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  • 1. Shaaban zayed ID: 142135 omar ahmed nasif ID:141045 Hossam Hussein ID:141311 ID:141639 Ahmed Gamal Abdelatef DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF PHARMACY
  • 2. Shaaban Zayed AnwarShaaban Zayed Anwar 142 135142 135 Slides 10 ~ 15Slides 10 ~ 15
  • 3. Pharmacology is defined as : The branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.
  • 4. Pharmacology is divided into :
  • 5. 1. Clinical pharmacology The basic science of pharmacology with an added focus on the application of pharmacological principles and methods in the medical clinic and towards patient care and outcomes.
  • 6. 2. Neuropharmacology The study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system. There are two main branches of neuropharmacology: behavioral and molecular. Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses on the study of how drugs affect human behavior
  • 7. 3. Psychopharmacology The scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, and thinking. It is distinguished from neuropsychopharmacology, which emphasizes drug- induced changes in the functioning of cells in the nervous system.
  • 8. 4. Pharmacogenetics  Refers to genetic differences in metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects. The clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs.
  • 9. 5. Pharmacogenomics The technology that analyses how genetic makeup affects an individual's response to drugs. It deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a drug's efficacy or toxicity.
  • 10. 6. Toxicology The study of the adverse effects, molecular targets, and characterization of drugs or any chemical substance in excess (including those beneficial in lower doses). A toxicologist is a scientist or medical personal who specializes in the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of venoms and toxins; especially the poisoning of people.
  • 11. Ahmed Gamal Abd-elatef ID:141639 MILITARY PHARMACY
  • 12. A military pharmacy is a pharmacy which meets the needs of a military health care system, such asTRICARE in the United States military
  • 13. GENERAL RULE A military pharmacy operates within the framework of the military health care system. This means that it only accepts prescriptions from military doctors or civilian doctors who have a recognized relationship with the military's health care system.
  • 14. JOBS Pharmacist may serve in the armed forces as; Commissioned officer Non-commissioned officer
  • 15. RESPONSIBILITIES  They have the following responsibilities;  Manufacture of generic products  Distribute drugs to military hospitals  Dispense drugs to army personnel
  • 16. COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Commissioned officers generally receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military.., a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank oflieutenant colonel.
  • 17. NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is an enlisted member of the armed forces holding a position of some degree of authority who has (usually) obtained it by promotion from within the non- commissioned ranks
  • 18. DUTIES When you are a pharmacy officer .your career will take you into a world of expanded scopes and diverse roles. and programs—caring for patients; reviewing, approving, and monitoring new drugs; conducting research; and assisting in public health emergencies. You’ll be offered greater work variety than you'll find in most pharmacy practice settings..
  • 19. OPPORTUNITIES As part of a unique team of committed health care professionals, you’ll enjoy leadership opportunities, excellent benefits, and work/life balance, all while improving and advancing the health of the Nation
  • 20. Omar ahmed nasif ID:141045
  • 21. Clinical Pharmacy is a commonly used term in pharmacy practice and in pharmacy literature. It is a health specialty, which describes the activities and services of the clinical pharmacist to develop and promote the rational and appropriate use of medicinal products and devices. Clinical Pharmacy includes all the services performed by pharmacists practising in hospitals, community pharmacies, nursing homes, home- based care services, clinics and any other setting where medicines are prescribed and used. The term "clinical" does not necessarily imply an activity implemented in a hospital setting. It describes that the type of activity is related to the health of the patient(s). This implies that community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists both can perform clinical pharmacy activities.
  • 22. -the discipline of pharmacy embraces the knowledge on synthesis, chemistry and preparation of drugs -clinical pharmacy is more oriented to the analysis of population needs with regards to medicines, ways of administration, patterns of use and drugs effects on the patients.
  • 23. The overall goal of clinical pharmacy activities is to promote the correct and appropriate use of medicinal products and devices. These activities aim at: --maximising the clinical effect of medicines, i.e., using the most effective treatment for each type of patient. -minimising the risk of treatment-induced adverse events, i.e., monitoring the therapy course and the patient's compliance with therapy. minimising the expenditures for pharmacological treatments born by the national health systems and by the patients, i.e., trying to provide the best treatment alternative for the greatest number of patients.
  • 24. Clinical pharmacy activities may influence the correct use of medicines at three different levels: before, during and after the prescription is written:-
  • 25. -Clinical trials -Formularies -Drug information -Clinical pharmacists have the potential to implement and influence drug-related policies, i-e., making decisions on which drugs deserve to be marketed ,which drugs should be included in national and local formularies , which prescribing policies and treatment guidelines should be implemented. - Clinical pharmacists are also actively involved in clinical trials at different levels: participating in ethical committees;studymonitoring; dispensation and preparation of investigational drugs.
  • 26. -Counselling activity. -Clinical pharmacists can influence the attitudes and priorities of prescribers in their choice of correct treatments. -The clinical pharmacist monitors, detects and prevents harmful drug interaction, adverse reactions ad medication errors through evaluation of prescriptions' profiles. -The clinical pharmacist pays special attention to the dosage of drugs which need therapeutic monitoring. -Community pharmacists can also make prescription decisions directly, when over the counter drugs are counselled.
  • 27. -Counselling. -Preparation of personalized formulation. -Drug use evaluation. -Outcome research. -Pharmacoeconomic studies. -After the prescription is written, clinical pharmacists play a key role in communicating and counselling patients. -Pharmacists can improve patients' awareness of their treatments, monitor treatment response, check and improve patients' compliance with their medications. -As members of a multidisciplinary team, clinical pharmacists also provide integrated care from 'hospital to community' and vice versa, assuring a continuity of information on risks and benefits of drug therapy.
  • 28. Pharmacist in drug promotion carrier responsible primarily for medical representation to pharmacist physician and hospitals and called medical representative
  • 29. sales achivement Customer support and customer service Product promotion Lunching new products Market feedback Record keeping and reporting
  • 30. Atypical day may involve one-on-one meeting with doctors , pharmacist or nurses on their offices or places of bussiness to monitor their supply of drug and to inform of forthcoming changes . the representative will introduce a new products from his company.
  • 31. Communication skills Good technical knowledge Competitive intelligence Organized Passion towards job
  • 32. Hossam Hussein Moselhy ID:141311
  • 33. Joint: thejunction between two or morebones. With theexception of the hyoid bone, every bonein the body isconnected to formsajoint. Thereare230 jointsin thebody
  • 34. 1-Hold theskeletal bonestogether 2-Allow theskeleton someflexibility so grossmovement can occur 3-Makebonegrowth possible
  • 35. Jointsareclassified by: movement of tissuetype Movement Immovable Slightly Movable Freely Movable Tissue(morecommon( 1.Fibrous 2.Cartilaginous 3.Synovial
  • 36. Fibrous: classified by Sutures, Syndesmosis, and Gomphosis. Cartilaginous: Connected entirely by cartilage Synovial: Most common and most movablejoint.
  • 37. Articular endscovered in hyalinecartilageand held together by dense connectivetissue Joint capsulesmadeup of ligaments(outer layer( and synovial membranes(inner layer( Somesynovial jointshave shock-absorbing padscalled menisci and fluid filled sacs called bursar.
  • 38. 1-Ball-and-Socket Joint 2-Condyloid Joint 3-Gliding Joint 4-HingeJoint 5-Pivot Joint
  • 39. Ball-and-Socket Joint: consistsof abonewith a ball-shaped head that attacheswith thecup- shaped cavity of another bone. Thistypeof joint allowsfor awider rangeof motion than any other kind. It permitsmovement in all planes, and arotational movement around acentral axis. Two examplesof this typeof joint would bethe hip and shoulder joints.
  • 40. Gliding Joint: hasnearly flat or slightly curved articulating surfaces. Thistypeof joint allowssliding and twisting movements. Someexamplesof thistypeof joint include, thejointswithin the wristsand theankles, thejoints between thearticular processesof adjacent vertebrae, thesacroiliac joints, and thejointsformed by ribs(2-7( connecting with the sternum.
  • 41. HingeJoint: theconvex surfaceof onebonefitsinto theconcavesurfaceof another. Thistypeof joint permitsmovement in one planeonly. Thismovement consistsof flexion and extension. Two examples aretheelbow and the phalanges.
  • 42. Pivot Joint: thecylindrical surfaceof onebonerotates within aring formed of boneand ligament. Movement islimited to the rotation around acentral axis. Examplesof thistype of joint arethejoints between theendsof the radiusand ulna.