Population Trends and Social Development with Special Reference to Gender and the Empowerment of Women: National Experiences Challenges and Successes
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Population Trends and Social Development with Special Reference to Gender and the Empowerment of Women: National Experiences Challenges and Successes



Apresentação exibida pela delegação da África do Sul durante o seminário “População e Desenvolvimento na Agenda do Cairo: balanço e desafios”, realizado nos dias 21 e 22 de fevereiro, em ...

Apresentação exibida pela delegação da África do Sul durante o seminário “População e Desenvolvimento na Agenda do Cairo: balanço e desafios”, realizado nos dias 21 e 22 de fevereiro, em Brasília. Detalhes em: www.sae.gov.br



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Population Trends and Social Development with Special Reference to Gender and the Empowerment of Women: National Experiences Challenges and Successes Population Trends and Social Development with Special Reference to Gender and the Empowerment of Women: National Experiences Challenges and Successes Presentation Transcript

  • Population Trends and Social Development with Special Reference to Gender and the Empowerment of Women: National Experiences Challenges and Successes BRICS INAUGRAL SEMINAR ON POPULATION MATTERS: MPUMALANGA, SOUTH AFRICA: 01-03 MARCH 2014 SOUTH AFRICA
  • PRESENTATION OUTLINE 1. Population and Socio-Economic Trends: – Reflecting on selected current and projected population trends and socio-economic trends: • What are the implications for social welfare? 2. Social Security and Welfare: – Key legislative and policy thrusts – Scope of social security in South Africa – Uptake of social security with special reference to the gender dimension 3. National Experiences – Successes – Impact of social security programme – Remaining challenges
  • 3 Census 2011 Census 2001 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE: PAST & CURRENTCensus 2001 • Count - 44.8 million • TFR – 2.92 children per woman Census 2011 • Count - 51.7 million • Males: 48.2% - Females: 51.7% • National median age – 25 • Over a third of the population is under the age of 15 2013 Mid-Year Population Estimates • Count - 52.98 million • TFR – 2.34 children per woman Source: Statistics South Africa (2003, 2012, 2013)
  • SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRENDS Poverty • Irrespective of the choice of poverty line, poverty disproportionately affects females more than males. • Single-parent, rural, female headed households are more vulnerable; in some instances twice as likely to be poor than male counterparts. • Women are poorer than men and have less access to opportunities and development resources necessary to overcome poverty (e.g. land, housing, marine resources, employment and education).
  • SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRENDS Employment • Census 2011 showed an unemployment rate of 29.8% of which 34.6% of females and 25.6% of males were unemployed • Labour absorption rate is lower for Black/African women compared to other population groups. • Women more dependent on survivalist activities in informal sector – low wages, high insecurity & increased vulnerability
  • SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRENDS Education • Equitable access to education for boys and girls has been achieved in both primary as well as secondary school . • Poor conversion of educational attendance into the completion of the secondary school phase, entry into higher education and completion of post-school qualifications remains a challenge. • Whilst an improvement from Census 1996 and 2001, considerable gender differences between the numbers of men (7.2%) and women (9.9. %) over the age of 20 years with no formal education were noted in Census 2011. • Whilst enrolment rates are high, attendance and drop-out rates remain a challenge.
  • 7 SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRENDS Living Conditions • Similar proportions of male and female headed households in formal dwellings. • Male-headed households likely to be informal dwellings as opposed to traditional dwellings for female counterparts (Living Conditions Survey, 2008/09 - Statistics South Africa, 2013) • Female headed households had poorer access to basic services (electricity, water and sanitation) than male- headed households
  • FIGURE 1: DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE: PROJECTED TO 2030 • If fertility continues to decline; the population could reach 58.5 million by 2030 • Given the distinct gender inequality of the socio- economic trends described; how can the social welfare of the population (especially women) be met? • How does social security alleviate pressures and provide relief? Source: National Development Plan (2011)
  • “everyone has the right to have access to social security including, if they are unable to support themselves and their dependants, appropriate social assistance” S.27 (1) (c) The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa SOUTH AFRICAN CONSTITUTION (1996) “state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of each of these rights” S.27(2)
  • RELEVANT LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 Social Assistance Act, 2004 South African Social Security Agency Act, 2004 Road Accident Fund Act, 1996 Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act, 1993 Unemployment Insurance Fund Act, 2001 Medical Schemes Act, 1998
  • OTHER KEY LEGISLATION/STRATEGY IMPACTING ON SOCIAL SECURITY Children’s Act (38/2005) Older Persons Act (13/2006) White Paper on Families (2012) National Policy Framework on the Empowerment of Women and Gender Equality (2000) Gender Mainstreaming Strategy
  • OVERVIEW OF SOCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME • The aim is to improve the living circumstances and well-being of the poorest and most vulnerable people in the country. • The program is provided is in cash or in-kind to enable beneficiaries to meet their basic needs. • It is non-contributory and financed through general tax revenues. • Subsidies should be transparent and subject to regulation and governance. • Social assistance should, as far as possible, encourage employment creation and formal sector participation. • Currently (February 2014), there approximately 16 million beneficiaries most of which are children and the elderly. 12
  • 13 SOCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMMES SOCIAL ASSISTANCE Child support Grant (CSG) Foster Child Grant (FCG) Older Persons Grant (OPG) Grant in Aid (GIA) Social Relief (SR) War Veterans Grant (WVG) Disability Grant (DG) Care Dependency Grant (CDG)
  • TABLE 1:PROVSION OF SOCIAL SECURITY 14 Type of Grant 2002/03 2005/06 2008/09 2011/12 Feb 2014 Old Age 1 903 042 2 098 903 2 234 454 2 682 204 2 953 710 War Veteran 5 266 3 306 1 889 948 439 Disability 694 232 1 299 894 1 416 210 1 230 811 1 117 579 Foster Children 95 216 261 475 445 909 521 435 497 164 Care Dependency 34 978 85 467 102 965 112 788 120 579 Child Support Grant 1 907 774 5 667 220 8 217 658 10 464 682 11 068 718 Total 4 640 508 9 416 265 12 419 085 15 012 868 15 758 189 • Consistent increase in uptake of all types of grants • Steady increase in uptake of Old Age and Child Support Grant • Increases in Care Dependency and Foster Grant noted in later years • Slight decrease noted for Disability Grant for later years
  • TABLE 2: TYPE OF GRANT BY SEX National Male Female Total Child Support Grant 111 296 5 989 366 6 100 662 Older Persons Grant 1 009 066 1 942 547 2 951 613 War Veteran 348 92 440 Disability Grant 512 705 602 239 1 114 944 Foster Care Grant 60 075 323 782 383 857 Combination 278 9 427 9 705 Care Dependency 3 627 114 386 118 013 TOTAL 1 697 395 8 981 839 10 679 234 • More females are recipients of Older Persons Grant and Disability Grant N.B: Table 2 shows the gender split for all grants except the children's grants (i.e. Care Dependency, Foster Care and Child Support Grant). Gender split for these grants show sex of caregiver/parents of the children
  • IMPACT OF SOCIAL SECURITY ON BENEFICIARIES Improving Income Equality and Employment • Studies (e.g. Samson et al, 2002 and 2004) have shown that social grants provide potential market participants with the resources and economic security to invest in high-risk/ high-reward job search. • It further found that households receiving social grants are better able to improve their productivity and as a result earn higher wage/salary increases. • At macro-economic level social grants tends to increase domestic employment. 16
  • IMPACT OF SOCIAL SECURITY ON BENEFICIARIES Benefit to Households • Yields positive impacts in reducing poverty, promoting job search and increasing school attendance. • Spending in households that receive social grants focuses more on basics like food . • Increased spending on food is associated with better nutritional outcomes. • Households that receive social grants have lower prevalence rates of hunger for young children as well as older children and adults, even compared to those households with comparable income levels. • Lower spending on health care, possibly due to social grants being associated with other positive outcomes that reduce the need for medical care. 17
  • IMPACT OF SOCIAL SECURITY ON BENEFICIARIES Educational Outcomes • Social security grants provide households with more resources to finance education. • Approximately 32,4% of children lived in households without any employed members, and social grants and remittances were vital to improve the access to food and education. (Statistics South Africa, 2013). • Samson et al (2004) demonstrates that children in households that receive social grants are more likely to attend school, even when controlling for the effect of income. • The positive effects of social security on education are greater for girls than for boys, helping to remedy gender disparities. 18
  • IMPACT OF SOCIAL SECURITY ON BENEFICIARIES Early Childhood Development (Specifically the Child Support Grant - CSG) • Children who were enrolled for the CSG at birth completed significantly more grades of schooling than children who were enrolled at age six, and achieved higher scores on a maths test. • Impacts for girls were particularly significant, with early receipt of the CSG increasing girls’ grade attainment by a quarter of a grade, compared to those receiving the grant only at age six. • The impact largely resulted from early receipt of the CSG, reducing delays in girls entering school by 27 per cent, with girls enrolling early obtaining higher scores on maths and reading tests. 19
  • IMPACT OF SOCIAL SECURITY ON BENEFICIARIES Health Outcomes (Specifically the CSG) • Early enrolment reduced the likelihood of illness; the effect being stronger for particularly boys. Boys enrolled at birth had a 21 per cent likelihood of being ill, compared to a 30 per cent likelihood for boys enrolled later. • Reduction of adolescent risky behaviours – sexual activity, pregnancy, alcohol use, drug use, criminal activity and gang membership. Significant associations observed for: – Reduced sexual activity, fewer number of sexual partners and reduced pregnancy particularly when the adolescent also received the grant in early childhood; – Reduced alcohol and drug use, particularly for females, and with the effect strengthened by early childhood receipt of the CSG. 20
  • SOME CHALLENGES • Redressing the urban and rural (especially outlying, remote areas) imbalance in accessing social security • Administrative backlogs • Lack of required documentation by potential beneficiaries (e.g. South African Identity document, birth certificate) prevents them from accessing grants. • Increasing transparency and accountability – both Government and beneficiary • Reducing fraud faced by beneficiaries (especially older persons) (e.g. Loan sharks, money scams etc.)
  • CONCLUDING REMARKS • South Africa’s social assistance programme has been expanding at an unprecedented rate, from covering just 2,7 million people in 1994 to nearly 16 million people today. In 2013, its total expenditure makes up approximately 3,3% of GDP. • The social assistance programme has been acknowledged as one of Government’s most effective poverty alleviation programme. • The provision of social grants, free basic services and the mainstreaming of gender in Government programmes have contributed to improving especially women's quality of life and that of their household members.
  • 1 23 CONCLUDING REMARKS Poverty reducing impacts • Child Support Grant is effective in addressing the multiple dimensions of poverty and income inequality. • Spending patterns in households that receive the grant is more focused on basics necessities like food, energy. • Promote job searching and labour market participation Developmental Impacts • Positive educational outcomes. • Investment in human capital because of improved school attendance. • Improved health and nutritional status for beneficiaries • Reduced adolescent risky behaviours through early receipt of CSG • Increased gender equity – educational and nutritional outcomes
  • CONCLUDING REMARKS • Improve the implementation of legislation and policies with continued efforts to empower women by providing them with choices through expanded access to education, health services, including SRH services, skills development, employment and involvement in decision making at all levels.