Food Safety Risk Analysis - Part 2

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Part 2 on food safety risk assessment. This presentation focuses more on the international side of risk assessments and explains how international standards are agreed globally. It includes a detailed review about the European Union approach to food safety risk management.

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Food Safety Risk Analysis - Part 2

  1. 1. Food Safety Risk Analysis Part 2 Safefood 360º provides food safety management software for industry leading food businesses everywhere in the world Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  2. 2. Visit Safefood360.com for more food safety management resources Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  3. 3. Setting of Internation Standards WHO / FAO INTERNATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENTS Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  4. 4. International Risk Assessments • Starting point is the relevant food safety policy • By using Risk Analysis, policy is transferred into • ) • FSO equates with an agreed level of consumer protection Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  5. 5. Use of Risk Analysis Food Safety Policy Risk Management Risk Assessment Risk Communication Agreed Level of Consumer Protection Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  6. 6. Appropriate Level of Protection • ALOP: Results as an output of Risk Assessment • Takes account of costs • Level of Hazard present food at point of consumption at which adverse health impacts are avoided Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  7. 7. Food Safety Objective • Food Safety Objective: A government-defined target considered necessary to protect the health of consumers (this may apply to raw materials, a process or finished products). Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  8. 8. • FAO and WHO are organisations concerned with food safety at the international level • Int. Food safety standards established by the Codex (CAC) who delegates development of standards to subsidiary bodies / committees • Draft standards, guidelines & recommendations for CAC Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  9. 9. Process of Setting International Standards Member countries FINAL Standards Guidelines Recommendation FAO/WHO CAC DRAFT Standards Guidelines Recommendation Codex Committees JECFA JMPR Ad hoc Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  10. 10. International Criteria (Chemical) • Setting international criteria for chemicals requires setting a food safety policy • Policy contains rules e.g. • ALARA principle used - • Also an • Level usually below the No-effect Level • RA is directed at exposure assessment • Risk management directed at • Process, product and storage criteria for incorporation into HACCP should be absent from Low as Reasonably Level of - ALOP Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  11. 11. International Criteria (Micro) • At international level no formal Food Safety Policy established • EU now set criteria • Micro. Hazards starts with a Quantitative Risk Assessment • set • These are incorporated into HACCP plans • Chemical is more direct.... Micro is more complex Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  12. 12. Present and Future Trends Trends in Food Safety Control (Microbiological) • Traditionally assessed through testing of randomly selected food samples • Approach simply confirms meeting of criteria... Limited and not the full picture • Move towards HACCP and GMP • Predictive and preventative approach • This starts with Q Risk Assessment • Identify hazard • Characterise hazard • Exposure estimated • Risk Management ALOP at point of consumption Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  13. 13. Production of Micro Safe Food ALOP Customer Req’s Food Producer Risk Assessment FSO’s Risk Management Process Criteria Process, Product, Storage Safety Management Systems GMP - HACCP Verification (and Adjustment) Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  14. 14. Example: Bacillus cereus in milk 1 • Bacillus cereus is a hazard in pasteurised milk • Potentially pathogenic • Is found & can multiply in the product • Associated with foodborne illness resulting from consumption of product • Some countries have set limit of 10-5 per ml in milk. (ALOP) • To meet this product must be stored at 7oC for 7 days • Probability of consuming milk with greater than 10-5 is 7%. (Notermans et al, 1997) • Maintaining storage temps and time eliminated risk Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  15. 15. Example: Bacillus cereus in milk 2 • RISK MANAGEMENT • • • • • • • • • What determines levels in product? Initial levels of contamination Storage time (t) Storage temperature (T) Producer could do nothing since 7oC storage instructions is adequate Not all domestic storage conditions meet this Recommend a lower storage temp Reduce storage time less than 7 days All have issues in reality Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  16. 16. Acknowledgement: Dr. Wayne Anderson (FSAI) THE EU APPROACH Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  17. 17. EU Approach • Pre- • Market concerns outweighed consumer concerns • BSE and Belgian Dioxin issues changed everything • Post- • Consumer concerns outweighed Market concerns • EU adopted the Codex model • General Principles of Food Law established Risk Analysis as bases of decisions • Established EFSA • Precautionary Principle Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  18. 18. EU Approach to Risk Analysis 1 CODEX EU MODEL Consumer, Media, Lobby, Industry, Professionals etc Consumer, Media, Lobby, Industry, Professionals etc Risk managers Risk managers THE COMMISSION Risk assessors Risk assessors EFSA Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  19. 19. EU Approach to Risk Analysis 2 • EFSA • No Management role • Management conducted by Commission • Must agree with Parliament and Council on risk management options • Referred to Member states e.g. FSAI • Enforced locally • Members states communicate locally • F &V Office monitor member states • All feed back to Commission and EFSA and so on.... Risk Assessment Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  20. 20. Data Sources • Risk assessment requires sound information • Information is available from a number of sources • Information required should be identified • Information availability is often incomplete • Few organisations collect pertinent data or structure it so it may be used • International co-ordinated approach is required to improve data collection and reporting • Data of distribution of hazards in foods, supply chain operations, process & product criteria, epidemiological reports etc. Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  21. 21. Data Sources • • http://www.fda.gov/CDC (Centre for Disease Control) US: http://www.cdc.gov/ http://www.fsis.usda.gov • ICMSF Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities: Microorganisms in Foods. Volume 5, 6 • Food Risk.Org (JIFSAN / University of Maryland): http://foodrisk.org/ Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  22. 22. Risk Management: Second Element of Risk Analysis Framework Risk Management Risk Assessment Risk Communication Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  23. 23. Risk Management • Risk Management: development of policy, legislation, standards, guidelines, recommendations • Primary aim of RM associated with food is the protection of public health by controlling risks as effectively as possible • Achieved through the selection and implementation of appropriate control measures Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  24. 24. Risk Management Framework • Risk evaluation • Risk management • Implementation of management decision • Monitor and review Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  25. 25. Evaluation 1 • ID food safety hazard • Establish risk profile • Conduct risk assessment • Consider results of risk assessment Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  26. 26. Evaluation 2 • Is zero risk achievable? • Is level of risk acceptable or not? • What is the ALOP? • ALOP assumes there is a single level above which the risk is unacceptable and below which it is acceptable. Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  27. 27. Risk Management ALARA • ALARA: As Low As Reasonably Achievable • Concept which links RM with acceptability considerations • Both the level of risk and the severity of cases are used to categorise risk Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  28. 28. Risk Management Option • ID of available management options • Selection of preferred management option, including consideration of appropriate food safety standard • Final management decision Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  29. 29. Risk Management Decision • Liaise with stakeholders industry, consumers, regulators, scientists, academics, researchers, producers, processors, markets • Consider cost, feasibility, technical issues • Consider impact of mitigation measures • May consider conducting parallel cost benefit analysis prior to selecting final management decision • Implementation of Management Decision Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  30. 30. Monitor & Review • Essential part of RM is gathering and analysing data to ensure food safety goals are being met • Continual basis • Assessment of effectiveness of measures taken • Review of risk management decision and/or risk assessment as necessary Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  31. 31. Barriers • Transparency • Bias • Conflict of interest • Link between RA and RM • Involved stakeholders in RM Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action
  32. 32. Visit Safefood360.com for more food safety management resources Visit Safefood360.com to see the award-winning food safety management software in action

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