Fire

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Fire

  1. 1. INTRODUCTIONTOFIREFIGHTING 1
  2. 2. What will you learn From this programLife Safety The primary goal of fire safety efforts is to protect building occupants from injury and to prevent loss of life.Property Protection The secondary goal of fire safety is to prevent property damage.Protection of Operations By preventing fires and limiting damage we can assure that work operations will continue. 2
  3. 3. What will you learn From this programa. How can you prevent Fire accidents?b. How can you develop fire prevention checklists?c. How can you inspect and update your fire fighting appliances?d. How can you use Fire fighting appliances?e. What will you do in case of fire accidents?f. How can you develop fire emergency plan? 3
  4. 4. Pakistan Petroleum Limited What is a FireFire is a chain of chemical reaction involving rapidoxidation or burning of a fuel, which produce smoke,heat and flame.•Fuel•Oxygen•Temperature 4
  5. 5. CHEMISTRY OF FIRE Chain ReactionBURNING MATERIAL + TEMPERATURE + OXYGEN + CHAIN REACTION =FIRE 5
  6. 6. Classifications according to burning materials• Class A - Ordinary combustibles• Class B - Flammable liquids Fires• Class C – Class Gas Fires• Class D - Metal Fires• Class E – Electric & Machinery Fires• Class F – Kitchen Fires 6 1a
  7. 7. How to extinguish fire? 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. How Fire Expands? 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. CONVECTION 13
  14. 14. RADIATION 14
  15. 15. CAUSES OF FIRE ANDFIRE PREVENTION 15
  16. 16. COMMON CAUSES OF FIRE ACCIDENT Smoking Electric short circuiting Over heating of electric appliances. Over heating of engine or machine. Over heating of oil. Heater or coal burner Matches Spark of oven Sprit lamp Self created fire Friction or resistance High temperature in summer season 16
  17. 17. Special Causes of Fire• Dust Explosion• Gas and Vapor Explosion• Chemical Reactions• Seasonal Changes• Lightening• Etc. 17
  18. 18. Basic Principles of Fire Prevention• Prevention of the starting of fire.• Prevention of the spreading of fire.• Prevention of water damage. 18
  19. 19. Prevention of Starting of Fire• The premises, machines and house-hold articles to be kept neat and clean.• Sufficient space in between the buildings.• Proper Storage (in godowns)• Careful about fire works.• Periodic inspection of electrical wiring.• No Smoking notices. 19
  20. 20. Prevention of Spreading of Fire• Firefighting Training for all.• First Aid Firefighting Equipment.• Provision of adequate water supply.• Removal of combustible material from room and attics.• Fire Receptivity.• Efficient Firefighting Service. 20
  21. 21. Prevention of Water Damage.• It is job of the professional firefighters to see that less water damage is caused while fighting a fire. 21
  22. 22. FIRE EXTINGUISHERAN INSTRUMENT USEDTO EXTINGUISH THEFIRE IS KNOWN ASFIRE EXTINGUISHER. 22
  23. 23. Standards for portable fire extinguishers• OSHA-29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable Fire Extinguishers.• NFPA-10• Civil Defense Of Pakistan 23
  24. 24. WATER FIREEXTINGUISHER 24
  25. 25. Common Fire Extinguishing Agents WaterAdvantages: Disadvantages:Removes heat Conducts electricityEffective on Class A fires May spread Class B firesInexpensive Freezes in cold climatesPlentiful May carry pollutants as run-off waterNon-toxic 25
  26. 26. FOAM FIREEXTINGUISHER 26
  27. 27. DCP FIRE EXTINGUISHER 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. Common Fire Extinguishing Agents Dry ChemicalAdvantage: Disadvantage:• Interrupts chemical • Leaves a residue reactions • Obscures vision• Sodium bicarbonate • Not good on deep-seated (baking soda) fires• Very effective on Class B • Nozzle pressure may cause and C fires burning liquids to splash• Not considered toxic 29
  30. 30. Common Fire Extinguishing Agents Multipurpose Dry ChemicalAdvantages: • Disadvantages: • Obscures vision• Interrupts chemical • More irritating than reactions ordinary dry chemical• Ammonium phosphate • Nozzle pressure may• Effective on Class A, B, and cause C fires • burning liquids to splash• Non-conductive Create a layer on components 30
  31. 31. CO2 FIRE EXTINGUISHER 31
  32. 32. Common Fire Extinguishing Agents Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Advantage: Disadvantage: • Generally >35%• Reduces oxygen to less concentration needed than 15%. • Toxic to humans at >4%• Effective on Class B and C by volume fires. • Not the best agent for• No residue. smoldering fires • Dissipates rapidly - allows• Relatively inert. reflash 32
  33. 33. HALONTRON FIREEXTINGUISHER 33
  34. 34. FIRE EXTINGUISHER SLECTION Type Of Fire Class Class B Class C Class K A ExtinguisherWater Type Yes No No NoCarbon Dioxide (CO2) No Yes Yes YesDry Chemical Powder- BC No Yes Yes YesMultipurpose Dry Chemical Powder ABC Yes Yes Yes YesHalon/ Halotron Yes Yes Yes Yes 34
  35. 35. Appropriate use of extinguishers• You can fight the fire with your back toward an escape route• The extinguisher matches the fire type• The extinguisher works effectively 35 2b
  36. 36. Appropriate use of extinguishers • You are properly trained in the use of the extinguisher • You are confident you can put the fire out 36 2c
  37. 37. Appropriate use of extinguishers• The fire is large and has grown beyond its original confined space• Your escape path is threatened• You are not sure if you have the correct type of fire extinguisher 37 3a
  38. 38. Personal hazards• Smoke and noxious fumes• Smoke and fumes cause unconsciousness• Death may result 38 4a
  39. 39. How to inspect your fire extinguisher.AccessWorking pressureHoseSafety PinRefilling DateExpiry Date 39
  40. 40. PASS method of fighting firesHold the extinguisher upright• Pull the pin• Aim at the base of the fire• Squeeze the handle• Sweep the base of the fire• Do not aim high at the flames 40 5a
  41. 41. Fire Hydrant System• OSHA- 29 CFR 1910.158 - Stand pipe and hose systems• NFPA-25• IAP Standards 41
  42. 42. Fire Fighter Kit 42
  43. 43. When not to fight a fire?Never fight a fire:• If the fire is spreading beyond the spot where it started• If you cant fight the fire with your back to an escape exit• If the fire can block your only escape• If you dont have adequate fire-fighting equipment 43
  44. 44. How to create an Emergency Action Plan?• Objective• Information and communication• Evacuation• Emergency Equipment• workstations of the disabled workers• Emergency Action Leaders and Teams• Emergency Action Plan Locations• Training and Drills 44
  45. 45. How to evacuate a burning• building? should not lock the door, just close it• Proceed to the exit.• NEVER, NEVER use elevators.• Stay low, crawl if necessary. Assembly Point # 1• Once in the stairwell, Never go up.• Report to a predetermined area.• when the evacuation alarm sounds, “EVERYONE MUST LEAVE THE BUILDING” 45
  46. 46. What to do if trapped in a burning building?• Never open a closed door without feeling it first• If the door is hot, try another exit• use wet towels to seal the space under the door and prevent the entry of smoke• If trapped, look for a nearby phone and call the fire department• If on an upper floor and your window is of a type that CANNOT be opened, DONT break it out- youll be raining glass down on rescuers and people exiting the building• If you cant contact the fire department by phone, wave for attention at the window. Dont panic. 46
  47. 47. Pakistan Petroleum LimitedLearn Not To Burn 47
  48. 48. What to do if someone catches fire?If a co-worker catches on fire, smother flames by grabbing a blanket or rug and wrapping them up in it. That could save them from serious burns or even death. 48
  49. 49. What to do if you catch a fire?If you should catch on fire: STOP - where you are DROP - to the floor ROLL - around on the floor This will smother the flames, possibly saving your life. 49
  50. 50. Rescue• Fire Man Crawl• Fire Man lift• Jumping from low window• Jumping from high window 50

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