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Designers Risk Assessment for those involved in the CDM regulations ideal for Construction designers to understands the Risk Assessment process.

Designers Risk Assessment for those involved in the CDM regulations ideal for Construction designers to understands the Risk Assessment process.

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Designers Risk Assessment Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Risk Assessment for Designers CDM Regulations 2007 www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 2. Risk Assessment for Designers TODAY’S PROGRAMME www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 3. Risk Assessment for Designers Risks Assessments & Remedies 1. Introduction 2. Legal Background to Risk Assessment 3. Hierarchy of Controls 4. The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ 5. Design Issues and Remedies 6. The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘B’ 7. Communication with the Design Team and Contractors 8. Questions and Answers www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 4. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. INTRODUCTION www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 5. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Introduction a)Review of previous Health & Safety Training b)Issues arising from other Legislation c)Overview of Risk Assessment www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 6. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training i. General health and safety presentation a. Employee safety b. Workplace safety c. Hazards associated with site visits ii. Update on the CDM Regulations www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 7. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training a. Employee safety www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 8. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training a. Employee safety • Make sure you are familiar with your organisation’s health and safety policy and arrangements • Ensure that any equipment you may use is in good safe condition • Comply with your organisation’s safe systems of work, or ensure one is put in place • Refuse to condone unsafe working practices by yourself or others • Make sure your advice to clients will minimise the risk to the health and safety of others • Make sure you are aware of any hazards which may exist • If you are working alone, make sure you follow your organisation’s lone working procedures Follow the dictates of “common sense” www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 9. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training b. Workplace safety Contractors - anyone who comes to your building to work, or whom you put to work, must be assessed by you to ensure they are competent, a risk assessment has been carried out and a safe system of work has been established. Asbestos - everyone in control of premises must proactively locate and manage any asbestos that exists. Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (DDA) Legionnaires Disease Welfare Facilities (where relevant): Smokers, Rest Room, First Aid, Pregnant Mothers www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 10. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training c. Hazards associated with site visits Vacant/unoccupied buildings (Good Condition) Lighting levels Loss of contact (lone working) Possibility of fire/clarity of escape route? Confined spaces Contamination or contact with hazardous substances Closed spaces (cold rooms,vaults) www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 11. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training c. Hazards associated with site visits New build projects Slips, trips and falls Falling objects Falls from height www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 12. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training Construction Design and Management Regulations “A procedure for imposing better standards of health and safety management by avoiding, reducing and controlling health and safety hazards faced by workers on construction and maintenance sites.” www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 13. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training The parties under the regs – who are they? • Clients • Agents • Planning supervisors • Designers • Principal contractors • Contractors www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 14. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training The Designer’s Duties •Take reasonable steps to ensure that clients are aware of their duties under CDM before starting design work •Prepare designs with adequate regard to health & safety, and to the information supplied by the client. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 15. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training The Designer’s Duties Making clients aware of their duties: • You should not start preparing any design work until the client is aware of their duties under the CDM Regulations. • Reference may be made to guidance published by the HSC and the HSE e.g. Construction Information Sheet No 39. • If considered appropriate advise the client to seek professional advice for help in complying with their duties. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 16. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Introduction a)Review of previous Health & Safety Training b)Issues arising from other Legislation c)Overview of Risk Assessment www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 17. Risk Assessment for Designers Review of Previous H&S Training i. The Health & Safety at Work Act (HASW) ii.The Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations (MHSW) iii.The CDM Regulations (CDM) www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 18. Risk Assessment for Designers The Legal Background (HASW) GENERAL DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS Employers must, so far as is reasonably practicable, safeguard the health, safety and welfare of employees particularly with regard to: • safe plant and safe systems of work • safe handling, storage, maintenance and transport of (work) articles and substances • necessary information, instruction, training and supervision • a safe place of work, with safe access and egress • a safe working environment with a adequate welfare facilities www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 19. Risk Assessment for Designers The Legal Background (HASW) GENERAL DUTIES OF EMPLOYEES Employees must: • take reasonable care of their own health and safety • take reasonable care of the health and safety of others who may be affected by their acts or omissions • co-operate with their employer and must not: • intentionally or recklessly interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety or welfare (Section 2.8) www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 20. Risk Assessment for Designers Review of Previous H&S Training i. The Health & Safety at Work Act (HASW) ii.The Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations (MHSW) iii.The CDM Regulations (CDM) www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 21. Risk Assessment for Designers The Legal Background (MHSW) Required an employer for the first time to specifically consider and to apply a hierarchy of precautions to protect the health and safety of those whom they are responsible. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 22. Risk Assessment for Designers Review of Previous H&S Training i. The Health & Safety at Work Act (HASW) ii.The Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations (MHSW) iii.The CDM Regulations (CDM) www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 23. Risk Assessment for Designers The Legal Background (CDM) “A procedure for imposing better standards of health and safety management by avoiding, reducing and controlling health and safety hazards faced by workers on construction and maintenance sites.” • Application of the Regulations • Parties THE CDM REGS DO NOT • Duties MAKE IT MANDATORY FOR ANYONE TO PRODUCE • Documents RISK ASSESSMENTS! www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 24. Risk Assessment for Designers Introduction a)Review of previous Health & Safety Training b)Issues arising from other Legislation c)Overview of Risk Assessment www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 25. Risk Assessment for Designers Issues Arising From Other H&S Legislation Companies’ Health & Safety Policies are often characterised by: - 1. A statement of the company’s intent to abide by all relevant legislation 2. Various policies dealing with such issues as equal opportunities, quality issues and the environment 3. The duties and responsibilities of their various levels of staff Implementation is often delegated to inadequately trained and/or unqualified junior/clerical staff www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 26. Risk Assessment for Designers Introduction a)Review of previous Health & Safety Training b)Issues arising from other Legislation c)Overview of Risk Assessment www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 27. Risk Assessment for Designers The Legal Background i. The new Work at Height Regulations ii.Re-examine the legal basis for risk assessment iii.The Risk Assessment Process www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 28. Risk Assessment for Designers 1. Review of Previous Training and Update i. Falls from Height ii. Why new Regulations? iii. HSE Intervention Strategy iv.The Work at Height Regulations 2005 www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 29. Risk Assessment for Designers 2. LEGAL BACKGROUND TO RISK ASSESSMENT www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 30. Risk Assessment for Designers The Legal Background (MHSW) The Management Regulations require an employer to now specifically consider and to apply a hierarchy of precautions which includes: •Avoiding risks •Evaluating risks which cannot be avoided •Combating risks at source •Adapting work to the individual, especially: the design of the workplace the choice of work equipment and the choice of working and production methods with a view to alleviating monotonous work and work at a predetermined work rate in order to reduce their effect on health www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 31. Risk Assessment for Designers The Legal Background (MHSW) The Management Regulations require an employer to now specifically consider and to apply a hierarchy of precautions which includes: •Adapting to technical progress •Replacing the dangerous with the non-dangerous or the less dangerous. •Developing a coherent overall prevention policy which covers: technology organisation of work working conditions social relationships and the influence of factors relating to the working environment •Giving collective protective measure priority over individual protective measures •Giving appropriate instructions to employees www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 32. Risk Assessment for Designers The Legal Background (CDM) Designers must: •Prepare designs with adequate regard to health and safety •Provide adequate information in or with the design Since the introduction of the CDM Regulations many designers have seen the production of risk assessments as the only vehicle for doing this! THE CDM REGS DO NOT MAKE IT MANDATORY FOR ANYONE TO PRODUCE RISK ASSESSMENTS! www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 33. Risk Assessment for Designers The Legal Background (CDM) Risk assessment is not the Holy Grail Generic risk assessments must not be relied upon Risk assessments should be specific to the project and properly considered by an experienced practitioner. THE HSE HAS SUCCESSFULLY PROSECUTED A PRACTITIONER FOR PRODUCING AN INADEQUATE AND IMPROPERLY CONCEIVED RISK ASSESSMENT www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 34. Risk Assessment for Designers The Legal Background (CDM) Designers do NOT have to do: •Take into account or provide information about unforeseeable hazards and risks •Specify construction methods, except where the design assumes or requires a particular construction or erection sequence, or where a competent contractor might need this information •Exercise any health and safety management function over contractors or others: or •Review and report on contractors’ health and safety performance (although, like anyone else, they should point out unsafe practices that they notice to an appropriate person, such as the on-site manager) www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 35. Risk Assessment for Designers 3. HIERARCHY OF CONTROL www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 36. Risk Assessment for Designers Hierarchy of Control Measures The principles of prevention and protection are: a) If possible, avoid the risk completely, by using alternative methods or materials. b) Combat risks at source, rather than by measures which leave the risk in place but attempt to prevent contact with the risk. c) Wherever possible adapt work to the individual, particularly in the choice of work equipment and methods of use. d) Take advantage of technological progress, which often offers opportunities for safer and more efficient working methods. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 37. Risk Assessment for Designers Hierarchy of Control Measures The principles of prevention and protection are: e) Incorporate the prevention measures into a coherent plan to reduce progressively those risks which cannot altogether be avoided and which takes into account working conditions, organisational factors, the working environment and social factors. f) Give priority to those measures which protect the whole workforce or activity, and so yield the greatest benefit, i.e. give collective protective measures over individual measures. g) Employees and the self-employed need to understand what they need to do, e.g.by training, instruction and communication of plans and risk assessments. h) The existence of an active safety culture affecting the organisations responsible for developing and executing the project needs to be assured. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 38. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Hierarchy of Control Measures 1. Avoid by: a. Re-designing the works b. Using alternative construction methods c. Using alternative construction materials www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 39. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Hierarchy of Control Measures 2. Prevent or control: www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 40. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Hierarchy of Control Measures 2. Prevent or control by: a. Using an existing workplace :- A flat roof with permanent edge protection. b. Using collective work equipment :- Access equipment with guard rails (e.g. MEWPs, scissor lifts, mast climbers, cradles, tower scaffolds, independent scaffolds). c. Using personal work equipment :- PPE used so it is impossible to fall (e.g. work restraint). www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 41. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Hierarchy of Control Measures 3. Mitigate by: a. Using collective work equipment to minimise “distance and consequences” :- Nets and soft landing systems, such as air bags close under work surface. b. Using personal work equipment to minimise “distance and consequences” :- Fall-arrest system with anchorage points above head (zero fall factor), at sternum (fall factor 1), or at feet (fall factor 2); rope access, work positioning system. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 42. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Hierarchy of Control Measures 3. Mitigate by: c. Using personal work equipment to minimise “consequences” :- Personal injury systems such as life jackets when next to unguarded water. d. Training, instruction and other means :- Ladders, stilts. NB. PPE is a last resort not the first Port of call !! www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 43. Risk Assessment for Designers Hierarchy of Control Measures Designer initiative 2005 Despite the overall improvement, poor practices which continued to figure in field work findings this year were: • production of vast quantities of paperwork with no useful purpose; • ineffective communication of information about residual risks, • lack of understanding of the needs of the contractor during construction and maintenance; • and the use of running lines as the main control for work at height. This indicates that both HSE and others should continue to develop guidance in these key areas. It is hoped that the current consultation on the revision of CDM will help designers ... move from the false comfort of producing vast quantities of untargeted and generic paperwork where key messages are hidden. The poor practices identified provide a useful guide to where further work and guidance should be developed. The current consultation on the revision of CDM and the ‘less is more’ message should help particularly with the paperwork and communication issues. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 44. Risk Assessment for Designers 4. THE RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS PART ‘A’ www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 45. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ I. Principles of risk assessment II. Some definitions III.Who prepares them and when? IV. The HSE ‘5 step’ approach to risk assessment V. E.R.I.C. VI. Alternative evaluation approaches www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 46. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ The Principles Of Risk Assessment 1. The implementation of a systematic procedure to assist employers and self employed persons in identifying what measures should be taken in order to comply with: – HSW etc 74 Act – MHSW Regulations 92 2. To plan and organise work activities and make effective arrangements for health and safety. 3. To enable control measures to be devised. 4. To provide a vehicle for monitoring and review. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 47. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ The Principles Of Risk Assessment • Provide a formal means of identifying the risks inherent in the works and of communicating them to other members of the design team, the Planning Supervisor and Principal Contractor. • Identify the possible need for a safety method statements due to the risks involved not otherwise being capable of being reduced to an acceptable level. • Provide formal documented information for the Principal Contractor to use in site induction and pre-work briefings identifying the hazards that operatives will be exposed to and the measures to be taken to minimise the risks maintain their health and safety. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 48. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ I. Principles of risk assessment II. Some definitions III.Who prepares them and when? IV. The HSE ‘5 step’ approach to risk assessment V. E.R.I.C. VI. Alternative evaluation approaches www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 49. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Some definitions: - • Hazard Anything that has the potential to result in personal injury or damage to property • Risk A measure of the likelihood and severity of injury/damage • Population The number of people likely to be affected by a hazard www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 50. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Risk assessments are carried out on daily basis, often unconsciously, by everyone in their day-to-day activities - this may be considered to be a qualitative assessment. • For low risk, straightforward activities these assessments are a relatively simple and straightforward process being based upon the managers knowledge, skill and judgement and adequate for their purposes. For unusual, complicated or high risk activities where the consequences of an accident may be particularly severe or widespread a quantitative assessment must be undertaken. • This type produces an objective probability estimate based upon known risk information applied to the activities under consideration . www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 51. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ ‘Generic’ or ‘Model’ risk assessments (often included within organisations’ Health & safety Policies) are acceptable and can be useful where: - • there is a similarity of : • there is constancy across: – activities – workplaces – hazards – sites – risks – activities ‘Specific’ risk assessments must be prepared on such occasions when these will not be sufficiently detailed or address the particular circumstances e.g. • asbestos or asbestos containing materials • ‘poor’ environments e.g. brownfield sites and refurbishment works • installation of bulky/heavy plant or pre-fabricated equipment and often relate to changing environmental conditions or locations www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 52. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ I. Principles of risk assessment II. Some definitions III.Who prepares them and when? IV. The HSE ‘5 step’ approach to risk assessment V. E.R.I.C. VI. Alternative evaluation approaches www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 53. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ WHO PREPARES THEM AND WHEN? Designers •At every stage of the design process in order to comply with Regulation 13 of the CDM Regulations 1994 Principal Contractors •Prior to commencement of Construction Phase •During the course of the contract due to changes in scope of works, unforeseen circumstances etc. Contractors •Prior to commencing works on site. Generic assessments may be adequate for some trades or activities www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 54. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ I. Principles of risk assessment II. Some definitions III.Who prepares them and when? IV.The HSE ‘5 step’ approach to risk assessment V. E.R.I.C. VI. Alternative evaluation approaches www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 55. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ THE HSE ‘5 STEP’ APPROACH TO RISK ASSESSMENT • Step 1 Look for the hazards • Step 2 Identify who might be harmed and how • Step 3 Value the risks and decide whether the existing precautions are adequate or whether more should be done • Step 4 Enter and record your findings • Step 5 Review your assessment and revise it if necessary www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 56. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Step 1: Look for the hazards www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 57. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Step 1: Look for the hazards • Do they arise from? – the location? – the work itself? – the plant or machinery? – the process? – the environment? – the season or geographical location? www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 58. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Step 2: Identify the population Who will be affected: – the operative? – occupants of the building? – persons accessing the building? – maintenance personnel? – the general public? www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 59. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Step 2: Identify the population Who will be affected: Special categories: – Visitors? – Young workers? – Expectant mothers? – Physically disabled? – Mentally disturbed? www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 60. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Step 3: Value the risks There are many different approaches: •relatively frequent, straightforward tasks may simply be categorised as being high, medium or low (the qualitative or descriptive approach) •at the other extreme complicated mathematical matrices may be utilised whereby elements are scored within a given range and the scores added, multiplied or factored using advanced statistical techniques (the quantitative or analytical approach) There are however main two factors that any risk analysis should take into account: • severity of the injury in the event of an event occurring • likelihood of the event occurring Each of these must be weighted on the same basis to give a meaningful evaluation - it is not possible to mix a descriptive measure of severity with an analytical (mathematical) measure of likelihood. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 61. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Step 4: Entering the results www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 62. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Step 5: Review and Revision • Set a date for reviewing the assessment: – this is best done at least annually – or otherwise as deemed necessary • When conducting the review take into account: – whether the precautions for each hazard still adequately control the risk – if not indicate the action needed – note the outcome of the review – if necessary amend the assessment or carry out a new assessment www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 63. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Step 5: Review and Revision Consider events that might make an earlier review necessary: • Changes in the working environment – new factory or site location – identification of new health hazards – introduction of new PPE • Changes in working practices: – factory prefabrication of components and building elements – lone working or shift working – introduction of new regulations • Changes in technology: – new processes – new materials – new machinery www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 64. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ I. Principles of risk assessment II. Some definitions III.Who prepares them and when? IV. The HSE ‘5 step’ approach to risk assessment V. E.R.I.C. VI. Alternative evaluation approaches www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 65. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Eliminate the hazard/combat risks at source. Reduce the risk. Inform constructors and users of the remaining hazards and risks. Control the remaining hazards and risks. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 66. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 67. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ I. Principles of risk assessment II. Some definitions III.Who prepares them and when? IV. The HSE ‘5 step’ approach to risk assessment V. E.R.I.C. VI.Alternative evaluation approaches www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 68. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Alternative evaluation approaches As previously seen a major aspect of risk assessment is evaluating the risks by using a function of both severity and likelihood. The evaluation of the risks enables actions for risk reduction to be determined. A simple subjective method of conducting this exercise that takes account of both of these elements would be to rate each element Low, Medium or High in terms of their increasing severity or likelihood. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 69. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Alternative evaluation approaches A SIMPLE THREE-FACTOR APPROACH Severity High Fatality, major injury or illness causing long term disability Injury or illness Medium causing short term disability Other injury or Low illness www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 70. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Alternative evaluation approaches A SIMPLE THREE-FACTOR APPROACH Certain or near Likelihood High certain to occur Reasonably likely Medium to occur Very seldom or Low never occurs www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 71. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Alternative evaluation approaches This plot results in a rating ranging fromLow/Low to High/High with other LIKELIHOOD action levels within the range. LOW MEDIUM HIGH S Whilst a Low/Low rating may be confidently EL L/L L/M L/H ignored clearly a High/High rating has to be V addressed by redesign of the activity or process to reduce the level of risk. E RM M/L M/M M/H The ratings in between these extremes I though present great difficulty (due to the T narrative nature) in determining how the activity or process may be modified to YH H/L H/M H/H reduce the risks to the lowest possible level. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 72. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Alternative evaluation approaches A SIMPLE THREE-FACTOR APPROACH Severity High Fatality, major 3 injury or illness causing long term disability Injury or illness 2 Medium causing short term disability Other injury or 1 Low illness www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 73. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Alternative evaluation approaches A SIMPLE THREE-FACTOR APPROACH Certain or near Likelihood High certain to occur 3 Reasonably likely Medium to occur 2 Very seldom or Low never occurs 1 www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 74. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘A’ Alternative evaluation approaches Replacing the descriptive Low/Medium/High terms with numerical values 1-3 enables the risk evaluation to be quantified. A simple quantitative version of the previous subjective exercise again taking account of the severity/likelihood elements scores each from 1 - 3 in terms of their increasing severity or likelihood. This plot results in a rating from ranging from 1 - 9 with 6 different action levels. LIKELIHOOD As before whilst a score of 1 may be confidently ignored clearly a score of 9 has to be addressed by 1 2 3 SEVERITY redesign of the activity or process to reduce the level of risk. 2 4 6 The majority of scores however lie between these extremes though in this quantitative exercise a pattern can be seen developing across the diagonal 3 6 9 from bottom left to top right! www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 75. Risk Assessment for Designers 5. DESIGN ISSUES AND REMEDIES www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 76. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Some typical design issues The design must consider:- • The health and safety of those who are going to maintain, repair and clean the building. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 77. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Some typical design issues The design must also consider:- •The safe demolition of the building. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 78. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Typical design issues to be addressed •Plant Replacement Strategy •Reaching High Level Plant •Marking Drawings •Steps and Walkways •Access Around Plant •Door Thresholds •Plant Room Floors •Guarding/Signage on Equipment •Clear Walkways •Soft Spots in Floors/Walls www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 79. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Typical design issues to be addressed •Crane Access/Hard standing •Drainage Materials for Future Plant Replacement •Bunds •Positioning of Luminaires •Positioning of Traps •Service Ducts •Fire Dampers/Smoke Outlets •Future Escalators •Services Above Ceilings •Epoxy Resin Floors •Motorised Shades/Blinds/Shutters •Emergency Battery Packs www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 80. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies DESIGNING OUT HAZARDS To design out hazards successfully designers must assess critically their design proposals at an early stage and throughout the design process. The following section identifies some areas over which the designer has direct influence. The areas cover construction as well as future maintenance and cleaning requirements, but are not exhaustive. Understand how the design can be built and erected safely: (a) take full account of the hazards that can arise from the proposed construction processes; and give particular attention to new or unfamiliar processes, and to those that may place large numbers of people at risk; (b) where stability of partially erected structures is an issue , or the design is complex, detail one method showing how temporary stability can be achieved during construction; when refurbishing buildings consider the effect of the proposed work on the integrity of the existing structure; and www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 81. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Design out hazards including: (a) fragile roofing materials; and (b) deep excavations. Consider prefabrication to minimise the amount of work at height, or to allow it to be carried out in more controlled conditions on site including: Where work at height cannot be avoided, design in:- (a) edge protection or other features that expedite safe access and erection; (b) anchorage points, etc. for nets or harnesses; and early installation of permanent access. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 82. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Design to simplify safe construction including: (a) avoiding conflict between processes; (b) providing lifting points and marking the weight and centre of gravity of heavy or awkward items requiring slinging; (c) making allowance for temporary works required during construction; (d) marking the weights of structural elements that require lifting on drawings; (e) designing joints in vertical structural steel members so that bolting up can easily be done by someone standing on a permanent floor; (f) designing connections that can only be made in an unique manner to avoid erection errors; and (g) sequencing the work to ensure hard standings are available to aid steel erection. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 83. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Design to minimise health risks e.g.:- (g) specify low solvent or solvent free adhesive and water based paints; (h) design the length and weight of reinforcing bars to ease handling; (i) specify lighter weight building blocks that are easy to handle; and (j) avoid processes that create dust, noise or vibration, such as forming chases in brickwork and concrete; www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 84. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Design to simplify future maintenance and cleaning work, e.g.:- (a) make provision for safe permanent access; (b) specify windows that can be cleaned from the inside; (c) design plant rooms to allow appropriate access and for the removal and replacement of plant; (d) design safe access for roof mounted plant and roof maintenance; and (e) make provision for safe temporary access. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 85. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Identify demolition hazards for inclusion in the health and safety file, e.g.: (a) post-tensioned members; (b) unusual stability concepts; and (c) alterations that have changed the structure. Designers have to provide adequate health and safety information about hazards that remain after the design has been completed. Designers need to make clear to planning supervisors (and to any one else working on the pre-tender plan) the assumptions about work methods and the precautions so that they can be described in the pre-tender plan. Designers also need to ensure that information is sent forward with their design drawings, etc. to inform those carrying out the construction work. www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 86. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Designers do not need to mention every hazard or assumption as this can obscure the significant issues. They do need to point out significant hazards which are not obvious to a competent contractor or other designers, and those hazards that are likely to be difficult to manage effectively. To do this designers must know how the design can be built. Examples of significant hazards that designers ought to point out include:- (a) temporary bracing required to ensure stability during construction of steel or concrete frame buildings; (b) sequences of assembly or disassembly that are crucial to safe erection or demolition; (c) specific problems and solutions, e.g. how to remove a large item of plant from the basement of a building; (d) hazardous or flammable substances specified in the design, e.g. fungicidal paints, or those containing isocyanates; (e) structures that create particular access problems, e.g. domed glass structures; (f) heavy or awkward prefabricated elements likely to create risks in handling; and (g) areas needing access where normal methods of tying scaffolds may not be feasible, www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 87. Risk Assessment for Designers Design Issues and Remedies Designer initiative 2005 Overall there has been a continuing improvement in designer performance over the last 3 years. Particularly noteworthy good practices identified by inspectors were: • clients, planning supervisors and principal contractors proactively engaging designers; • an increased number of designers who had identified sources of training to gain practical knowledge on health and safety; • health and safety being seen by many as part and parcel of design and not an add-on; • an increase in team approaches to design; and • greater success in reducing risk through the design process. “since the last visit they [the design practice] have started having discussions with the client at an early stage, developed greater awareness of risks on site, arranged more targeted training, and moved from just looking at generic risks to concentrating on site- specific risks. They believe that the initial visit had an impact on the practice and how they deal with risks on site and train their staff” www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 88. Risk Assessment for Designers 6. THE RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS PART ‘B’ www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 89. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘B’ Alternative evaluation approaches A FOUR-FACTOR APPROACH Catostrophic Imminent danger – capable of Severity causing death and illness on a 4 wide scale Critical Serious illness or severe injury 3 Marginal Illness or injury – not expected to be serious 2 Negligible No serious injury – remote possibility beyond minor first- aid case 1 www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 90. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘B’ Alternative evaluation approaches A FOUR-FACTOR APPROACH Likelihood Certain Likely to occur immediately or very shortly 4 Probable Probably will occur in time 3 Unlikely May occur in time 2 Remote Unlikely to occur 1 www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 91. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘B’ Alternative evaluation approaches A SUGGESTED FIVE-FACTOR APPROACH 1. Identify the hazards www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 92. Risk Assessment for Designers DESIGNERS HAZARD CHECKLIST DESIGNERS HAZARD CHECKLIST ACTIVITY HAZARDS (Tick normal hazards but put a cross against unusual hazards) HAZARDS (Tick normal hazards but put a cross against unusual hazards) Contact with moving machinery ontact w moving machinery RESPONSIBLE DESIGNER Being struck by mobile plant ESIGNER Being struck by mobile plant Chemical or metal splash Work in confined spaces hemical or metal splash W in confined spaces Harmful substances Noise and vibration H ful substances Falls from height oise and vibration Manual handling SIBLE D Moving objects Falls from height anual handling oving objects Electricity Explosion Collapse ith Tripping Explosion Electricity ESPON Fire ollapse Tripping (Delete non-applicable activities) arm ork Fire M M R C C N C S IT E S E T U P (Delete non-applicable activities) Site access Transformers Site deliveries Power factor correctn equipment Site compound UPS equipment Temporary works Cable installation Pedestrian routes Cable support system Temporary screens etc Cable chambers Works by public bodies Cable trenches Works by nominated subs Testing/commissioning Works by client's direct sub-ctrs LIGHT ING INSTALLAT ION D E MS , ALT S & R E N OV AT ION S Luminaires & lamps Asbestos removal Remote control gear Other mineral fibres External lighting Petrol/diesel tanks Illuminated signage Demolition of structures Removing fixtures and fittings COMMUNICATIONS/SECURITY Cutting openings Signage Building up openings Shoring Equipment Future demolition Data cabling installations Security alarm installations S IT E P R E P AR AT ION Removing deleterious materials D R AIN AGE AN D E XT E R N AL W OR KS Taking down trees and hedges Site Preparation DRAINAGE Surface water drainage S U BS T R U CT U R E S Foul water drainage M/holes & inspection chambers EXCAVATION & EARTHWORK Sewer connections & dropshafts Exc basements, trenches & pits Drain connections/diversions Pumpg/excvn below water table Breaking out obstructions EXTERNAL WORKS Disposal of excavated materials Walls & fencing Surface treatments Works to car parks Earthwork support Works to roads & footpaths Filling & making up levels Kerbs & edgings Entry: confined spaces Paving Planting PILING Site furniture Bored piles Incoming mains services Driven piles Sheet piling www.veritas-consulting.co.uk Services diversions (pls specify) Other (please specify)
  • 93. Risk Assessment for Designers www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 94. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘B’ Alternative evaluation approaches A SUGGESTED 5 FACTOR RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX 2. ANALYSE THE MAGNITUDE OF RISK Likelihood Ranking • Very Unlikely 1 • Unlikely 2 • Possible/May Happen 3 • Likely 4 • Very Likely/Certain 5 www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 95. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘B’ Alternative evaluation approaches A SUGGESTED 5 FACTOR RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX 1. ANALYSE THE MAGNITUDE OF RISK Severity Ranking • No Injury/Damage 1 • Minor Injury 2 • 3 Day Absence 3 • Major injury/Long Term Absence 4 • Death/Permanent Disability 5 www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 96. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘B’ Alternative evaluation approaches A FIVE FACTOR RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX Death/Permanent Severe 1. ANALYSE THE MAGNITUDE OF RISK Long Term Absence No Injury/Damage 3 Day Absence Disablement Major Injury/ Minor Injury SEVERITY LIKELIHOOD 1 2 3 4 5 Very Unlikely 1 1 2 3 4 5 Unlikely 2 2 4 6 8 10 Possible/May Happen 3 3 6 9 12 15 Likely 4 4 8 12 16 20 Very Likely/Certain 5 5 10 15 20 25 www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 97. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘B’ Many other similar approaches have been advanced including rating the two criteria from 1-10 giving a range from 1-100 and introducing weightings for other considerations e.g. the populations likely to be affected, resulting in complex (and very expensive) statistical quantified risk assessment procedures. Consider how an increase to a 5 X 5 matrix increases the potential ratings giving a range from 1-25 and 14 different scores! 1 2 3 4 5 Again the extremes are obvious and the pattern developing across the diagonal from bottom left to top right can also be seen. 2 4 6 8 10 Expressed in the range of scores from the example opposite these are from low to high: - 3 6 9 12 15 1-2, 3-5, 6-9, 10-16, 20-25 Almost irrespective of the range of ratings the 4 8 12 16 20 increasing trend across the diagonals is a predominating feature giving rise to an almost 5 10 15 20 25 universal five level approach to risk reduction! www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 98. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘B’ Alternative evaluation approaches From the previous example we might advance the following action profile: - Score range 20 – 25 1st Rank Action Avoid, by re-designing if necessary Score range 10 -16 2nd Rank Action Combat at source, by changing methods/materials Score range 6 - 9 3rd Rank Action Control/manage the risk e.g. communal protection Score range 3 - 5 4th Rank Action Minimise the risk e.g. PPE, safety harnesses etc Score range 1 - 2 5th Rank Action Ignore, there is in reality virtually no risk The objective must be to continually drive-down the risk throughout all stages of design. Just because an assessed risk does not fall under the 1st or 2nd Rank Actions should not be interpreted as being acceptable. No risk can be considered acceptable until it has been reduced to the absolute minimum and then only if it can be adequately controlled. IF AT ALL POSSIBLE THE OBJECTIVE MUST ALWAYS BE TO REDUCE THE RISK TO A 5TH RANK ACTION www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 99. Risk Assessment for Designers The Risk Assessment Process Part ‘B’ Alternative evaluation approaches A SUGGESTED FIVE-FACTOR APPROACH 3. Carry out the Risk Assessment, Review and Revise www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 100. Risk Assessment for Designers ACTIVITY RISK ASSESSMENT PROJECT: SHEET No: CONSIDERATIONS RESULTING FROM INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF RISKS JOB No: ANALYSIS BY: Design element or activity creating hazard or increasing risk Possible counter measures Y/N DRWG REFS: DATE: ACTIVITY/DESIGN ELEMENT POPULATIONS AFFECTED Construction workers Maintenance operatives Staff Patients/Visitors PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) CONSIDERED ESSENTIAL FOR THIS ACTIVITY Public at large Hard hat Dust mask Miners helmet IDENTIFY HAZARDS TYPICAL HAZARDS Safety footwear Full face mask Buoyancy aid/life jacket Falls from height (over 2m) Being struck by mobile plant Gloves Respirator Air monitoring equipment Trips and falls Collapse of structure or temporary works Overalls Ear defenders Two-way radio Manual handling Being struck by falling objects Contact with live electrical apparatus Contact with moving machinery Safety glasses Safety harness Personal Alarm Fire Contact with harmful substances Goggles Lifeline Emergency air supply Noise and/or vibration Working in confined spaces Chemical or metal splash Explosion REVISED RISK ASSESSMENT FOLLOWING RE-APPRAISAL OF DESIGN/WORK INITIAL RISK ASSESSMENT WITHOUT ANY CONTROLS ACTIVITY AND WITH CONTROLS IN PLACE INSTRUCTIONS Severity INSTRUCTIONS Severity severe disablement severe disablement Plot your revised assessment of the severity resulting from a No injury/damage Death/permanent Major injury/long- Plot your assessment of the severity resulting from a failure No injury/damage Death/permanent Major injury/long- failure incident against the likelihood of it happening by 3 Day absence incident against the likelihood of it happening by carefully 3 Day absence term absence carefully considering the descriptive terms. term absence considering the descriptive terms. Minor injury Minor injury Circle the corresponding square within the matrix and if Circle the corresponding square within the matrix and take necessary repeat according to the indicated ranking level action according to the indicated ranking level exercising the exercising the hierarchy of risk control described above. hierarchy of risk control described below. Likelihood 1 2 3 4 5 Likelihood 1 2 3 4 5 th th th th th Very unlikely 1 5th 5th 4th 4th 4th Very unlikely 1 5 5 4 4 4 Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank th th th rd Unlikely 2 5th 4th 4th 3rd 3rd Unlikely 2 5 4 4 3 3rd Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Possible/May happen 3 4th 4th 3rd 2nd 2nd Possible/May happen 3 4th 4th 3rd 2nd 2nd Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Likely 4 4th 3rd 2nd 2nd 1st Likely 4 4th 3rd 2nd 2nd 1st Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Very likely/certain 5 4th 3rd 2nd 1st 1st Very likely/certain 5 4th 3rd 2nd 1st 1st Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank 5th Rank The risks are insignificant and can be ignored. MAIN FEATURES OF DESIGN/WORK ACTIVITY DOCUMENTATION/ADVICE Description of action 4th Rank Minimise the risk e.g. by providing personal protection. Site safety file rankings and risk control to be exercised 3rd Rank Control the risk e.g. by providing communal protection. Safety method 2nd Rank Combat the risks at source. statement by PC 1st Rank Avoid, re-design the works, use alternative methods or materials. Incl. in Health & Safety File www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 101. Risk Assessment for Designers 7. COMMUNICATION WITH THE DESIGN TEAM AND CONTRACTORS www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 102. Risk Assessment for Designers Communication With the Team Designers must include adequate health and safety information with the design:- Information can be in the form of:- • Notes on drawings (e.g. features requiring a particular sequence of assembly) • Registers or lists of significant hazards and control measures. • Suggested construction sequences where not obvious (e.g. temporary works – specific bracing of an existing structure or item of plant). • Strategy Documents for cleaning, maintenance, plant replacement. • Residual risk assessment registers www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 103. Risk Assessment for Designers Communication With the Team Contractors must pass on information to operatives at site level:- Information can be in the form of:- • Site inductions. • Method statements. • Safety briefings • ‘Tool box’ talks. • Site safety tours • Safety reward schemes • Improvement and prohibition notices www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 104. Risk Assessment for Designers 8. ANY QUESTIONS? www.veritas-consulting.co.uk
  • 105. Risk Assessment for Designers CDM Regulations 2007 www.veritas-consulting.co.uk