Population Development and Population Policies in China


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Este documento, cujo tema é o desenvolvimento populacional e as políticas populacionais da China, foi apresentado durante a reunião plenária da Comissão Nacional sobre População e Desenvolvimento (CNPD), realizada no dia 20 de fevereiro, em Brasília. Autor: Mr. Wang Qian. Leia mais em: www.sae.gov.br

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Population Development and Population Policies in China

  1. 1. Mr. Wang Qian National Health and Family Planning Commission, PRC 2014.03.01 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Population Development and Population Policies in China
  2. 2. Population Development in China 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  3. 3. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC In 1949 the total population of China was 540 million, accounting for 1/4 of world population at that time. In 1970, 830 million
  4. 4. To control population growth, the Chinese Government advocated family planning in cities in 1960s, and then in both cities and rural areas in early 1970s 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  5. 5. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC In 1982, family planning was announced as a fundamental national policy written into the constitution, and the population planning was also included into the National Planning for Social and Economic Development. In December 2001, the Population and Family Planning Law of the People's Republic of China was enacted.
  6. 6. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Family planning related organs were set up in all levels of government, and dedicated family planning workers were assigned in each village or community. In addition, a large number of NGOs sprang up, such as China Family Planning Association which is the largest NGO in China, with current members amounting to 90 million.
  7. 7. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Government launched continuous and extensive communication and education campaign and also offered free contraceptives such as condom and other contraceptive services to the masses. Use Contr acept ives Do not use
  8. 8. Contraceptive Mix of Married Women in 2012已婚妇女避孕方法构成(2012年) 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  9. 9. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC CBR CDR NIR
  10. 10. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Sticking to harmonious coordination between population development and socio-economic development, the Chinese Government is closely integrating family planning with women empowerment, poverty reduction in rural areas and universal health, and is particularly integrating maternal and child health care with reproductive health.
  11. 11. 婴儿死亡率(IMR): in 1991 , 50.2‰ in 2012, 10.3‰ 孕产妇死亡率(MMR): in 1991, 80/100,000 in 2012, 24.5/100,000 Average Live Expectancy: Mid of 20th Century:about 37 in 2010:74.83 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  12. 12. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  13. 13. Impoverished population in rural areas in 1978: 250 million end of 2010 : 26.88million 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  14. 14. Population Dividend: Higher proportion of working population and lower proportion of dependent population 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  15. 15. illiteracy rate:early of 1950’s,80% in 2000,6.72% in 2010,4.08% Average schooling years: 1980’s,4years; currently,9years 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  16. 16. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Population Development Tendency, Challenges and Countermeasures
  17. 17. Enormous yet ever-growing population size. 1.36 billion by the end of 2013) reach the peak 1.46 billion in around 2030. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  18. 18. Shrinking family size. in 1982,4.43 in 2000,3.44 in 2010,3.10 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  19. 19. Accelerated population aging. In 2012, the number of population aged above 65 totaled 127 million in 2012, or 9.7% of total population. It's projected that the total number of population aged above 65 will exceed 300 million (about 1/5 of total population) in the period from 2035 to 2040. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  20. 20. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Aged 60+ Aged 65+ Aged 80+ Rapid Growth of Aged Population
  21. 21. Continuously higher SRB. China's SRB has been rising ever since 1980s and reached 117.7 in 2012. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  22. 22. Enormous migrant population. In 2013,245 million, In the near future, it's anticipated that another 300 million of rural population will migrate to cities, and the urbanization rate will hit 70% by that time. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  23. 23. 23 Migrant size and average increase rate 6.57 18.1 70.73 221.43 147.35 102.29 21.35 0 50 100 150 200 250 1982 1987 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year Migrantsize(inmillion) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Annualincreaserate
  24. 24. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Note: China’s urbanization rate has reached 52.6% in 2012. Urbanization Rate of the World, the U.K, Brazil, U.S.A, Korea, France, Japan, China and India in 2010
  25. 25. 1、To uphold the fundamental national policy of family planning in order to stabilize the fertility level at around 1.8. 2 、 To enhance the quality of new-born population and pay attention to human resource accumulation. 3、To positively respond to population aging. 4 、 To curb the problem of high SRB and promote gender equality. 5 、 To guide the orderly movement and reasonable distribution of population. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  26. 26. In general, the population policies established and implemented by China proceed from China's realities and have taken the future development trend into good consideration, all aiming to realize the long-term balanced development of population itself and the coordinated development between population and economy, society, resources and environment. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  27. 27. Thank you! 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
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