On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
By continuing to use LinkedIn’s SlideShare service, you agree to the revised terms, so please take a few minutes to review them.
แสงธรรม 1 Saeng Dhamma The Buddha’s Words พุทธสุภาษิต หีนํ ธมฺมํ น เสเวยฺย ปมาเทน น สํวเส มิจฺฉาทิฏฺฐึ น เสเวยฺย น สิยา โลกวฑฺฒโน. (๑๖๗) อย่าประพฤติสิ่งเลวทราม อย่าอยู่ด้วยความประมาท อย่ายึดถือความเห็นผิด อย่าทําตนเป็นคนรกโลก Do not follow mean thing. Do not live in heedlessness. Do not embrace false views. Do not be a ‘world-upholder’.
แสงธรรม 3 Saeng Dhamma Emptiness by Buddhadasa Bhikkhu http://www.what-buddha-taught.net/Books/BhikkhuBuddhadasa ...Continued from last issue... ชีวิตแท้ A t the moment that anyone’s mind is freed from these four things the Buddha held that to be emptiness.ชีวิตแท้ งดงาม และสดชื่น The commentary sums it up concisely as ‘na attanena’ - not taking things to be self and ‘naไม่มีฝืน ไม่มีหวั่น ไม่สั่นเสียว attaniyena’ - not taking things to belong to self,ไม่มีสิ่ง หลงรัก สักสิ่งเดียว and that is sufficient. When this sort of grasp-ไม่มีจิต เกาะเกี่ยว ทั้งบาปบุญ ing consciousness is not present try and imag- ine what it would be like. One doesn’t look onทรัพย์ในเรือน เป็นเหมือน ของเกลือนกลาด ่ anything anywhere as ever having been, as cur-ที่เป็นบาป เก็บกวาด ทิ้งใต้ถุน rently being, or as having the potential to be selfที่เป็นบุญ มีไว้ เพียงเจือจุน or belong to self. There is no self in the presentให้เป็นคุณ สะดวกดาย คล้ายรถเรือ and no basis for anxiety regarding self in the past or future. The mind has realized emptinessไม่ยึดมั่น สิ่งใด เอาใจแบก through seeing clearly that there is nothing at allกลัวตายแตก ใจประหวัน จนฟันเฝือ ่ ่ that can fulfill the meaning of the words ‘self’เบาทั้งกาย เบาทั้งใจ ไม่มีเบือ or ‘belonging to self’. All things are dhammas,ชีวตเหลือ แต่ความเย็น เป็นนิพพาน... ิ simply parts of nature. This is the mind that is identical with emptiness. If we say that the mind
แสงธรรม 4 Saeng Dhammahas attained or realized emptiness it leads some Buddha asking for a dhamma that would bepeople to understand that the mind is one thing of eternal benefit and welfare to household ,and emptiness another. To say that the mind those hampered by wife and children, wearerscomes to know emptiness is still not particularly of sandal wood paste and perfumes. In replycorrect. Please understand that if the mind was the Buddha taught them this sutta taught aboutnot one and the same thing as emptiness, there sunnata. When they objected that it was too dif-would be no way for emptiness to be known. ficult he came down only to the level of Sotap-The mind in its natural state is emptiness, it is attiyamka -.the practice leading to ‘stream - en-an alien foolishness that enters and obstructs try’  i.e. the genuine realization of Buddha,the vision of emptiness. Consequently, as soon Dhamma and Sangha, and of ariyakantasila - theas foolishness departs, the mind and emptiness virtuous conduct that is of contentment to theare one. The mind then knows itself. It doesn’t Noble Ones. In fact they were being lured intohave to go anywhere else knowing objects, it a trap by the Buddha and were neatly caught inholds to the knowing of emptiness, knowing the snare. To speak in coarse everyday terms henothing other than the freedom from ‘self’ and completely swindle them. They said they didn’t‘belong to self’. want sunnata so the Buddha gave them instead It is this emptiness that is the single highest something which could not escape it, the lassoteaching of the Buddha, so much so that in the that would pull them into it. For there is onlySamyutta Nikaya the Buddha says that there are one way to truly realize the Buddha, Dhammano words spoken by the Tathagata that are not and Sangha and to have the virtuous conductconcerned with sunnata. He says in that sutta that is of contentment to the Noble Ones, andthat the most profound teaching is that which that is to be continually seeing the futility ofdeals with emptiness, any other subject is su- grasping and clinging.perficial. Only the teaching of sunyata is so pro- Now do you think the Buddha was wrongfound that there must be a Tathagata enlight- in saying that sunnata is a matter for laypeo-ened in the world for it to be taught. ple? If He was right, then these days we must be In another section of the Samyutta Nikaya crazy, utterly wrong, because we believe thatthe Buddha says that emptiness is the dhamma sunnata is not a matter for us householders, butthat is always of the most benefit and support is a matter for those who are going to Nibbana,to lay people. There is the account, one that I wherever that is. That’s how people talk. Buthave related many times in other places of a the Buddha is talking in a different way, sayinggroup of wealthy laypeople going to visit the that this subject of sunnata is of direct benefit
แสงธรรม 5 Saeng Dhammaand welfare to laypeople. So who is right and from the Buddha directly to laypeople. Pleasewho is wrong. If the Buddha is right then we consider anew how necessary it is that one givesmust agree to investigate the truth of His words attention to this subject and whether it is in factand the way to do so is to examine which peo- the only subject that needs to be spoken of. Inple have the most suffering and distress, whose the Samyutta Nikaya it is clearly affirmed thatminds are most in the middle of the blast fur- sunnata is Nibbana and that Nibbana is sunna-nace. It’s none other than laypeople. ta, the freedom from defilements and Dukkha. That being so, who most needs something Therefore Nibbana too is a fit subject for laypeo-to extinguish that fire, to completely destroy ple. If laypeople still don’t know the meaningDukkha in its every aspect? Again, it is laypeople. of Nibbana if they have not yet dwelt within itsThose that are in the heat of the fire must look for sphere, then they live ill the midst of the firethe means of extinguish¬ing it there in its midst more than any other group.because there is no place to struggle and escape The meaning of the word Nibbana clearlyto; everything is fire. Thus one must find the point extends to the absence of mental defilementsof absolute coolness right there in the midst of the cause of Dukkha. So that at any moment thatthe fire. That point is emptiness, the absence of our minds are empty of ‘self’ and ‘belonging toself and belongings of self, sunnata. self’ then that is Nibbana. For example, at this Laypeople must try to discover sunnata moment as you sit here I will attest that every-and dwell within its sphere. If one is unable to one, or almost everyone, has a mind empty oflive right at its central point, at the very least the feelings of ‘I’ and ‘mine’ because there isone should dwell within its sphere have a rea- nothing engendering them. In listening attentivelysonable knowledge of it. This then is counted to you give no opportunity for self - consciousnessbe of eternal benefit to laypeople. to arise. So look and see whether or not the mind This group of people as asked what would is empty of ‘I’ and ‘mine’. If there is some empti-be of eternal benefit to them and the Buddha ness (and I merely use the word some, it’s notanswered: ‘sunnatapppatisamyutta lokuttara comp¬letely or unchangingly empty) then youdhamma’ - dhammas endowed with sunnata are dwelling within the sphere of Nibbana. Eventranscend the world. To transcend the world though it is not absolute or perfect Nibbana, it isis to transcend the fire. To be endowed with Nibbana just the same.sunnata is to be empty of clinging to things as Dhammas are of my meanings, levels andself or was belonging to self. So the saying ‘sun- stages. The Nibbana - dhamma lies in the mindsnatapppatisamyutta lokuttara dhamma’ is a gift of each one of you at the moment that you are
แสงธรรม 6 Saeng Dhammato some degree empty of the feeling of ‘I’ and one has any truth - discerning awareness they‘mine’. So please be aware of this ego-less feel- will be able to see for themselves without hav-ing, remember it well and keep it with you when ing to believe me, and that seeing will more andyou return to your home. Some¬times when more open the way for further study towardsyou have arrived home it will feel like you’ve the ultimate truth. If that is the case, then weentered someone else’s house, or doing some must move our study onto the subject of dhatuwork at home you will feel like you are help- (elements).ing out with someone else’s work, at someone The word dhatu has the same meaning aselse’s home. This sort the word ‘dhamma’.of feeling will increase Etymologically themore and more and words have the samethe Dukkha that uses root ‘dhr’, which meansto be associated with ‘maintain.’ A dhatuhome and work will be is something that canno more. You will abide maintain itself. Just aswith a mind empty of with dhammas, chang-‘self’ and ‘belonging to ing dhatus maintainself’ at all times. This is themselves throughto take Nibbana or sun- change and unchangingnata as the holy charm dhatus maintain them-constantly hanging from our neck . It is a selves through changelessness.protection against every kind of suffering, danger What sort of, elements do you know of thatand ill - fortune. It is the genuine holy charm of could correlate to emptiness? Students of phys-the Buddha, anything else is just a fake. ics and chemistry know only about the material Speaking like this you will soon be accusing elements, the pure elements of which there areme of giving you a big sales pitch. Don’t think of over a hundred and more being discovered allme as someone hawking the wares of the Bud- the time. It’s impossible for these elements todha in the marketplace, think rather that we are be emptiness, or at least it would take a pro-all companions in Dukkha, in birth, old age, sick- found interpretation of those things to see themness and death and that we are all disciples of as empty, because they are merely material ele-the Lord Buddha. If anything is spoken to stimu- ments or rupadhatu. But there are also imma-late interest it is with good intentions. But if any- terial elements, arupadhatu, elements of mind
แสงธรรม 7 Saeng Dhammaor consciousness, which lie beyond the domain tied to birth and death but is, on the contrary,of physics and chemistry. One must study the the utter extinction of the other elements. Sun-Buddha’s science before one can know the im- nata is that which dwells in this element and somaterial, formless elements, which are a matter it might also be called sunnatadhatu, for it is theof the mind and heart. So far then we have as- element that brings all elements to emptiness.certained two groups of’ elements. If one is to understand those things called In which element will that which is called dhatu well enough to understand the Dhammaemptiness abide? If anyone thinks that emptiness they must be studied in this way. Don’t be de-is a material element his friends will die laughing. ceived into thinking that knowing the elements ofSome people may think that it is an immaterial earth, water, wind and fire is sufficient, they areor formless element and here the Noble Ones a matter for children. Those elements were spo-will die laughing. Emptiness is neither a material ken of and taught before the¬ time of the Bud-nor an immaterial element. There is a third kind dha. One must go on to know vinnanadhatu, theof element which lies beyond the ken of ordinary immaterial consciousness - element, akasadhatu,people. The Buddha called it ‘nirodhadhatu.’ The the space element and sunnatadhatu, the empti-words vatthudhatu or rupadhatu refer to materi- ness element that is the utter extinction of earth,ality whether visible forms, sounds, odors, tastes, water, fire, wind, consciousness and space. Thetactile objects or whatever. element of emptiness is the most wonderful ele- Arupadhatu refers to the mind and heart, ment in all the Buddhist Teachings.to mental processes, the thoughts and feelings To sum up: earth, water, wind and fire liethat arise in the mind. There is only one kind in the group of rupadhatu. The mind conscious-of element not included in these two catego- ness and mental processes lie in the group ofries an element that is their complete antith- arupadhatu. As for Nibbana, this sunnatadhatu,esis and annihilation. Consequently the Buddha it lies in the group of nirodhadhatu. You mustsometimes called it ‘nibbanadhatu’ sometimes find a quiet time to sit and look at all the ele-‘nirodhadhatu’ and sometimes ‘amatadhatu.’ ments and see clearly that there are only these The words nirodhadhatu and nibbanad- three kinds. Then you will begin to discover Nib-hatu both mean extinguish, it is the extinguish- banadhatu, and understand more of that anattaing element, the element that extinguishes all or sunnata that we are presently discussing.other elements. Amatadhatu means the ‘ele-ment that does not die’. All other elements die, To be continuedit is their nature to die. Nirodhadhatu is not
แสงธรรม 8 Saeng Dhamma A Taste of Freedom The Path in Harmony A Dhammatalk By Ajahn Chah http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/thai/chah/atasteof.html ...Continued from last issue... H meditation they aren’t very peaceful. They tend owever some people find it to think a lot, contemplating this and that, un- hard to enter samadhi be- til eventually they contemplate happiness andcause it doesn’t suit their tendencies. There suffering and see the truth of them. Some in-is samadhi, but it’s not strong or firm. But one cline more towards this than samadhi. Whethercan attain peace through the use of wisdom, standing, walking, sitting or lying,  enlighten-through contemplating and seeing the truth of ment of the Dhamma can take place. Throughthings, solving problems that way. This is using seeing, through relinquishing, they attain peace.wisdom rather than the power of samadhi. To They attain peace through knowing the truthattain calm in practice it’s not necessary to sit in without doubt, because they have seen it formeditation, for instance. Just ask yourself, “Ehh, themselves.what is that?...” and solve your problem right Other people have only little wisdom butthere! A person with wisdom is like this. Perhaps their samadhi is very strong. They can enter veryhe can’t really attain high levels of samadhi, al- deep samadhi quickly, but not having much wis-though he develops some, enough to cultivate dom, they cannot catch their defilements, theywisdom. It’s like the difference between farm- don’t know them. They can’t solve their prob-ing rice and farming corn. One can depend on lems.rice more than corn for one’s livelihood. Our But regardless of whichever approach wepractice can be like this, we depend more on use, we must do away with wrong thinking, leav-wisdom to solve problems. When we see the ing only Right View. We must get rid of confu-truth, peace arises. sion, leaving only peace. Either way we end up The two ways are not the same. Some peo- at the same place. There are these two sides tople have insight and are strong in wisdom but practice, but these two things, calm and insight,do not have much samadhi. When they sit in go together. We can’t do away with either of
แสงธรรม 9 Saeng Dhammathem. They must go together. the work we are doing or have done in the past. That which “looks over” the various factors It has usefulness. We should know ourselves atwhich arise in meditation is ‘sati’, mindfulness. all times. If we know ourselves like this, rightThis sati is a condition which, through practice, will distinguish itself from wrong, the path willcan help other factors to arise. Sati is life. When- become clear, and cause for all shame will dis-ever we don’t have sati, when we are heedless, solve. Wisdom will arise.it’s as if we are dead. If we have no sati, then We can bring the practice all together asour speech and actions have no meaning. This morality, concentration and wisdom. To be col-sati is simply recollection. It’s a cause for the lected, to be controlled, this is morality. Thearising of self-awareness and wisdom. Whatever firm establishing of the mind within that controlvirtues we have cultivated are imperfect if lack- is concentration. Complete, overall knowledgeing in sati. Sati is that which watches over us within the activity in which we are engaged iswhile standing, walking, sitting and lying. Even wisdom. The practice in brief is just morality,when we are no longer in samadhi, sati should concentration and wisdom, or in other words,be present throughout. the path. There is no other way. Whatever we do we take care. A sense of “...With right samadhi, no matter what levelshame will arise. We will feel ashamed about of calm is reached, there is awareness. There isthe things we do which aren’t correct. As shame full mindfulness and clear comprehension. Thisincreases, our collectedness will increase as is the samadhi which can give rise to wisdom,well. When collectedness increases, heedless- one cannot get lost in it. Practitioners shouldness will disappear. Even if we don’t sit in medi- understand this well...”tation, these factors will be present in the mind.And this arises because of cultivating sati. De- The Path in Harmonyvelop sati! This is the dhamma which looks over Today I would like to ask you all. “Are คุณนาตยา-Mr.Richard-Sudkhet-Thomas Tinker ท�าบุญ ๑๐๐ วัน อุทิศให้แม่แสงจันทร์ อุดทา ๑๐ ก.ค. ๕๔
แสงธรรม 10 Saeng Dhammayou sure yet, are you certain in your medita- ting alone. There is no-one sitting around you,tion practice?” I ask because these days there there is nothing at all. Develop this feeling thatare many people teaching meditation, both monks you are sitting alone until the mind lets go of alland laypeople, and I’m afraid you may be subject to externals, concentrating solely on the breath.wavering and doubt. If we understand clearly, we will If you are thinking, “This person is sitting overbe able to make the mind peaceful and firm. here, that person is sitting over there,” there is You should understand “the Eightfold no peace, the mind doesn’t come inwards. JustPath” as morality, concentration and wisdom. cast all that aside until you feel there is no-oneThe path comes together as simply this. Our sitting around you, until there is nothing at all,practice is to make this path arise within us. until you have no wavering or interest in your When sitting meditation we are told to surroundings.close the eyes, not to look at anything else, Let the breath go naturally, don’t forcebecause now we are going to look directly at it to be short or long or whatever, just sit andthe mind. When we close our eyes, our atten- watch it going in and out. When the mind lets gotion comes inwards. We establish our atten- of all external impressions, the sounds of carstion on the breath, center our feelings there, and such will not disturb you. Nothing, whetherput our mindfulness there. When the factors of sights or sounds, will disturb you, because thethe path are in harmony we will be able to see mind doesn’t receive them. Your attention willthe breath, the feelings, the mind and its mood come together on the breath.for what they are. Here we will see the “focus If the mind is confused and won’t concen-point,” where samadhi and the other factors of trate on the breath, take a full, deep breath, asthe Path converge in harmony. deep as you can, and then let it all out till there isWhen we are sitting in meditation, following the none left. Do this three times and then re-estab-breath, think to yourself that now you are sit- lish your attention. The mind will become calm.คุณนันท์ - คุณบูน ชลามัย และครอบครัว ท�าบุญถวายภัตตาหารเพลเนืองในวันคล้ายวันเกิดครบรอบ ๖๐ ปี ๒๕ ก.ค. ๒๕๕๔ ่
แสงธรรม 11 Saeng Dhamma It’s natural for it to be calm for a while, and beyond the breath. The knowledge that thethen restlessness and confusion may arise again. breath has disappeared becomes established.When this happens, concentrate, breathe deep- What will we take as our object of meditationly again, and them re-establish your attention now? We take just this knowledge as our object,on the breath. Just keep going like this. When that is, the awareness that there’s no breath.this has happened many times you will become Unexpected things may happen at this time;adept at it, the mind will let go of all exter- some people experience them, some don’t. Ifnal manifestations. External impressions will not they do arise, we should be firm and have strongreach the mind. Sati mindfulness. Somewill be firmly estab- people see that thelished. As the mind breath has disap-becomes more re- peared and get afined, so does the fright, they’re afraidbreath. Feelings they might die. Herewill become finer we should knowand finer, the body the situation justand mind will be as it is. We simplylight. Our attention notice that there’sis solely on the in- no breath and takener, we see the that as our object ofin-breaths and out-breaths clearly, we see all awareness. This, we can say, is the firmest, sur-impressions clearly. We will see the coming to- est type of samadhi. There is only one firm, un-gether of Morality, Concentration and Wisdom. moving state of mind. Perhaps the body will be-This is called the Path in harmony. When there come so light it’s as if there is no body at all. Weis this harmony our mind will be free of confu- feel like we’re sitting in empty space, all seemssion, it will come together as one. This is called empty. Although this may seem very unusual,samadhi. you should understand that there’s nothing to After watching the breath for a long time, it worry about. Firmly establish your mind like this.may become very refined; the awareness of thebreath will gradually cease, leaving only bareawareness. The breath may become so refined To be continuedit disappears! Perhaps we are “just sitting,” asif there is no breathing at all. Actually there isbreathing, but it seems as if there’s none. This isbecause the mind has reached its most refinedstate, there is just bare awareness. It has gone
แสงธรรม 12 Saeng Dhamma What is Nirvana? Essays On The Dhamma By Luang Ta Chi Edited by Du Wayne Engelhart ...Continued from last issue... night fell, the light of the full moon brightenedVII. Dhamma Glory the monastery and nearby bamboo grove and gave a peaceful quality to the meeting of these A fter the Buddha had finished his discourse, he returned to theWeruwan Monastery, a temple that had been learned monks. The meeting became the first great coming together of arahants. The occur- rence of this great gathering was very importantespecially prepared for and dedicated to him and is still celebrated to this day as the Maghaby King Bimbisara. The Weruwan Monastery be- Puja ceremony because:came the first Buddhist monastery. 1. There were 1,250 arahants gathering As it happened, that evening exactly 1,250 with the same idea.monks, all of whom were arahants, came to the 2. All of them had been personally or-Weruwan Monastery. The monks had come dained by the Buddha.from far and near, some traveling great distanc- 3. They came without any notice aheades to see the Buddha. All had come without of time.having received any notice or announcement 4. This event happened in the middleof a meeting. They had all come without be- of the Magha month, on the night of the fulling asked or told for the purpose of paying re- moon.spect to the Buddha and listening to more of The occurrence of these four importanthis teachings. The Buddha had himself ordained events led to Magha Puja sometimes beingeach of the 1,250 monks who came to learn called Jaturongka Sannibidh, which meansfrom him. The area around the monastery be- the Summit Meeting of Four Factors.came very crowded by the large number of ara- The Buddha spoke to the assembly of hishants who had come to visit the Buddha. When 1,250 followers. He understood clearly that each
แสงธรรม 13 Saeng Dhammaof the monks present had already attained ara- person cannot travel the correct path towardhantship, the highest goal of their studies. They other Buddhist goals. For this reason, most Bud-were ready to perform their duties to provide dhist activities are directed toward helping peo-for the welfare of the others. These followers ple to purify their minds.were to become the missionaries who, wherever The final goal of Buddhism is to show peo-they traveled, would carry the responsibility of ple how they can break out of the cycle of suf-teaching the Dhamma for the benefit and hap- fering and attain nirvāna. The Buddha taughtpiness of human beings. The Buddha under- that nirvāna is the greatest and is the higheststood that he had to present the most proper goal of Buddhist practice. Iand important subjects of discussion to thesemonks, since they were to be the representa- What Is Nirvāna?tives of himself and the Dhamma. He choseto present the main principles of the Dhamma n simple words, nirvāna is a state ofas well as instructions the monks could follow mind—the state that is attained whento help them be successful in their duties. His the mind is undisturbed by defilements and suf-teachings in this discourse can be summarized in fering. A person can reach this state of mindthree main divisions: abstain from all evil, create through the practice of meditation if he or shegood deeds, and purify the mind. uses the right methods, the right concentration, It was the individual parts of these main and the right effort in order to cultivate the rightprinciples that the Buddha spoke about as he mindfulness. By using the proper methods, atalked to his 1,250 arahant followers on that person can get rid of ignorance, and clinging andspecial night, the night of the first Magha Puja craving. As a person works to overcome theDay. When we look back at his discourse, we defilements of the mind, he or she also over-understand that these very same principles are comes suffering. A pure mind, without defile-very important and proper for everyone to prac- ments and suffering, is a natural condition fortice, even today, over 2,500 years later. human beings. It is the pressures of society and Usually, as human beings, we are able to a lack of mindfulness that keeps people fromperform sinful actions. However, most people, reaching this goal. With proper practice, anyoneby nature, want to do good actions and lead can attain nirvāna. It is not an impossible goalpeaceful lives. However, to keep this goodness, as some people believe.people must have a pure mind. It is possible As people work toward purifying their mindsfor anyone to attain the goal of a pure mind. To on the path to nirvāna, they must rememberpurify one’s mind is one of the most important that the goal of Buddhism is to teach the way togoals for Buddhists, for without a pure mind a overcome mental suffering. If we cannot stop
แสงธรรม 14 Saeng Dhammathis suffering, then we have not reached the these virtues should be considered to have thegoal of our practice. Meditation and right mind- proper attitude and state of mind.fulness can be used to help overcome suffering. In addition to having the right attitude, aLike the medicine cabinet at home, meditation successful monk must gain a victory over thehas tools within easy reach that can be applied traps of māras. The māras are the sensualto help rid ourselves of suffering. pleasures that draw one from right mindfulness. Monks or laypersons come in contact with the māras through the six sensory organs: the eyes perceive the material forms, the ears perceive sounds, the nose perceives smells, the tongue senses the taste sensations, the body senses touch, and the mind object attaches feelings. Being controlled by sensual pleasures stops a person on the path to right mindfulness and, es- pecially in the case of a monk, sets a bad exam- ple for lay persons. As the mind gains a victory IThe Characteristics of Buddhist Missionary over the māras, it becomes calm and peaceful,Monks and suffering is gotten rid of. Buddhist mission- ary monks who achieve and stick to these char- n the discourse the Buddha present- acteristics have achieved the necessary state of ed to the 1,250 arahants on the first mind to be successful teaching the Dhamma toMagha Puja, he described the characteristics Buddhist followers.needed by a good Buddhist missionary monk. Lay people at the temple look to theHe said that each monk must be provided with monks as examples of proper conduct, the kindcertain qualities and characteristics to be suc- of conduct they themselves should work for tocessful. The Buddha described the three most obtain a peaceful and meaningful life. Follow-important qualities for missionary monks to pos- ers tend to imitate the behavior of the monks,sess: and therefore the monks must set a positive ex- • A monk must be able to put up with ample for the members of the temple. For thisthings and possess the greatest patience. reason, the temple should remain a peaceful • A monk must have no desire to harm place. Monks must keep the temple peacefulothers and have compassion for all. by being aware of their behavior and following • A monk must have a peaceful mind. the rules for peaceful living as taught by the The Buddhist missionary monk who keeps Buddha:
แสงธรรม 15 Saeng Dhamma • Do not criticize others. create peaceful living in society. • Do not harm or hurt others. In addition, when discussing different reli- • Live by the precepts at all times. gious faiths, monks should not criticize other re- • Eat with moderation, and respect others. ligions. If they have to say something, they must • Meditate to purify the mind. base what they say on facts. Most people have Buddhist missionary monks should pay good reasons for their beliefs, and these shouldattention to these rules as they carry out their not be criticized.work at the temple. As missionaries they mustbe aware that while performing their duties, they Proper Actionwill come in contact with many kinds of people,with ideas, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors dif- Acts of violence or any kind of act indicat-ferent from their own. The monks must adjust ing an intention of ill will, or actions taken thatto their new surroundings and learn to cooperate are not based on loving-kindness should not beand work with people from a different culture. carried out. Missionary monks should possess a To be effective, missionary monks should kind heart toward all beings. They should not doknow how to behave properly. Their behavior any harm to anyone or anything. They shouldshould not be too loose or too strict, but should live according to the idea that nonviolence isbe somewhat flexible as they learn about their the key to happiness and peaceful living. Thenew surroundings. They need to adjust to the world society can be united if all of us practicechanges around them without losing sight of loving-kindness. Loving-kindness is the intentiontheir overall Buddhist beliefs and goals. and willingness to see others being happy. Eve- ryone wants to be happy. We should do whatProper Speech we can to help them attain their goals, so we should not hurt or kill other beings. People in Criticizing, yelling, or continuously using our society will be happy and peaceful if theywords that cause people trouble are actions have loving-kindness and a mind full of love.that will cause problems. A missionary monk When many people live together in a group,should not take part in this behavior. These they must have discipline, laws, and order toactions will destroy the respect others have for keep them well behaved. The idea of law andyou and produce no positive results. All monks order and discipline in Buddhist words is calledshould act in accordance with nonviolence. the Pātimokkha. In many ways it is similar toMonks must be careful and know how to keep the constitution of a country. It describes thetheir speech from being too loud or pushy. Be main principles by which human beings can livegentle and use a soft tone of voice in order to together in peace, harmony, and unity. But be-
แสงธรรม 16 Saeng Dhammayond written rules, it is the duty of educated nity. They must have peace and happiness topeople to assist their community in living peace- show the people in the community the benefitsfully and happily. of studying the Dhamma. Many people in the community haves lives that are difficult and fullNourishment and Food of suffering. These people need the monks to give them advice and training to improve their The eating of food is another thing for Bud- lives.dhist missionary monks to think about. Monksneed to be aware of what they eat and howmuch they should eat. The members of thecommunity of monks can be at peace if theyhave enough to eat. Monks must understandclearly that food is for living, and it gives themthe strength they need to practice the Dhammaand to do good work for the community. Weeat to keep up life; we do not keep up life inorder to eat. Monks must eat with mindfulnessinstead of eating for pleasure and enjoyment. Meditation PracticeLiving apart from Society Meditation is the most important activity for Monks should live in a peaceful place that a monk. Each day a monk must spend somedoes not have too many distractions. Some time practicing meditation in order to furthermonks live in a forest or cave because these his knowledge and purify his mind. This prac-places have fewer distractions and will allow tice will also help him to cultivate mindfulnessthem more time to practice their meditation. and wisdom. Through the results of meditationOther monks live in temples where they do the monks will be in the proper state of mind towork of the temple, interact with the lay people help others to solve problems in the community.and each other, and practice their meditationduring quiet times. To be continued Peace must begin within each person. Be-fore we can give peace to others, we must beat peace with ourselves. Buddhist missionarymonks have to set an example for the commu-
แสงธรรม 17 Saeng DhammaWAT THAI WASHINGTON D.C.STATEMENT OF ACTIVITIES AND CASH FLOWSFOR THE PERIOD OF JULY 1, 2010 - JUNE 30, 2011Income: Sub-total Total Donations: Donations-General Support 388,709 Donations-80th LT’s Building Funds 106,858 * Donations-Education 18,706 Total Donations 514,273 Investment: Dividends 1,320 Interest 1,874 3,194 Total Income $ 517,467Expenses: Utilities: Electricity 37,503 Oil & Propane Gas 4,198 Solid Waste & Refuse Collection 7,633 Water 7,714 Total Utilities 57,048 Printing & Distribution: Equipment Leasing and Repair 6,974 Postage 11,114 Printing Services 35,702 Supplies 2,083 Total Printing & Distribution 55,873 Insurance: Automomile 1,267 Health-Monks 36,551 Property and Liability 4,137 Total Insurance 41,955 Equipment Expenses: Equipment Purchases 814 Equipment Rental 2,926 Maintenance Contracts & Repairment 10,719 Total Equipment Expenses 14,459 Automobile 3,027 Bank Charges 256 Building and Ground 812 Contributions/Hospitality & Gifts 8,148 Dilivery & Cargo 2,079 Foods & Supplies 2,078 Fund raising 16,475 Medical-Monks 6,478 Miscellaneous 1,804 Office Expenses 3,739 Security Services 1,219 School Expenses 6,798 Telephone and Internet 3,180 Travel 6,429 Total Expenses 231,857 ** Net Income and Expenses $285,610 Less Cash Provided for: -Operating Expenses (Accounts Payable) (15,951) -80th Luangta Chi’s Year Building $(70,156) Net Cash Flows $199,503NOTE: * Donation-Luangta Chi’s 80th Year Building Funds is included net income/expenses from Luangta Chi’s Birthday event. ** Total expenses are not included expenses for Lunagta Chi’s Birthday and Tipitaka events which are reported as net donations. Nisakorn Praisaengpetch Phramaha Thanat Inthisan Assistant Treasurer President
แสงธรรม 22 Saeng Dhamma ขอเชิญทุกท่านร่วมนมัสการพระสารีรกธาตุ ณ อุโบสถ วัดไทยฯ ดี.ซี. ิ Those who are interested in Thai Theravada Buddhism and members of the general public are cordially invited to Wat Thai, D.C., Temple to pay their respect to or simply view the Buddha relics on display in the chanting hall. ปฏิบัติธรรมประจ�ำเดือน สิงหำคมณ วัดไทยกรุงวอชิงตัน, ดี.ซี. 20 สิงหาคม 2554 ศึกษาและปฏิบัติธรรมตามแนวพระไตรปิฎก � สาธยายพระไตรปิฎก ภาษาบาลี � ฟังบรรยายธรรม - ธรรมสากัจฉา � เจริญจิตตภาวนา - แผ่เมตตา พร้อมกันบนอุโบสถศาลา เวลา 9.00 A.M.