in 2011• Sex ratio of the child population (0-6 years) fell from – 945 in 1991 – 927 in 2001 – 914 in 2011 9
  10. 10. How is India faring vis-à-visSub-Saharan Africa?
  11. 11. Better on growth and survival… India Sub-Saharan AfricaPopulation in millions - 2009 1,198 841GDP per capita (US$) - 2009 1,170 1,147Annual growth rate in GDP (%): 1990-2009 4.8 1.8Life expectancy at birth (years) 64 53Infant mortality rate 50 81Source: The State of the World’s Children 2011 11
  12. 12. Not too different on some health and education indicators … India Sub-Saharan AfricaGDP per capita (US$) – 2009 1,170 1,147Annual growth rate in GDP (%): 1990-2009 4.8 1.8Life expectancy at birth (years) 64 50Infant mortality rate - 2009 50 81Neo-natal mortality (first 28 days of life) 34 37Adult Literacy rate (%) 63 63% popln. using improved sanitation 31 31facilitiesFemale adult literacy rate (%) 48 51Skilled attendant at delivery (%) 53 45Source: The State of the World’s Children 2011 12
  13. 13. Even worse than Sub-Saharan Africa on nutrition… India Sub-Saharan AfricaGDP per capita (US$) - 2009 1,170 841Annual growth rate in GDP (%): 1990-2009 4.8 1.8Life expectancy at birth (years) 64 53Infant mortality rate 50 81Neo-natal mortality (first 28 days of life) 34 37Adult Literacy rate (%) 63 63% popln. using improved sanitation facilities 31 31Adult female literacy as % of male literacy 68 75Skilled attendant at delivery (%) 53 45Children under 5 underweight (%) 43 22% infants with low birth weight 28 14Source:The State of the World’s Children 2011 13
  14. 14. How effectively has economic growthtranslated into improvements in health?
  15. 15. India has fared better than Bangladesh on the economic front… India BangladeshPopulation in millions - 2009 1198 162GNI per capita (US$) – 2009 1,170 590Annual growth rate in GDP (%): 1990-2009 4.8 3.4Source: The State of the World’s Children 2011 15
  16. 16. But Bangladesh moves ahead… India BangladeshGNI per capita (US$) - 2009 1,170 590Annual growth rate in GDP (%): 1990-2007 4.8 3.4Life expectancy at birth (years) 64 67Infant mortality rate 50 41Under-5 mortality rate 1990 118 148 2009 66 52Children under 5 underweight (%) 43 41 Source: The State of the World’s Children 2011 16
  17. 17. China-India:Racing towards what goals?
  18. 18. Country classificationsThe World Bank uses Gross National Income per capita to classify countries into three categories: Low Income Middle Income Lower Middle Income Upper Middle Income High Income 18
  19. 19. Country classificationsAccording to the World Bank: GNI per capita 2009Low Income $ 995 or lessMiddle Income Lower Middle Income $ 996 - $3,945 Upper Middle Income $ 3,946 - $12,195High Income $ 12,196 or more 19
  20. 20. Catching up with China: What it means? India ChinaGNI per capita (US$) - 2009 1,170 3,620Annual Growth in GDP per capita 4.8 9.01990-2009 (%)Life expectancy (years) - 2009 64 73Adult literacy rate (%) 66 94Infant Mortality Rate - 2009 50 17Maternal Mortality Rate 230 34Children under-5 under-weight (%) 43 8 Source: World Bank and UNICEF
  21. 21. The End

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