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    Igniting Sacramento1008 Presentation Small Igniting Sacramento1008 Presentation Small Presentation Transcript

    • Igniting and Inviting Student Motivation and High Performance Dr. Bobb Darnell bobbdarnell@mac.com
    • Other titles  Trying to Get Students to Achieve Every Standard on the Planet While Trying to Stay Happy and Well  No Child Left in the Middle, On the Side, or Behind  No Teacher Left Behind
    • Today you will . . . 1. Be familiar with changes to our learners and educational context. 2. Be familiar with successful instructional practices and teaching/learning strategies. 3. Know additional ways to intervene when student demonstrate low performance and or require accommodations for learning disabilities/ differences.
    • You might be an experienced educator if . . .  You want to slap the next person who says, “Must be nice to have all your holidays and summers free.”  Out in public you feel the urge to talk to strange children and correct their behavior.  You encourage obnoxious parents to check into other schools or home schooling.
    • You might be an experienced educator if . . .  You had a hard time choosing your child’s name because there is NO name you could give a child that wouldn’t bring on high blood pressure the moment you heard it.  Around Spring, your staff vote on having a Prozac dispenser in the lounge.
    • Goals, Activities, Homework Learning Goals 1. Be familiar with changes to our learners and educational context. 2. Be familiar with successful instructional practices and teaching/learning strategies. 3. Know additional ways to intervened when student demonstrate low performance and or require accommodations for learning disabilities/differences. Activities  Exploring changes to our learners and educational context  A Motivational Model  Demonstration and application of powerful teaching/learning strategies Homework  Apply at least one idea, strategy, or technique and contact the presenter to let him/her know if it worked.  Tell one colleague or other educator about your success or seek help with challenging problems.
    • We are going to use two resources today.  The handout  Your new 12 page brochure
    • Factors Involved in Desire (Motivation) and High Performance  Safety  Success (This is the most essential element related to motivation/desire.)  Valued Purpose  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Factors Involved in Desire (Motivation) and High Performance  Safety (2)  Success (This is the most essential (1) element related to motivation/desire.)  Valued Purpose  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Why do students fail to succeed the first time? 1. Lack of skills 2. Lack of confidence 3. Lack of motivation 4. Lack of perseverance/determination 5. Lack of respect for the culture of school/education 6. Lack of vision for the role school plays in career preparation or lifestyle 7. Lack of connection to positive relationships with teachers and/or peers (Data collected by interviewing over 210 students with multiple Fs.)
    • Some students choose defiance and resistance.  Defiance is often a response to too much anxiety.  Defiance is one of two responses to an overwhelmed limbic system--flight or fight.  Defiance is often a result of the student feeling out of control.  Defiance is a often a result of the student trying to cover up feelings of impotence and/or incompetence.
    • Defiance is a predicted response to anxiety overload.
    • Some students choose defiance and resistance.  Defiance is often a response to too much anxiety.  Defiance is one of two responses to an overwhelmed limbic system--flight or fight.  Defiance is often a result of the student feeling out of control.  Defiance is a often a result of the student trying to cover up feelings of impotence and/or incompetence.
    • Power Thinking Cartoon Marzano, Tactics in Thinking, 1989
    • It seems like everything has changed. 1. The students have changed. 2. Expectations have changed. 3. The science of teaching and learning and professional development have changed.
    • It seems like everything has changed. 1. The students have changed. 2. Expectations have changed. 3. The science of teaching and learning and professional development have changed.
    • The students have changed. 1. Immediate Gratification  Video games (They know how they are doing right away.)  Cooking (Microwave on high for one minute------voila, dinner)  Instant messaging  Text message and voice mail
    • The students have changed. 2. Shorter Attention Span and Visually Preferred
    • Here’s one impact.
    • The students have changed. 3. Hands-On Multi-Taskers  Cell phones  MP3 players  Wide screen LCD and  Simulation video games plasma TVs  Extraordinary electronic  Cable and satellite TV visual graphics with hundreds of  Voice mail channels  Email  Hand held video games  Instant messaging  PDAs  DVDs and CDs  Laptop and desktop  Movies on demand computers  Voice activated devices  Digital still and video cameras  and more . . .
    • The students have changed. 4. Focused On Objectives, Big Picture, Strategies, Practice, and Do Overs
    • The “NEW Millennial” Instructional Lesson Format Focus and Warm-up 5-15% Direct Teaching 1. Students 15-25% want to know the objectives Student Performance and understand 35-45% the big picture. 2. Students want hands-on learning Review and want to change 15-25% activities after 12 to 3. Students want 20 minutes. Closure to know how 5-15% they are doing and they want success.
    • Learning Goals 1. Be familiar with changes to our learners and educational context. 2. Be familiar with successful instructional practices and teaching/learning strategies. 3. Know additional ways to intervened when student demonstrate low performance and or require accommodations for learning disabilities/differences. Activities  Exploring changes to our learners and educational context  A Motivational Model  Demonstration and application of powerful teaching/learning strategies Homework  Apply at least one idea, strategy, or technique and contact the presenter to let him/her know if it worked.  Tell one colleague or other educator about your success or seek help with challenging problems.
    • Which scenario would YOU choose if you went to graduate school? 2 1 •Resource list •Resource list •Schedule of classes •Schedule of •List of course units •Teaches classes And •List of course •List of objectives for each unit units •Provides essential topics and concepts for each unit •Teacher teaches •Informs you about the types of assessments and then tests and the emphasis on each topic •Provides strategies for succeeding in the class
    • 1. Objectives and Standards  Student achievement increases when the learning expectations/goals are aligned with state standard and identified for each unit and lesson.  Student achievement increases when teachers clearly identify the learning goals and agenda in writing and orally before the lesson begins and during the lesson’s closure (Marzano, 2001).
    • Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement Category Percentile Gain  Identifying Similarities and Differences 45  Summarizing and note taking 34  Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 29  Homework and practice 28  Non-linguistic representations 27  Cooperative Learning 27  Setting objectives and feedback 23  Generating and testing hypotheses 23  Question, cues, and advanced organizers 22 Marzano, Pickering, Pollack. Classroom Instruction that Works. ASCD, 2001
    • General Biology Curriculum Map Science Mendelian Circulation Respiration Ecology and Molecular Skills and Cells Genetics and Digestion and Systems 2 Kingdoms Evolution Genetics Basics Immunity Excretion Concepts/ Topics •Scientific Method Biology Sample Map Concepts/ Topics •Ecosystems (12a, 12b) •Energy Concepts/ Topics •Microscope Concepts/ •DNA Topics Structure and Concepts/ Topics •Meiosis (12a) Concepts/ Topics •Anatomy •Physiology Concepts/ Topics •Anatomy (12a) Concepts/ Topics •Anatomy (12a) Concepts/ Topics •Anatomy and Physiology of: Concepts/ Topics •Monera •Protista (11a) Relationships •Cell parts and Replication •Monohybrid •Cell Transport •Physiology •Physiology (12a) •Fungi •Measurement (12b) function (12a) Crosses •Bacterial •Cell Transport •Cell Transport Skeletal •Plant (11a) •Photo- (12a) • Mitosis (12a) Growth (11a) •Urinalysis Muscular •Animal •Organic synthesis •Cell Transport (12a) •Pedigree •Viral Growth •Enzymes (11a) Nervous Molecules (12b, 12c) (11a)(12c) •Protein Charts •Immune (12c) •Cellular Reproductive •Population •Single-celled Synthesis (12a) response •Lock and Key Respiration •Cell Transport •Classification (12b) Organisms (12a) •Incomplete (12b) •Structure (12c) •STDs •Natural •Biotechnology Dominance •HIV/AIDS determines •Contraceptive Selection (12a)(13b) (12a) •Structure function (12a) •Structure •Sex Linkage determines determines (12a) function function •Karyotyping Skills Skills Skills Skills Skills Skills Skills Skills Skills Skills •Hypothesis •Making Study •Microscope •Constructing •Solve Problems •Use Diagrams •Plan Diet •Use Diagrams •Use diagrams •Use Examples (11a) Tools skills Models •Organize •Organize •Compare and •Compare and •Measurement •Reading •Using Diagrams (12a) Events •Compare and diagrams • Interpret Contrast Contrast (11a) Diagrams •Creating •Prediction •Prediction Contrast • Use examples Data •Logging (12a) •Organizing •Making Graphics (11a) (11a) •Sterile (11a) (11a) Information •Research and Recording Diagrams •Prediction •Analyzing Data •Karyotypes Technique •Using •Using •Powerpoint Information Data •Prediction (11a)(12a) (11a) •Analyze Data (11a) Indicators Indicators •Presentation •Identification (11a) (11a) •Conpare and •Construct (11a) • Write (11a) (11a) skills Skills •Using and •Analyzing Data Contrast Proteins •Draw Procedures •Organize Data •Analyze Data •Research Skills •Using a Making a (11a)(13a) •Following Lab (12a) Conclusion (11a) (11a) (11a) Dichotomous Key Dicotomous •Graphing instructions •Organizing (11a) •Draw •Analyze Data •Draw Key (11a) (11a) Process •Compute Conclusions (11a) Conclusions •Reading •Reading (12a) probabilities (11a)(13a) •Reading (11a)(13a) •Reading Strategies Strategies •Basic Strategies •Reading Strategies biotechnology Strategies skills •Writing Lab •Draw Conclusions Conclusions (11a)(13a) (11a)(13a)
    • How does your school/district review and revise curriculum? 12.A.4a Explain how genetic combinations produce visible effects and variations among physical features and cellular functions of organisms. 12.A.4b Describe the structures and organization of cells and tissues that underlie basic life functions including nutrition, respiration, cellular transport, biosynthesis and reproduction.
    • Putting the puzzle together is easier when you have the picture on the box before, during, and after learning new content.
    • Maintaining Wellness Sample Psychological/ Habits/Things Nutrition Exercise Physical to Avoid Conditions aerobics hypertension vitamins anaerobic high cholesterol excessive eating minerals running diabetes stress calories pulse obesity poor diet choices fats smoking cycling stress proteins excessive drinking games eustress carbohydrates Outcomes Students will . . . 1. create a healthy diet. 2. create an exercise program which adapts to different physical and psychological needs. 3. evaluate a lifestyle to determine the degree to which the individual will remain healthy. 4. create a multimedia presentation which teaches about a significant component of wellness.
    • The “NEW Millennial” Instructional Lesson Format Focus and Warm-up 5-15% Direct Teaching 1. Students 15-25% want to know the objectives Student Performance and understand 35-45% the big picture. Review 15-25% Closure 5-15%
    • Learning Goals 1. Describe the environment of dinosaurs. 2. Describe what dinosaurs ate. 3. Compare two dinosaurs. Activities  Brainstorm what you know about dinosaurs.  Look at pictures of where dinosaurs lived.  Compare T Rex and Brontosaurus dinosaurs. Homework  Draw a picture of a dinosaur in his/her environment  Create a chart showing the similarities and differences between T Rex and Brontosaurus dinosaurs. Dinosaurs’ Environment T Rex Brontosaurus •plants •size •size •other animals •skeleton •skeleton •trees •teeth •teeth •mountains •movement •movement •plains
    • How many of you . . .  State the learning goals (not activities) at the beginning of the class session?  Write the learning goals on the board and refer to them at the beginning of the class session?  Connect the learning goals to the learning activities?  Refer to the learning goals at the end of the class session, and help student determine their progress and/or need for assistance?
    • Learning Goals 1. Describe the environment of dinosaurs. 2. Describe what dinosaurs ate. 3. Compare two dinosaurs. Activities  Brainstorm what you know about dinosaurs.  Look at pictures of where dinosaurs lived.  Compare T Rex and Brontosaurus dinosaurs. Homework  Draw a picture of a dinosaur in his/her environment  Create a chart showing the similarities and differences between T Rex and Brontosaurus dinosaurs. Dinosaurs’ Environment T Rex Brontosaurus •plants •size •size •other animals •skeleton •skeleton •trees •teeth •teeth •mountains •movement •movement •plains
    • Factors Involved in Desire (Motivation) and High Performance  Safety  Success (This is the most essential element related to motivation/desire.)  Valued Purpose  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Unit Objectives (Know and be able to do)
    • Unit Performance Objectives 1. Define and use unit vocabulary. 2. Recognize the phases of meiosis and illustrate them in a graphic organizer. 3. Compare & contrast meiosis (males and females) and mitosis. 4. Construct punnett squares for monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. 5. Predict the probability of passing a trait to the next generation. 6. Create and interpret pedigree charts. 7. Determine an individual’s gender from a karyotype 8. Diagnose a genetic disease. 9. Simulate the process of inheritance. 10. Take on the role of a genetic counselor and create document to educate your clients about their genetic risk.
    • The Research about Setting Objectives  Stating objectives verbally and in public written form.  When students know what they are learning, their performance, on average, has been shown to be 27 percentile points higher than students who do not know what they are doing.
    • Why post and state objectives? 1. Many students with 3. Addresses the learning learning disabilities have needs of students who limited auditory memory, are “visually preferred provide stimulus to 4. Addresses the learning maintain attention and needs of ELL students self-monitoring. 5. Motivates students to 2. Addresses the learning learn by providing a needs of students with focus limited visual memory
    • Why post and state objectives? 6. Motivates students by 9. Increases students making them feel safe chances for success 7. Addresses the trust 10. Increases achievement issues of some learners and is strongly supported 8 Increases student by research involvement and 11. Improves assessment of responsibility for student learning learning. 12. Easy to create and use
    • Key to Successful Learning  The targets for learning need to be stated in student-friendly language/objectives with clear indicators for success.
    • Factors Involved in Desire (Motivation) and High Performance  Safety  Success (This is the most essential element related to motivation/desire.)  Valued Purpose  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement Category Percentile Gain  Identifying Similarities and Differences 45  Summarizing and note taking 34  Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 29  Homework and practice 28  Non-linguistic representations 27  Cooperative Learning 27  Setting objectives and feedback 23  Generating and testing hypotheses 23  Question, cues, and advanced organizers 22 Marzano, Pickering, Pollack. Classroom Instruction that Works. ASCD, 2001
    • The “NEW Millennial” Instructional Lesson Format Focus and Warm-up 5-15% Direct Teaching 1. Students 15-25% want to know the objectives Student Performance and understand 35-45% the big picture. Review 15-25% Closure 5-15%
    • Factors Involved in Desire (Motivation) and High Performance  Safety  Success (This is the most essential element related to motivation/desire.)  Valued Purpose  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Unit vocabulary Objectives
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 1 •List the academic vocabulary that is part of one of your first units of study. •Try to group the vocabulary in categories Health-Related Skill-Related Personal Heart Fitness Fitness Fitness Evaluation •Muscular •Agility •Total •Pulse/Heart Strength •Balance Fitness Rate •Flexibility •Coordination •Physical •Carotid •Muscular •Power Fitness Artery Endurance •Reaction •Goal •Radial •Cardiovascular Time Setting Artery Endurance •Speed •VO2 Max •Resting •Body •Bioelectrical Heart Rate Composition Impedance •Composite
    • Unit vocabulary Objectives
    • Unit vocabulary Objectives
    • Unit vocabulary Objectives
    • Unit vocabulary Objectives
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 2 •Create unit objectives for part of one of your units of study. •Start with a verb. Objectives 1. Write a definition for magma and lava. 2. Compare and contrast intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. 3. Create a model showing how igneous rocks are formed. 4. Describe the similarities and differences between scoria and obsidian. 5. Describe the similarities and differences between concordant and discordant igneous rock bodies.
    • Unit vocabulary Objectives
    • Learning Goals 1. Describe the environment of dinosaurs. 2. Describe what dinosaurs ate. 3. Compare two dinosaurs. Activities  Brainstorm what you know about dinosaurs.  Look at pictures of where dinosaurs lived.  Compare T Rex and Brontosaurus dinosaurs. Homework  Draw a picture of a dinosaur in his/her environment  Create a chart showing the similarities and differences between T Rex and Brontosaurus dinosaurs. Dinosaurs’ Environment T Rex Brontosaurus •plants •size •size •other animals •skeleton •skeleton •trees •teeth •teeth •mountains •movement •movement •plains
    • Factors Involved in Desire (Motivation) and High Performance  Safety  Success (This is the most essential element related to motivation/desire.)  Valued Purpose  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • A hair raising century by Australian opener Graeme Wood on Friday set England back on its heels in the third test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Unfortunately, living dangerously eventually cost the Australians the match. Wood was caught out of his crease on the first over after lunch. Within ten more overs, the Australians were dismissed. Four were dismissed by dangerous running between creases. Two were dismissed when the English bowlers lifted the bails from the batsmen's wickets. The three remaining batsmen were caught by English fieldsmen. One was caught as he tried for a six. When the innings were complete the Australians had fallen short of the runs scored by the English.
    • What do you need to be able to read/learn? A hair raising century by Australian opener Graeme Wood on Friday set England back on its heels in the third test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Unfortunately, living dangerously eventually cost the Australians the match. Wood was caught out of his crease on the first over after lunch. Within ten more overs, the Australians were dismissed. Four were dismissed by dangerous running between creases. Two were dismissed when the English bowlers lifted the bails from the batsmen's wickets. The three remaining batsmen were caught by English fieldsmen. One was caught as he tried for a six. When the innings were complete the Australians had fallen short of the runs scored by the English.
    • 5. Explicit Teaching of Vocabulary  Student achievement increases when students receive explicit vocabulary instruction that is relevant to the content material studied (Marzano, 2001).
    • Importance of Word Meaning 1. Concept vocabulary is the door to understanding, memory storage, and information retrieval for your students. 2. The inability to speak your discipline's language hampers their content mastery and learning success each day, semester, and academic year. 3. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for reading comprehension. If students are not familiar with the words they read, they will have difficulty understanding text.
    • Unit vocabulary
    • Think about pizza for the next 30 seconds.
    • What was your pizza like?  Tell your partner about your pizza
    • Diagram of a Concept.
    • You can improve your memory if you use . . .
    • School is not a game, but . . .  How many of you have ever played Monopoly?  How many of you have won?  How many of you who haven’t won (much or ever) still want to play Monopoly?  What if I was to teach you a strategy that helped you win?
    • Who wins in school?  What if I was to teach you a strategy that helped you win?  How would you feel about . . .  me?  the game?  the next challenge?  yourself?
    • Reading/Thinking: You can’t play school without these skills. •Main Idea •Significant Details •Sequence of Events •Comparison •Cause and Effect •Meaning of Words •Generalizations/Conclusions •Problem/Solution •Author’s Voice/Purpose/Design
    • Vocabulary Development and Concept Attainment  Lessons:  Students can increase their comprehension and recall when they group information and identify patterns.  Concept attainment and word meaning depend on background information.  Pre-teaching vocabulary aids in the development of concepts.
    • 50% 83%
    • The Three-Column Format Word Definition Memory Cue Word Definition Memory Cue crease The end point before the goal
    • The Three-Column Format . . .  Helps students document words, definitions, and memory cues in an organized way.  Provides an organized format for drill and practice.  Gives credibility to saving foundation knowledge.  Teaches and models effective notetaking.
    • Budding  Type of asexual reproduction in which an outgrowth forms on the parent organism and later separates, giving rise to a new organism.
    • Budding  Type of asexual reproduction in which an outgrowth forms on the parent organism and later separates, giving rise to a new organism.
    • The Three-Column Format Re-coded Word Definition Memory Cue Word Definition Memory Cue
    • Concept of Definition Strategy Category Properties What is it? What is it like? less than 25 climate cm. of rainfall no cloud cover: winds dry rain land forest desert Comparisons heat radiates into dry land air at night Mojave Gobi Sahara Illustrations What are some examples?
    • Concept of Definition Strategy Category Properties What is it? What is it like? Comparisons Illustrations What are some examples?
    • See if you can remember these items. one -- bun six -- sticks two -- shoe seven -- heaven three -- tree eight -- gate four -- door nine -- line five -- hive ten -- hen
    • Can you remember? one six two seven three eight four nine five ten
    • See if you can remember these items. one -- bun six -- sticks two -- shoe seven -- heaven three -- tree eight -- gate four -- door nine -- line five -- hive ten -- hen
    • Create a definition concept word in your discipline. Concept of Definition Strategy Category Properties What is it? What is it like? less than 25 climate cm. of rainfall no cloud cover: winds dry land • rain forest desert Comparisons heat radiates into dry land air at night Mojave Gobi Sahara Illustrations What are some examples?
    • Create a definition and a memory cue for a word in your discipline. The Three-Column Format Word Definition Memory Cue Word Definition Memory Cue • Moving • Colorful • Bizarre • Unusual • Familiar • Rhyming • Auditory •Emotional •Physical
    • The Three-Column Format Word Definition Memory Cue Word Definition Memory Cue crease The end point before the goal
    • Here’s how to get students to remember concept words and their meanings. 1. Select and teach approximately 5-7 words each day. 2. Students go home with their three column format and study the words for approximately 10-15 minutes. 3. Students pair up and test each other for 1-2 minutes each. 4. Ask the students to talk about their progress and to share memory cues.
    • Rehearse/Practice in Six Minutes or Less  Choral practice (entire class recites)  Paired testing  Jigsaw  Friendly competition  Games like . . .  Jeopardy Question Matrix with Pictures  Vocabulary Charades  $100,000 Pyramid  Draw Me Pictionary  Talk a Mile a Minute/The Old Password Game
    • Continue the process of teaching effective memory strategies. 5. Students go home and review the previous words and learn 5-7 new words. 6. Students pair up and test each other for 1-2 minutes each.
    • Give a vocabulary test to the students to determine their mastery of the unit’s concept words.  Provide the students with their scores and ask them what worked and what didn’t work.  Ask them to repeat the process for the next two to three units.  Ask them to establish an improvement goal and plan.
    • What will happen?  You can prove to students that strategy and effort are better indicators for success than intelligence. Everybody can be “smart” if they use smart strategies.  You will accelerate concept mastery and vocabulary development.  You will provide a feeling of self-efficacy (I can do it attitude).
    • Factors Involved in Motivation and High performance  Safety (Students feel safer when they know what to expect and when they believe someone is honest with them and wants them to be successful.)  Success (Students experience success when they apply effective strategies and effort and it works.)  Valued Purpose (Students value getting better and being successful.)  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Neuropathways that help you remember 1. Visual • Moving • Colorful 2. Auditory • Bizarre 3. Kinesthetic • Unusual • Familiar 4. Tactile/Sensory • Rhyming 5. Emotional • Loud or soft • Funny or sad
    • Evidence of Student Failure 1. Lack of skills 1. Poor attendance in school 2. Lack of confidence 2. Lack of attention in classes 3. Lack of motivation 3. Failure to attempt and/or complete in and out-of-class 4. Lack of perseverance/ Resulting assignments determination in 4. Revengeful behavior and 5. Lack of respect for the chronic misconduct culture of school/education 5. Failure to participate in 6. Lack of vision for the role available interventions school plays in career 6. Resistance and Defiance preparation or lifestyle 7. A cycle of failure 7. Lack of connection to positive relationships with teachers and/or peers
    • Power Thinking Cartoon Marzano, Tactics in Thinking, 1989
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 3 •Create a three-column form for two vocabulary words in a unit/chapter of study. •Create a Concept of Definition Diagram Concept of Definition Strategy The Three-Column Format Category Properties Word Definition Memory Cue What is it Word Definition Memory Cue What is it? like? less than 25 climate cm. of rainfall no cloud cover: winds dry rain land forest desert Comparisons heat radiates into dry land air at night Mojave Gobi Sahara Illustrations What are some examples?
    • 4. Background Information  Student achievement increases when ……  Teachers consistently activate prior knowledge and build students’ background relevant to the new learning.  Research Results for Advanced Organizers, Cues, and Questions  Up to a 29 percentile gain in achievement  An average 22 percentile gain in achievement  The brain remembers well when it connects/bridges from old to new. ASCD 2001 Classroom Instruction that Works (Marzano, Pickering, and Pollack)
    • What do you need to be able to read/learn? A hair raising century by Australian opener Graeme Wood on Friday set England back on its heels in the third test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Unfortunately, living dangerously eventually cost the Australians the match. Wood was caught out of his crease on the first over after lunch. Within ten more overs, the Australians were dismissed. Four were dismissed by dangerous running between creases. Two were dismissed when the English bowlers lifted the bails from the batsmen's wickets. The three remaining batsmen were caught by English fieldsmen. One was caught as he tried for a six. When the innings were complete the Australians had fallen short of the runs scored by the English.
    • Schema Theory  Lesson:  You can increase comprehension if you activate prior knowledge and build new background knowledge.
    • Before Reading/New Learning  Activate and build background information  Review and pre-teach vocabulary  Provide a motivational purpose for reading
    • The “NEW Millennial” Instructional Lesson Format Focus and Warm-up 5-15% Building and activating Direct Teaching 15-25% background information Student Performance before the 35-45% new lesson begins Review 15-25% Closure 5-15%
    • Ways to Activate Prior Knowledge and Connect New Brainstorm Use a defuzzing wheel and a question or word to stimulate thinking. Content Pre-Test Create true/false questions about new material. Values Conflict Present a list of values about the new topic and ask students to choose the values they agree with. Vote Create an option for decision making and take a vote. KWL Get students to brainstorm what they know about a topic and what they would like to learn. Herringbone Place the Herringbone graphic and ask students to create Questioning questions (who, what, where, when, why, how) View a Scene Ask students to view a still picture and describe what they see. Part of a story Read part of a story and ask students to describe the setting, characters, or main goal/problem.
    • Defuzzing Wheel Why is it difficult for some people to change?
    • Anticipation Guide: Content Pre-test Example True or False 1. There are 6 planets 2. The earth revolves around the sun. 3. Neptune is the planet with all of the rings. 4. Earth is one of the biggest planets.
    • Values Conflict Example 1 Agree or Disagree 1. Ministers should be held to a higher standard of morality than others. 2. In some cases, adultery is acceptable. 3. People in a community should know when someone has committed adultery.
    • Values Conflict Example 2 Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree 1. War is justified in certain circumstances. 2. A country should have a draft. 3. All citizens of a country should have to serve the government for 2 years. 4. The citizens of a country have limited power regarding starting and ending a war.
    • Content Pre-test -- Math Metrics (Likely--Unlikely) 1. The basketball player is 3 meters tall. 2. The bicycle was traveling 20 kilometers per hour. 3. He drank a liter of pop in one gulp. 4. The temperature dropped to 25 degrees Celcius and it started to snow. 5. The pencil had a mass of 100 grams. 6. The area of a postage stamp is 20 square centimeters
    • Herringbone
    • Ways to Activate Prior Knowledge and Connect New Predict Use pictures, headings, and text to support predictions. Skim Read captions, boldface headings, word charts, and graphs to connect with the new materials. Question Use pictures, chapter headings, graphs, to generate meaningful questions. Visualize Create mental pictures of words, concepts, and predictions. Role Play Imagine a scenario (e.g., problem, need for invention) and play a role. View a Movie View a portion of a movie and use it as an introduction to new material. Listen to a Song Listen to a song and use it as an introduction to new material. Journaling/Free Provide a journal prompt related to new material to Writing access prior knowledge. Drawing Provide a prompt and ask the students to draw from their experience/knowledge
    • You are an astronaut, fireman, salesperson, or nurse. What do you think you have to know and be able to do?
    • KWL  Know  Want to Know  Learned
    • Why is it important to have a positive attitude?
    • How can disaster become positive?
    • Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement Category Percentile Gain  Identifying Similarities and Differences 45  Summarizing and note taking 34  Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 29  Homework and practice 28  Non-linguistic representations 27  Cooperative Learning 27  Setting objectives and feedback 23  Generating and testing hypotheses 23  Question, cues, and advanced organizers 22 Marzano, Pickering, Pollack. Classroom Instruction that Works. ASCD, 2001
    • Factors Involved in Motivation and High performance  Safety (Students feel safer when they know what to expect and when you relate new learning to things they already know.)  Success (Students experience success when they feel they know something about the new learning.)  Valued Purpose (Students value learning they understand.)  Love and Belonging (Students are more engaged in learning when they feel comfortable working with their peers.)  Fun and Enjoyment (Students are more engaged in learning when they are having fun.)  Freedom and Independence (Students are more engaged in learning when they have open-ended choices.)  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Evidence of Student Failure 1. Lack of skills 1. Poor attendance in school 2. Lack of confidence 2. Lack of attention in classes 3. Lack of motivation 3. Failure to attempt and/or complete in and out-of-class 4. Lack of perseverance/ Resulting assignments determination in 4. Revengeful behavior and 5. Lack of respect for the chronic misconduct culture of school/education 5. Failure to participate in 6. Lack of vision for the role available interventions school plays in career 6. Resistance and Defiance preparation or lifestyle 7. A cycle of failure 7. Lack of connection to positive relationships with teachers and/or peers
    • Power Thinking Cartoon Marzano, Tactics in Thinking, 1989
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 4 •Plan to activate/build background information with one or more of the following strategies: --Anticipation Guide --Role play --Values Conflict --Questions --Movie/audio clip --Pre-test --Brainstorming (Defuzzing Wheel) --Others listed
    • Ways to Activate Prior Knowledge and Connect New Predict Use pictures, headings, and text to support predictions. Skim Read captions, boldface headings, word charts, and graphs to connect with the new materials. Question Use pictures, chapter headings, graphs, to generate meaningful questions. Visualize Create mental pictures of words, concepts, and predictions. Role Play Imagine a scenario (e.g., problem, need for invention) and play a role. View a Movie View a portion of a movie and use it as an introduction to new material. Listen to a Song Listen to a song and use it as an introduction to new material. Journaling/Free Provide a journal prompt related to new material to Writing access prior knowledge. Drawing Provide a prompt and ask the students to draw from their experience/knowledge
    • See if you can remember these items. Pick your three favorite lottery numbers from 1-10. one -- bun six -- sticks two -- shoe seven -- heaven three -- tree eight -- gate four -- door nine -- line five -- hive ten -- hen What do you remember?
    • Thinking About High Achievement and Learning Environments What activities, lessons, or strategies encourage your students to think? (Think--Write--Pair--Share)
    • Thinking About High Achievement and Learning Environments What activities, lessons, or strategies encourage your students to think? (Think--Write--Pair--Share) Why is it important for students to think well? (Pair--Think--Write--Share)
    • Thinking About High Achievement and Learning Environments What activities, lessons, or strategies encourage your students to think? (Think--Write--Pair--Share) Why is it important for Create a picture that students to think well? represents one way that you make decisions. (Pair--Think--Write--Share) (Think--Draw--Pair-- Share-Share your partner’s picture)
    • Thinking about Thinking  Create a picture that represents one way that you make decisions.
    • Thinking About High Achievement and Learning Environments What activities, lessons, or Finish the sentence. strategies encourage your My thinking is ignited students to think? and invited when . . . (Think--Write--Pair--Share) (Think--Write--Pair-- Share) Why is it important for Create a picture that students to think well? represents one way that you make decisions. (Pair--Think--Write--Share) (Think--Draw--Pair-- Share-Share your partner’s picture)
    • What did I do to get participation?
    • What did I do to get 100% participation?  Think and write time  Pairs/trios and cooperation  Acknowledge response by  Time to check out your summarizing or rephrasing answer  Open ended questions  Pace  Questions relate to  Appealed to your favorite background experience thinking style  Expectation to participate  Different ways to share  Anticipation  Roles
    • We need to teach students that . . .  Thinking and doing is mandatory and not optional.
    • What if you went to a party where there were different conversations in the corners of the room. Where would you hang out? People just People expressing mentioning what is their ideas, feelings, going on in the and decisions about news the issues and events People discussing the People discussing news items with an how they might attempt to analyze and solve the problem, understand the events and issues address the issues, or create something
    • Thinking About High Achievement and Learning Environments What activities, lessons, or Finish the sentence. strategies encourage your My thinking is ignited students to think? and invited when . . . (Think--Write--Pair-- (Think--Write--Pair--Share) Share) Remembering Relating Why is it important for Create a picture that students to think well? represents one way that you make decisions. (Think--Draw--Pair--Share-Share (Pair--Think--Write--Share) your partner’s picture) Reasoning Rorganizing
    • Remembering (Memory) Relating Means . . Means . . •observing •describing feelings •memorizing •empathizing •sequencing •preferring and valuing •categorizing •deciding Cues: Who? What? Where? When? Cues: How do you feel, believe, think How? How would you decide? Reasoning (Understanding) Reorganizing (Synthesis) Means . . Means . . •comparing/contrasting •generating •classifying/analyzing •hypothesizing •summarizing •imagining •verifying •elaborating Cues: Why? How do you know that? •using metaphors What evidence do you have? Cues: What if? In how many ways? What is similar? Different? Create . . . Hansen, Silver, Strong, ASCD 1989
    • Circle of Knowledge Discussion Strategy  Design focus questions.  Internalize the question.  Show their response in writing.  Communicate in small groups  Use a variety of recognition techniques.  Summarize and record the discussion.  Stimulate thinking through probing, acceptance, and higher-level thinking questions.  Hansen, Silver, Strong, ASCD 1989
    • The Lessons:  Students have different thinking preferences and we need to have them develop all four kinds of thinking to achieve curriculum standards and become responsible, confident learners.  Students need to learn how to think better by teachers and students teaching, modeling, and reinforcing thinking during content instruction.
    • Factors Involved in Desire (Motivation) and High Performance  Safety  Success (This is the most essential element related to motivation/desire.)  Valued Purpose  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 11 •Create a plan to have students discuss concepts and topics in your next unit or chapter. Remembering (Memory) Relating Cues: Who? What? Where? Cues: How do you feel, When? How? believe, think How would you decide? Reasoning (Understanding) Reorganizing (Synthesis) Cues: What if? In how •Cues: Why? How do you many ways? Create . . . know that What evidence do you have? What is similar? Different?
    • If they would just think!
    • 6. Explicit Teaching of Learning and Literacy Skills: Comprehension/ Thinking  Student achievement increases when learning, literacy, and content-specific skills are explicitly taught  (Marzano, 2001, Beyer, 1987).  It takes between 15 and 25 practices to incorporate a skill or strategy into a person's learning repertoire.
    • Factors Involved in Motivation and High performance  Safety (Students feel safer when they know what to expect and when they believe someone is honest with them and wants them to be successful.)  Success (Students experience success when they apply effective strategies and effort--and, it works.)  Valued Purpose (Students value getting better and being successful.)  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • What does a coach or director do to encourage high performance? They teach prerequisite skills and strategies.
    • Here’s how important it is to explicitly teach an important lesson or skill.
    • Today is brought to you by . . .  the letter A  and the number 6
    • Today is brought to you by . . .  the solar system  grouping and patterning information
    • Reading/Thinking: You can’t play school without these skills. •Main Idea •Significant Details •Sequence of Events •Comparison •Cause and Effect •Meaning of Words •Generalization/Conclusions •Problem/Solution •Author’s Voice/Purpose/Techniques
    • Goals, Activities, Homework Learning Goals 1. Be familiar with changes to our learners and educational context. 2. Be familiar with successful instructional practices and teaching/learning strategies. 3. Know additional ways to intervened when student demonstrate low performance and or require accommodations for learning disabilities/differences. Activities  Exploring changes to our learners and educational context  A Motivational Model  Demonstration and application of powerful teaching/learning strategies Homework  Apply at least one idea, strategy, or technique and contact the presenter to let him/her know if it worked.  Tell one colleague or other educator about your success or seek help with challenging problems.
    • Reading/Thinking: You can’t play school without these skills. •Main Idea •Significant Details •Sequence of Events •Comparison •Cause and Effect •Meaning of Words •Generalization/Conclusions •Problem/Solution •Author’s Voice/Purpose/Techniques
    • Remember as many words as you can. You have 20 seconds. black brown cinnamon gloves canary parrot sweater shirt dove green garlic pepper
    • How did you do? black brown cinnamon gloves canary parrot sweater shirt dove green garlic pepper
    • Remember as many words as you can. You have 20 seconds. vanilla horse chocolate camel strawberry elephant yellow desk red table green chair
    • Three important Questions  Did it seem like the time I gave you to study was longer for the second list?  Did you have more confidence in your performance on the second list?  Did you think the second list was easier when you first saw it?
    • How did you do now? vanilla horse chocolate camel strawberry elephant yellow desk red table green chair
    • Concept Development  Lesson:  Students can increase their comprehension and recall when they group information and identify patterns.
    • Research about Graphic Organizers  Identification of 29 scientifically based research studies.  Visual learning strategies improve student performance.  Reading comprehension  Student achievement  Thinking and learning skills  Retention
    • Visual organizers can help students . . .  Clarify thinking  Reinforce understanding  Integrate new knowledge  Identify misconceptions
    • The research about learning and the brain has suggested that . . .  49% of our students are visually preferred learners  34% of our students are kinesthetic/tactile preferred learners  17% of our students are auditory preferred learners Sousa, David. How the Brain Learns, ASCD, 2000
    • The research also suggests that comprehension and recall can be improved . . .  by 200% if you encourage students to group information and find patterns.  by 200% if you get the students to explain and discuss the patterns.  by 50% if the visual display of the patterns includes colors Sousa, David. How the Brain Learns, ASCD, 2000
    • Research about Graphic Organizers  Identification of 29 scientifically based research studies.  Visual learning strategies improve student performance.  Reading comprehension  Student achievement  Thinking and learning skills  Retention
    • Graphic Organizers Can Show Text Patterns and Improve Comprehension •Main Idea •Significant Details •Sequence of Events •Comparison •Cause and Effect •Meaning of Words •Generalization/Conclusions •Problem/Solution •Author’s Voice/Purpose/Techniques
    • The hammer is a tool used to build the house.
    • A graphic organizer is a tool used to construct meaning and provide evidence of learning. •Main Idea •Significant Details •Sequence of Events •Comparison •Cause and Effect •Meaning of Words •Generalization •Author’s Voice and Content Area Learning
    • Europe US Japan Effects Japan Geograhy US Europe WW II Significant People Causes Politics Significant Territorial Events Threats Economic Pearl Harbor D Day
    • Cells Meiosis Mitosis Fertilization sex sperm organism cells nucleus bacteria sperm testes algae egg ovaries protozoa copy
    • Blood Flow through the Heart Right valve? valve ? valve? valve?
    • We often find that one cause has several effects, EFFECTS/RESULTS CAUSE and that several causes lead to one effect. CAUSE EFFECT/RESULT
    • Event leads to... Event which Event which leads to... leads to... Event which leads to...
    • Similarities Differences Differences Object, Event Object, Event or Person or Person
    • First Second Character Character Characterization STORY TITLE Themes Conflict Setting
    • Herringbone
    • Factors Involved in Motivation and High performance  Safety (Students feel safer when they know what to expect and when they believe someone is honest with them and wants them to be successful.)  Success (Students experience success when they apply effective strategies and effort--and, it works.)  Valued Purpose (Students value getting better and being successful.)  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Evidence of Student Failure 1. Lack of skills 1. Poor attendance in school 2. Lack of confidence 2. Lack of attention in classes 3. Lack of motivation 3. Failure to attempt and/or complete in and out-of-class 4. Lack of perseverance/ Resulting assignments determination in 4. Revengeful behavior and 5. Lack of respect for the chronic misconduct culture of school/education 5. Failure to participate in 6. Lack of vision for the role available interventions school plays in career 6. Resistance and Defiance preparation or lifestyle 7. A cycle of failure 7. Lack of connection to positive relationships with teachers and/or peers
    • Power Thinking Cartoon Marzano, Tactics in Thinking, 1989
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 5 •Choose a graphic organizer that you will use to get the students to process information from a unit/chapter of study.
    • The “NEW Millennial” Instructional Lesson Format Focus and Warm-up 5-15% Direct Teaching Explicit 15-25% teaching during Student Performance guided 35-45% practice makes a difference. Review 15-25% Closure 5-15%
    • Optimal Learning Time 10 minutes 3 minutes 7 minutes Prime Apply Prime Time 1 Time Time 2
    • Explicit Teaching Sequence  Step 1 - Introduce the Skill/Strategy  Step 2 - Explain the Skill/Strategy  Step 3 - Demonstrate (model) the Skill/Strategy  Step 4 - Review What Was Done  Step 5 - Apply the Skill/Strategy in a Variety of Contexts (guided practice)  Step 6 - Reflect on the Skill and Strategy
    • How do you involve students? T otal (whole class) A lone P artners S mall groups
    • Instructional Performance Sequence
    • Explicit Instruction and Guided Practice for Successful Learning
    • Supporting Students During Guided Practice  Praise Describe exactly what the student has done right so far. Beware of negative openers. Refer the student to the IPS.  Prompt Describe exactly what you want the student to do. quot;The next thing to do is . . .quot;  Leave  Turn and walk away before the student has time to carry out the prompt. Frederick Jones (1985)
    • Instructional Performance Sequence
    • Supporting Students During Guided Practice Praise Describe exactly what the student has done right so far. Beware of negative openers. Refer the student to the IPS. Prompt Describe exactly what you want the student to do. quot;The next thing to do is . . .quot; Leave Turn and walk away before the student has time to carry out the prompt. Frederick Jones (1985)
    • Research Conclusions: Math 1. Students getting consistent and immediate feedback about progress (especially via computers) increase performance. 2. Students’ performance increases when teachers utilize very tightly sequenced forms of explicit instruction. 3. Explicit instruction in the use of problem solving strategies enhances performance, particularly among students performing below average. 4. Students’ performance increases when teachers explicitly teach concept vocabulary. 5. Providing teachers with regular updates on student performance in terms of state standards enhances performance. US Department of Education, The Use of Scientifically Based Research in Education, Working Group Conference, Wednesday, February 6, 2002.
    • Factors Involved in Motivation and High performance  Safety (Students feel safer when they know what to expect and when they believe someone is honest with them and wants them to be successful.)  Success (Students experience success when they apply effective strategies and effort--and, it works.)  Valued Purpose (Students value getting better and being successful.)  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Great Guided Practice
    • Evidence of Student Failure 1. Lack of skills 1. Poor attendance in school 2. Lack of confidence 2. Lack of attention in classes 3. Lack of motivation 3. Failure to attempt and/or complete in and out-of-class 4. Lack of perseverance/ Resulting assignments determination in 4. Revengeful behavior and 5. Lack of respect for the chronic misconduct culture of school/education 5. Failure to participate in 6. Lack of vision for the role available interventions school plays in career 6. Resistance and Defiance preparation or lifestyle 7. A cycle of failure 7. Lack of connection to positive relationships with teachers and/or peers
    • Power Thinking Cartoon Marzano, Tactics in Thinking, 1989
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 6 •Choose a process/procedure that you will teach students and create an Instructional Performance Sequence (storyboard)
    • Winning at school is important.
    • Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement Category Percentile Gain  Identifying Similarities and Differences 45  Summarizing and note taking 34  Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 29  Homework and practice 28  Non-linguistic representations 27  Cooperative Learning 27  Setting objectives and feedback 23  Generating and testing hypotheses 23  Question, cues, and advanced organizers 22 Marzano, Pickering, Pollack. Classroom Instruction that Works. ASCD, 2001
    • How do we change?
    • Storyboard
    • Summarizing Joshua List Group Label
    • Summarizing Joshua List Group Label
    • Storyboard
    • A Sequence Summary Frame  The passage or movie is about . . . . (big idea)  First . . .  Second . . .  Third . . .  Near the End . . .  In the End . . .
    • 7. Explicit Teaching of Learning and Literacy Skills: Writing  Student achievement increases when learning, literacy, and content-specific skills are explicitly taught (Marzano, 2001, Beyer, 1987).  It takes between 15 and 25 practices to incorporate a skill or strategy into a person's learning repertoire.
    • Writing to Learn  Research Findings about Summarizing  Student-Generated Summaries  Teachers who involve students in summarizing newly acquired information promote learning because the active process of summarizing helps to integrate and reinforce the major points of instruction.
    • Research Results for Summarizing  Up to a 47 percentile gain in achievement  An average 32 percentile gain in achievement  www.mcrel.org (Meta-analysis by Bob Marzano)  ASCD 2001 Classroom Instruction that Works (Marzano, Pickering, and Pollack)
    • Summary Frames are Powerful Teachers  A summary frame . . .  guides students’ processing of new learning.  provides a template of your expectations.  Provides “road signs” to help the student determine if they are performing to expectations.  explicitly teaches various types of thinking.
    • Sequence Summary Frame  In order to _______________ you must follow several steps.  First, _____________________  Then, ____________________  Next, _____________________  Finally, ___________________
    • Chronological Frame  ____________has a specific order.  At the beginning _______________.  After that, _____________________  Then, ____________________  Next, _____________________  The, ____________ended when ____________________.
    • Compare-Contrast Frame  ______________ and _____________ are alike and are different in several ways.  First, they are alike because __________ but they are different _________.  Secondly, ______ is ___________ while ___________ is __________.  Finally, _______ and ________ are alike because _______________.  But, they are different because ___________.
    • Problem-Solution Frame  The problem began when __________.  The ___________ tried to __________.  After that, ________________.  Then, __________________  The problem was finally resolved when _______________.
    • Cause/Effect Summary Frame  In order to understand the (effect/result) _________________ you must identify the causes.  The first cause of (effect/result)_______ is _________________.  Secondly, ____________________ was another cause of (effect/result) ___________.  A third cause of (effect/result)_______ is __________.  It is clear that (effect/result)__________ has a number of contributing causes.
    • Main Idea/Significant Detail Summary Frame  The main idea of this passage is ________________________.  One fact or example that supports this main idea is _____________________.  Another fact or example that supports this main point is _________________.  In addition, ____________________.  Finally, ________________________ illustrates that (main idea) _______________________.
    • Character Trait Analysis Summary Frame  A significant personality characteristic of (character name) ___________ in the (book/story/passage) _______________ is that he/she was (characteristic) _________________.  The first incident where/way that the character demonstrates (characteristic) __________ was ________________.  A second incident where/way that the character demonstrates this trait was ________________,  (Character) ________________also shows this trait when he/she _______________.  Finally, (character) __________ shows that he/she is (characteristic) _______ when _____________.  It is clear that (characteristic) _________________ makes (character) _________ an (choose one--interesting, fascinating, important, etc) character in (book/story) ____________________.
    • Conclusion/Generalization Summary Frame  A person can conclude that _____________.  The first reason for/evidence that (conclusion/ generalization) _____________ is __________________.  A second reason for/evidence that (conclusion/ generalization) _____________ is __________________.  Yet another example that, (conclusion/generalization) _______________ is ___________________.  There is no question then that (conclusion/generalization______________________.
    • MEL-Con Paragraph Template
    •  The main idea of this passage is _____________________ ___.  One fact or example that supports this main idea is _____________________.  Another fact or example that supports this main point is _________________.  In addition, ____________________.  Finally, _____________________ ___ illustrates that (main idea) _____________________ __.
    • The hammer is a tool used to build the house.
    • A summary frame is a tool used to construct meaning and provide evidence of learning. •Main Idea In order to _______________ you must •Significant Details follow several steps. •Sequence of Events First, _____________________ •Comparison Then, ____________________ Next, _____________________ •Cause and Effect Finally, ___________________ •Meaning of Words •Generalization •Author’s Voice and Content Area Learning
    • What does a coach or director do to encourage high performance?
    • Factors Involved in Motivation and High performance  Safety (Students feel safer when they know what to expect and when they believe someone is honest with them and wants them to be successful.)  Success (Students experience success when they apply effective strategies and effort--and, it works.)  Valued Purpose (Students value getting better and being successful.)  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Use this cause/effect graphic organizer Detail Effect: a use a use Excessive C C Eating of Candy e e us us Ca a C
    • Cause/Effect Summary Frame  In order to understand the (effect/result) _________________ you must identify the causes.  The first cause of (effect/result)_______ is _________________.  Secondly, ____________________ was another cause of (effect/result) ___________.  A third cause of (effect/result)_______ is __________.  It is clear that (effect/result)__________ has a number of contributing causes.
    • Evaluating Student Graphic Organizers and Summaries: Cause-Effect Main Causes/Effects The student: __5 included concisely stated, insightful, and relevant causes and/or effects __4 included accurate and relevant causes and/or effects __3 included some accurate causes and/or effects that addressed only a portion or less significant part of the topic __2 omitted most causes and/or effects __1 included no causes and/or effects
    • Evaluating Student Graphic Organizers and Summaries: Cause-Effect Relevant Details/Examples The student: __5 concisely stated significant, insightful, and relevant details/examples __4 concisely included significant relevant details/examples __3 included some relevant details/examples __2 omitted most relevant details/examples __1 included no relevant details/examples
    • Evaluating Student Graphic Organizers and Summaries: Cause-Effect Organization of Ideas The student: __5 used a logical organizational scheme to connect all causes and/or effects to supportive details __4 used a logical organizational scheme to connect most causes and/or effects to supportive details __3 used a logical organizational scheme inconsistently, and some causes and/or effects to supportive details __2 attempted to use a logical organizational scheme, but many of the supportive details are not connected to causes and/or effects __1 did not use any logical organizational scheme and there is no connection of causes and/or effects to supportive details
    • Power Thinking Cartoon Marzano, Tactics in Thinking, 1989
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 7 •Choose a type of thinking/ comprehension that you want student to improve and select a summary frame that you plan to use. •Create a sample summary. Sequence Summary Frame ____________has a specific order. At the beginning _______________. After that, _____________________ Then, ____________________ Next, _____________________ The, ____________ended when ____________________.
    • 7. Encouraging Self-Assessment and Adjustment  Student achievement increases when students are encouraged to think about their thinking during learning and task performance.  Marzano’s (1998) research of 4000 different instructional interventions found that those that were most effective in improving student learning were those that focused on how students think about their thinking processes and on how students feel about themselves as learners.
    • If you keep on doing what you’ve always done, you will continue to get what you always got. What do we want? What are we doing to get what we want? What do we need to change? What’s our plan?
    • Think of a big project or task you completed successfully.  What strategies, techniques, or resources did you use successfully?  What would change if you did this project again?  What are the first two steps you would take to make one of the changes?
    • Monitoring Progress and Making Adjustments: Self Assessment 1. Identify what the goals and standards of success are. 2. Review your performance (e.g., tests, projects, grades, progress). 3. Identify strategies/techniques/steps that were and were not effective. 4. Decide what strategies/techniques you want/need to change or abandon. 5. Try the new strategies or techniques and monitor progress. 6. making adjustments to your strategies. 7. Celebrate progress.
    • Metacognition  Lesson:  Students can increase their performance when they think about and adjust their strategies the learning process.
    • If you keep on doing what you’ve always done, you will continue to get what you always got.  What do you want?  What have you been doing to get what you want?  What do you have to change?  What’s your plan?
    • Teacher and student goal setting requires a process.  When anyone is trying to learn, feedback about the effort has three elements:  recognition of the desired goal,  evidence about present position, and  some understanding of a way to close the gap between the two (Inside the Black Box, Black and Wiliam, 1998).
    • SMART Goals  S= Strategic and Specific  M= Measurable  A= Attainable  R= Results-based  T= Time-bound
    • Sample Student SMART Goal  Goal  I can create pieces of writing to tell others what I am thinking or feeling  Indicators  I can write sentences with different beginnings.  I can tell that words mean different things and I know when these words add to or take away from what I am trying to say in my writing.  Measures  Begin Again Sentence Activity (Written response)  Mix and Match Activity (Selected Response)  20 Minute Summary (Product)  Targets  My writing will earn a rating of 3. Methods  I will have almost all items correct. Practice writing sentences. Self-assess
    • Goal Setting  Goal setting establishes direction, purpose and expectations for learning.  Reflection about goals helps students develop metacognitive abilities.  Learning goals should be specific enough to guide learning.
    • How do you teach students about goal setting, planning, and time management?  Personal planning and responsibility  Content mastery
    • Step/ Step/ Action Step/ Action Action Step/ Planning Step/ Action for Action Step/ Action Step/ Step/ Action Action
    • Planning
    • January 2005
    • Planning with Impact
    • Metacognition  Lesson:  Students can increase their performance when they think about and adjust their strategies the learning process.
    • If you keep on doing what you’ve always done, you will continue to get what you always got.  What do you want?  What have you been doing to get what you want?  What do you have to change?  What’s your plan?
    • Good learners debrief. Debriefing plays an integral role in learning new knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
    • The Self-Assessment Strategy  What did you accomplish?  What strategies, steps, or practices did you successfully apply?  What do you need to abandon or change?  What’s your plan?
    • Factors Involved in Motivation and High performance  Safety (Students feel safer when they know what to expect and when they believe someone is honest with them and wants them to be successful.)  Success (Students experience success when they apply effective strategies and effort--and, it works.)  Valued Purpose (Students value getting better and being successful.)  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Evidence of Student Failure 1. Lack of skills 1. Poor attendance in school 2. Lack of confidence 2. Lack of attention in classes 3. Lack of motivation 3. Failure to attempt and/or complete in and out-of-class 4. Lack of perseverance/ Resulting assignments determination in 4. Revengeful behavior and 5. Lack of respect for the chronic misconduct culture of school/education 5. Failure to participate in 6. Lack of vision for the role available interventions school plays in career 6. Resistance and Defiance preparation or lifestyle 7. A cycle of failure 7. Lack of connection to positive relationships with teachers and/or peers
    • Power Thinking Cartoon Marzano, Tactics in Thinking, 1989
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 8 •Create a plan to engage students in at least weekly self-assessment about their approach to learning (e.g., strategies, practices) and their progress (e.g., grades, improvement)
    • 2. Assessment and Evaluation  Student achievement increases when students receive feedback about their progress related to stated learning standards/goals.  Teachers consistently use formative assessments (during learning, to promote learning) and summative assessments (at the end of learning, to evaluate learning). Students regularly receive feedback about their progress related to objectives/standards (Marzano, 2001).
    • Ways to collect evidence of learning
    • What types of assessments should you use?  Selected response (e.g., multiple choice, matching, true/false  Constructed response (e.g., fill-in-the- blank, short answer, label, visual)  Products (e.g., essay, model, spreadsheet)  Performances (e.g., speeches, recital, demonstrations,  Process (e.g., conferences, observations, logs)
    • Selected Constructed Products Performances Process- Response Response Focused Items •multiple- •fill in the •essay •oral •oral •choice blank •research presentation •questioning •true-false •short answer paper •dance/ •observation •matching sentence(s) •log/journal •movement •“kid watching” • paragraphs •lab report •science lab •Interview •label diagram •story/play •demonstration •conference •show your •poem •athletic • process work •portfolio competition description • visual •art exhibit •dramatic •“think aloud” representation •science •reading •learning log •web project •enactment •concept map • model •debate •flow chart •video/ •musical recital •graph/table •audiotape •matrix •spreadsheet •illustration
    • Choosing the Right Tool for the Right Verb 1. Write a definition for Bloom’s Hierarchy of Thinking Types of magma and lava. •Knowledge Assessments 2. Compare and contrast •Comprehension intrusive and extrusive •Analysis • Selected response igneous rocks. •Application (e.g., multiple 3. Create a model showing •Synthesis how igneous rocks are •Evaluation choice, matching, formed. true/false 4. Describe the similarities • Constructed Types of and differences Thinking/Comprehension response (e.g., fill-in- between scoria and the-blank, short •Main Idea obsidian. answer, label, visual) 5. Describe the similarities •Supporting Details • Products (e.g., and differences •Sequential and Order Relationships essay, model, between concordant and •Comparative Relationships spreadsheet) discordant igneous rock •Causal Relationships bodies. • Performances (e.g., •Problem-Solution Relationships speeches, recital, 6. What would happen if •Making Generalizations and Drawing igneous rocks became demonstrations, Conclusions very difficult to find? • Process (e.g., •Word Analysis, Recognition, and conferences, Meanings of Word in Isolation and in Context observations, logs) •Author’s Approach, Purpose, and Design
    • Formative Assessment Plan
    • There’s a big difference. Evaluation . . . Assessment . . .  Is the gathering of  Is the gathering of information in order to information in order to document, label, grade, or change our behavior o score performance. improve performance.  Evaluation is about grades  Assessment is about and scores. teaching and learning.  Evaluation is a  Assessment is a commitment to scores and commitment to quality. judgments. (Rogers 2008)
    • Use an energizing cycle or assessment and feedback. Common Cycle Teach Teach Teach Teach Test
    • Use an energizing cycle or assessment and feedback. Shortened-Cycle Assessment Teach/ Teach/ Teach/ Teach/ Evaluate Assess Assess Assess Assess Re-teach and re-assess when necessary.
    • Use an energizing cycle or assessment and feedback. Common Cycle Teach Teach Teach Teach Test Shortened-Cycle Assessment Teach/ Teach/ Teach/ Teach/ Evaluate Assess Assess Assess Assess Re-teach and re-assess when necessary.
    • Factors Involved in Motivation (Energy--Passion--Positive Attitude)  Safety  Success (This is the most essential element related to motivation/desire.)  Valued Purpose  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Actions are driven by the need to be successful. (Spence Rogers, 2008)
    • Would students be more motivated and perform better or worse on performance assessments if . . . Rubrics are distributed at the Better Worse beginning of the assignment with exemplars and discussion? Teachers teach strategies and Better Worse techniques to achieve the expectations? Students receive feedback from peers Better Worse and the teacher? Students are guided through self- Better Worse assessment to note incremental progress and the need for revision or change in strategy or performance?
    • Why Use Rating Scales Rating Scales (Rubrics) also . . . 1. provide students with expectations about what will be assessed as well as standards that need to be met, 2. increase consistency in the rating of performances, products and understandings when used by students during self/peer assessment, and by teachers, and 3. provide student with “road signs” – information about where they are in relation to where they need to be. (MCREL, 1992)
    • Happy Camper-- Views life with optimism 4. Always sees the positive side--sees half- full glass as plenty full enough 3. Frequently sees the positive--perceives the glass as half full 2. Sometimes dwells on the negative--perceives the glass as half empty 1. Picks up the half-empty glass and pours out water to prove things will always get worse
    • Factors Involved in Motivation and High performance  Safety (Students feel safer when they know what to expect and when they believe the tests and assessments are just what you told them and taught them.)  Success (Students experience success when they apply effective strategies and effort.)  Valued Purpose (Students value getting better and being successful.)  Love and Belonging  Fun and Enjoyment  Freedom and Independence  Rogers, Ludington, and Graham. Motivation and Learning, Peek Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO (1997)
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 9 •Create a plan for assessing student learning --formatively (every day to 48 hours after learning) --summatively (big tests, projects, assisgments)
    • Selected Constructed Products Performances Process- Response Response Focused Items •multiple- •fill in the •essay •oral •oral •choice blank •research presentation •questioning •true-false •short answer paper •dance/ •observation •matching sentence(s) •log/journal •movement •“kid watching” • paragraphs •lab report •science lab •Interview •label diagram •story/play •demonstration •conference •show your •poem •athletic • process work •portfolio competition description • visual •art exhibit •dramatic •“think aloud” representation •science •reading •learning log •web project •enactment •concept map • model •debate •flow chart •video/ •musical recital •graph/table •audiotape •matrix •spreadsheet •illustration
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 9 •Create a plan for assessing student learning --formatively (every day to 48 hours after learning) --summatively (big tests, projects, assisgments during and at the end of the unit)
    • 3. Correctives, Enrichments, and Reassessment  Student achievement increases when students have additional opportunities to learn content and skills and have additional opportunities to demonstrate acquisition of learning objectives (Guskey, Implementing Mastery Learning 1987). Particular objectives may require a mastery level (e.g., 70%) of acquisition.
    • Adapting to Student Learning Needs
    • Correctives 1. Teach the same material in a different way than the original method 2. Involve students in a different way than the original involvement 3. Provide students with successful experiences
    • Corrective Suggestions  re-teaching  small group study  alternative textbooks sessions  alternative materials  individual tutoring  workbooks  learning centers and  academic games laboratories (crossword puzzles,  computer-assisted simulations) instruction Adapted from Guskey, T. Implementing Mastery Learning.
    • Enrichment/Extensions . . . 1. Should be rewarding and exciting learning opportunities 2. Should be challenging 3. Should appeal to the need for achievement, affiliation, and/or control
    • Enrichment/Extension Suggestions  Tutoring peers  locating background  developing practice materials for future or exercises current topics  developing related media materials  developing additional  completing special projects, formative assessments experiments  planning to teach a  developing games, mini-unit problems, and contests  creating bulletin boards  using advanced computer- and displays assisted lessons  applying knowledge to a new situation
    • What do staff need to learn to be able to meet students diverse learning needs?  Change Content  What students will learn and the materials that represent the content  Change Process  Activities through which students make sense of key ideas using essential skills  Change Product/Assessment  How students demonstrate and extend what they understand and can do as a result of a span of learning  Change Environment  The classroom conditions that set the tone and expectations of learning
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 10 •Choose some corrective techniques/ practices you will use to respond students’ lower performance. •Chose two or more enrichment techniques/practices you will use to respond to students’ high performance.
    • Responses to Formative Assessments
    • Corrective Suggestions  re-teaching  small group study  alternative textbooks sessions  alternative materials  individual tutoring  workbooks  learning centers and  academic games laboratories (crossword puzzles,  computer-assisted simulations) instruction Adapted from Guskey, T. Implementing Mastery Learning.
    • Enrichment/Extensions . . . 1. Should be rewarding and exciting learning opportunities 2. Should be challenging 3. Should appeal to the need for achievement, affiliation, and/or control
    • Apply what you have learned. Page 10 •Choose some corrective techniques/ practices you will use to respond students’ lower performance. •Chose two or more enrichment techniques/practices you will use to respond to students’ high performance.
    • Are you motivating students for high performance? 1. Stating and showing (in writing) objectives at the beginning and end of each lesson (27 percentile increase) 2. Providing frequent feedback to students about their learning related to the objectives (within 48 hours most of the time) (37 percentile increase) 3. Providing corrective activities that respond to student progress and providing additional opportunities to retake/retest (26 percentile increase) 4. Helping student activate and build background information and advance organization (22 percentile increase) 5. Explicitly teaching vocabulary as well as retention and retrieval (memory) strategies (33 percentile increase) 6. Explicitly teaching learning skills and strategies using Graphic organizers (for patterning, thinking, and writing) (27 percentile increase) 7. Explicitly teaching learning skills and strategies using Summaries (for patterning, thinking, and writing) (34 percentile increase) 8. Encouraging student self-assessment and adjustment (24 percentile increase)
    • Goals, Activities, Homework Learning Goals 1. Be familiar with changes to our learners and educational context. 2. Be familiar with successful instructional practices and teaching/learning strategies. 3. Know additional ways to intervened when student demonstrate low performance and or require accommodations for learning disabilities/differences. Activities  Exploring changes to our learners and educational context  A Motivational Model  Demonstration and application of powerful teaching/learning strategies Homework  Apply at least one idea, strategy, or technique and contact the presenter to let him/her know if it worked.  Tell one colleague or other educator about your success or seek help with challenging problems.
    • Head An idea I had . . . Heart A feeling I had . . . Foot An action I may take . . .