Overview of South Africa’s demography and the Population Policy response thereto

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A visão geral da demografia da África do Sul é o tema da apresentação exibida pelo Departamento de Desenvolvimento Social da República da África do Sul, no dia 20 de fevereiro, durante a reunião plenária que marcou o início das discussões do seminário “População e Desenvolvimento na Agenda do Cairo: balanço e desafios”. Detalhes em: www.sae.gov.br

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Overview of South Africa’s demography and the Population Policy response thereto

  1. 1. 1 Overview of South Africa’s demography and the Population Policy response thereto BRICS inaugural seminar on Population matters Numbi Hotel, Mpumalanga 01 March 2014
  2. 2. 2 Outline of the presentation • Structure of the SA population • Population growth: 1996-2011 • Population growth and structure • SA population pyramids: 1996, 2007 and 2011 • Gender equality, equity and empowerment of women • SRHR • Population Policy responses – Vision – Goal – Objectives and strategies
  3. 3. 3 Structure of the SA population • Population size grew noticeably from 40.5 m in 1996 to 44.8 m in 2001 & then to 51.8m in 2011 • 2m more females (27m or 51%) than males (25m or 49%) • Gauteng & KZN = largest populations; Northern Cape = smallest population • Percentage distribution of the population (by population group) remained relatively stable – Black Africans constituting the vast majority (79.8%); Coloureds (9%); Whites (8.7%) & Indians/Asians (2.5%) • Population growth rate is declining & will continue to decline – Attributed to HIV & AIDS & decline in fertility • SA is a relatively youthful population, but is showing signs of maturing – Decline in 0 – 14 years & increase in 65+ and increase in economically active (15 – 64) group
  4. 4. 4 Population growth: 1996-2011 40.6 m 44.8 m 48.5 m 51.8 m 1996-2001 2.01% pa 2001-2007 1.33% pa 2007-2011 0.61% pa • Population growing – at a slower rate • Population structure changing
  5. 5. 5 Population growth & structure Population characteristics 1996 2001 2011 % of population < 15 34.3 32.1 29 % of population 15 – 34 (Youth) 36.7 36.8 37.6 % of population 15 - 64 60.8 63.0 66 % of population > 60 4.8 4.9 8.1 Dependency ratio 0.64 0.53 Household size 4.5 3.9 3.6 Median age 22 23 25
  6. 6. 6 SA Population pyramids: 1996, 2007 and 2011 South African Population, 1996 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 - 4 5-9 10-14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 >80 Male Female South African Population, 2007 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 - 4 5-9 10-14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 >80 Male Female South African Population, 2014 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 - 4 5-9 10-14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 >80 Male Female 32.1% 31% 29.8% 4.9% 5.4% 8.1% 0-15 15-34 >60 36.7% 36.5% 38%
  7. 7. 7 Gender equality, equity & the empowerment of women • Social grants, free basic services & the mainstreaming of gender in government programmes have contributed to improving women's quality of live and that of their household members • Poverty disproportionately affect women; individuals in female headed households more vulnerable • Unemployment much higher for females (34.6% up from 26.3%) than males (25.6% up from 20%) • Labour absorption rate for Black African women (28.8%); White women (62.5%) – Higher for White women than Black African men (40.8%) • Women more dependent on survivalist activities in informal sector – low wages, high insecurity & increased vulnerability • High levels of violence against women & children (GBV) • Variation between actual & preferred family size – poor communication & a lack of female decision making power regarding family planning & childbearing – Illustrating continued inequalities in sexual & reproductive relations
  8. 8. 8 Sexual & Reproductive health & rights • Total Fertility Rate (TFR) 1960s - 2011 • Total Fertility Rate (TFR) declined from 6.7 children per woman in 1960s to 2.9 1998) to 2.35 in 2011 Gauteng – lowest fertility rate during 2006 – 2011 at 2.10 and Limpopo the highest at 2.85 Teenage fertility declined, but teenage pregnancy remains high at 56 births per 1000 women aged 15 – 19 (2011) Improved access to SRH services since 1998 have been undermined by decreased life expectancy and increased MMR, both linked to HIV & AIDS Maternal Mortality Rate, Infant Mortality Rate & Under 5 Mortality Rate remain worryingly high – SA unlikely to meet MDG goals in this regard Non pregnancy related infections accounted for 40% of maternal deaths (DoH, 2012) Antenatal health care coverage & proportion of births attended by trained health professionals& proportion of women who have delivered in a health facility are very high Introduction of medical male circumcision to reduce risk of STI & HIV infection 1960s 1998 2008 2011 6.7 2.9 2.4 2.35
  9. 9. POPULATION POLICY RESPONSE 9
  10. 10. VISION To contribute towards the establishment of a society that provides a high and equitable quality of life for all South Africans in which population trends are commensurate with sustainable socio-economic and environmental development 10
  11. 11. GOAL To bring about changes in the determinants of the country’s population trends, so that these trends are consistent with the achievement of sustainable human development. 11
  12. 12. OBJECTIVES • The systematic integration of population factors into all policies, plans, programmes and strategies in all spheres and within all sectors and institutions of government; • Developing and implementing a co- ordinated multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary and intergrated approach in designing and executing programmes and interventions that impact on major national and population concerns; 12
  13. 13. OBJECTIVES CONT • Making available reliable and up-to-date information on the population and human development situation in the country in order to inform policy-making and programme design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation at all levels and in all sectors 13
  14. 14. STRATEGIES Policy objectives will be achieved through inter-sectoral programmes implemented by government departments and supported by the private sector and organisations of civil society. 14
  15. 15. STRATEGIES FOCUS ON: • Coordination and capacity building for population and development planning; • Population advocacy, information education and communication (IEC); • Poverty reduction; • Health, mortality and fertility; • Gender, women, youth and children; 15
  16. 16. STRATEGIC FOCUS CONT. • Education; • Employment; • Environment sustainability; • Migration and urbanisation; • Data collection and research. 16
  17. 17. Thank you 17

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