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Pharmacology is defined as :
The branch of medicine and biology concerned with
the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly
defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous
(within the body) molecule which exerts a
biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell,
tissue, organ, or organism.
More specifically, it is the study of the interactions
that occur between a living organism and chemicals
that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.
1. Clinical pharmacology
The basic science of pharmacology with an added focus
on the application of pharmacological principles and
methods in the medical clinic and towards patient care and
The study of how drugs affect cellular function in the
nervous system. There are two main branches of
neuropharmacology: behavioral and molecular.
Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses on the study
of how drugs affect human behavior
The scientific study of the effects drugs have
on mood, sensation, and thinking. It is distinguished
from neuropsychopharmacology, which emphasizes drug-
induced changes in the functioning of cells in the nervous
Refers to genetic differences in metabolic
pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs,
both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse
The clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to
differing response to drugs.
The technology that analyses how genetic makeup affects
an individual's response to drugs. It deals with the
influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients
by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide
polymorphisms with a drug's efficacy or toxicity.
The study of the adverse effects, molecular targets, and
characterization of drugs or any chemical substance in
excess (including those beneficial in lower doses).
A toxicologist is a scientist or medical personal who
specializes in the study of symptoms, mechanisms,
treatments and detection of venoms and toxins; especially
the poisoning of people.
Ahmed Gamal Abd-elatef
A military pharmacy is a pharmacy which
meets the needs of a military health care
system, such asTRICARE
in the United States military
A military pharmacy operates within the
framework of the military health care system.
This means that it only accepts prescriptions
from military doctors or civilian doctors who
have a recognized relationship with the
military's health care system.
Pharmacist may serve in the armed forces
They have the following responsibilities;
Manufacture of generic products
Distribute drugs to military hospitals
Dispense drugs to army personnel
Commissioned officers generally receive
training as leadership and management
generalists, in addition to training relating to
their specific military occupational specialty or
function in the military.., a university degree is a
requirement for an officer to advance to the rank
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is an
enlisted member of the armed forces
holding a position of some degree of
authority who has (usually) obtained it by
promotion from within the non-
When you are a pharmacy officer .your career will
take you into a world of expanded scopes and diverse
roles. and programs—caring for patients; reviewing,
approving, and monitoring new drugs; conducting
research; and assisting in public health emergencies.
You’ll be offered greater work variety than you'll find in
most pharmacy practice settings..
As part of a unique team of committed
health care professionals, you’ll enjoy
leadership opportunities, excellent
benefits, and work/life balance, all while
advancing the health of the Nation
Clinical Pharmacy is a commonly used term in pharmacy practice and in
pharmacy literature. It is a health specialty, which describes the activities
and services of the clinical pharmacist to develop and promote the rational
and appropriate use of medicinal products and devices.
Clinical Pharmacy includes all the services performed by pharmacists
practising in hospitals, community pharmacies, nursing homes, home-
based care services, clinics and any other setting where medicines are
prescribed and used.
The term "clinical" does not necessarily imply an activity implemented in a
hospital setting. It describes that the type of activity is related to the health
of the patient(s). This implies that community pharmacists and hospital
pharmacists both can perform clinical pharmacy activities.
-the discipline of pharmacy embraces the knowledge on
synthesis, chemistry and preparation of drugs
-clinical pharmacy is more oriented to the analysis of population
needs with regards to medicines, ways of administration,
patterns of use and drugs effects on the patients.
The overall goal of clinical pharmacy activities is to promote the correct
and appropriate use of medicinal products and devices. These
activities aim at:
--maximising the clinical effect of medicines, i.e., using the most effective
treatment for each type of patient.
-minimising the risk of treatment-induced adverse events, i.e., monitoring the
therapy course and the patient's compliance with therapy.
minimising the expenditures for pharmacological treatments born by the
national health systems and by the patients, i.e., trying to provide the best
treatment alternative for the greatest number of patients.
Clinical pharmacy activities may influence the
correct use of medicines at three different
levels: before, during and after the prescription
-Clinical pharmacists have the potential to implement and influence
drug-related policies, i-e., making decisions on which drugs
to be marketed ,which drugs should be included in national and
local formularies , which prescribing policies and treatment
guidelines should be implemented.
- Clinical pharmacists are also actively involved in clinical trials at
different levels: participating in ethical committees;studymonitoring;
dispensation and preparation of investigational drugs.
-Clinical pharmacists can influence the attitudes and priorities of
prescribers in their choice of correct treatments.
-The clinical pharmacist monitors, detects and prevents harmful
drug interaction, adverse reactions ad medication errors
through evaluation of prescriptions' profiles.
-The clinical pharmacist pays special attention to the dosage of
drugs which need therapeutic monitoring.
-Community pharmacists can also make prescription decisions
directly, when over the counter drugs are counselled.
-Preparation of personalized formulation.
-Drug use evaluation.
-After the prescription is written, clinical pharmacists play a key
role in communicating and counselling patients.
-Pharmacists can improve patients' awareness of their
treatments, monitor treatment response, check and improve
patients' compliance with their medications.
-As members of a multidisciplinary team, clinical pharmacists
also provide integrated care from 'hospital to community' and
vice versa, assuring a continuity of information on risks and
benefits of drug therapy.
Pharmacist in drug promotion carrier responsible
primarily for medical representation to
pharmacist physician and hospitals and called
Customer support and customer service
Lunching new products
Record keeping and reporting
Atypical day may involve one-on-one meeting
with doctors , pharmacist or nurses on their
offices or places of bussiness to monitor their
supply of drug and to inform of forthcoming
changes . the representative will introduce a
new products from his company.
Good technical knowledge
Passion towards job
between two or morebones.
With theexception of the
hyoid bone, every bonein the
body isconnected to formsajoint.
Thereare230 jointsin thebody
1-Hold theskeletal bonestogether
2-Allow theskeleton someflexibility so grossmovement can occur
movement of tissuetype
Fibrous: classified by Sutures, Syndesmosis, and Gomphosis.
Cartilaginous: Connected entirely by cartilage
Synovial: Most common and most movablejoint.
Articular endscovered in
together by dense
Joint capsulesmadeup of
ligaments(outer layer( and
menisci and fluid filled sacs
consistsof abonewith a
ball-shaped head that
shaped cavity of another
bone. Thistypeof joint
allowsfor awider rangeof
motion than any other kind.
It permitsmovement in all
planes, and arotational
movement around acentral
axis. Two examplesof this
typeof joint would bethe
hip and shoulder joints.
Gliding Joint: hasnearly flat or
slightly curved articulating
surfaces. Thistypeof joint
allowssliding and twisting
joint include, thejointswithin the
wristsand theankles, thejoints
between thearticular processesof
adjacent vertebrae, thesacroiliac
joints, and thejointsformed by
ribs(2-7( connecting with the
another. Thistypeof joint
permitsmovement in one
consistsof flexion and
extension. Two examples
aretheelbow and the
Pivot Joint: thecylindrical
within aring formed of
Movement islimited to the
rotation around acentral
axis. Examplesof thistype
of joint arethejoints
between theendsof the