sugur manufacturing

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  • 1. SUGAR INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION:when we reach for the sugar bowl, we are reaching for sucrose. And, whether you know it or not, we’re opting for one of the purest foods found on the kitchen pantry shelf and in prepared food products. For thousands of years sugar has been an important food ingredient that provides a balanced sweet taste, safety as a preservative and provides functional properties essential in a multitude of foods. Sugar (sucrose) is a natural carbohydrate, found in fruits and vegetables. All green plants manufacture sugar through photosynthesis , the process by which plants generate energy and food reserves from sunlight . Just as sugar plays a vital role in the growth and life cycle of plants, it is an important ingredient in our food supply. While all fruits and vegetables produce sugar, the sugar cane and sugar beet plants contain the most accessible stores of sucrose.
  • 2. RAW MATERIAL :- In sugar industry processes sugar cane and sugar beet are used to manufacture edible sugar. More than 60% of the world’s sugar production is from sugar cane; the balance is from sugar beet. Sugar manufacturing is a highly seasonal industry, with season lengths of about 6 to 18 weeks for beets and 20 to 32 weeks for sugar cane. Approximately 10% of the sugar cane can be processed to commercial sugar, using approximately 20 cubic meters of water per metric ton of cane processed. Sugar cane contains 70% water; 14% fiber; 13.3% saccharose (about 10 to 15% sucrose), and 2.7% soluble impurities. There are two main raw materials used for production of sugar , Cane sugar Beet sugar
  • 3. Cane sugar :         Sugar cane is a tropical grass that grows 10-20 feet high. Four U.S. states produce sugar cane: produces his own sugar with more and more production of sugar cane . A stalk of the sugar cane plant contains 12-14% sucrose. The process of separating sugar from the sugar cane plant is accomplished in two steps: 1st at sugar mills and 2nd at sugar refineries. Composition of Sugar Cane : Water 70 % Fibrious 10 – 15 % Sucrose 10 – 15 % Gumy material 0.5 - 2 %
  • 4. 2. Beet Sugar :- Sugar beets flourish in temperate climates where the soil is rich and the growing season is about five months long. Farms can be found in California, Colorado, Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, and Wyoming. Sugar beets contain 16-18% sucrose and are processed at factories near the farms. Since sugars beets are grown and harvested seasonally, factories generally operate for a campaign (a period of time) of four to seven months. During these campaigns, facilities operate around-theclock, seven days a week.
  • 5. Types of Sugar :- There are several types of sugar , from which some are mentioned below , Granulated sugar Brown sugar Granulated Sugar :- Granulated sugar is a general type of sugar , which is used generally today . Granulated sugar contain less quantity of molasses means a syrup which is responsible for the sugar sweet. Brown sugar :- Brown sugar is sugar crystals in a specially prepared molasses syrup with controlled natural flavor and color components. A number of sugar refiners make brown sugar by preparing and boiling a special syrup containing these components until brown sugar crystals form. Others produce brown sugar by blending a special molasses syrup with white sugar crystals.
  • 6. Manufacturing of Sugar :- For many people, the term “refined” has lost its original meaning “to purify” and now carries a negative connotation. With sugar the refining process simply removes all impurities and the surrounding plant matter leaving only the pure sucrose. To further your understanding of sugar (sucrose) and its path from the field to the table, we provide the following plant to pantry tour. Sugar cane is a tropical grass that grows 10-20 feet high. Four U.S. states produce sugar cane: Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana and Texas. A stalk of the sugar cane plant contains 12-14% sucrose. The process of separating sugar from the sugar cane plant is accomplished in few steps: at sugar mills and at sugar refineries , Washing of cane sugar Clarified Concentration Crystallization
  • 7. Washing of cane sugar :- Cane sugar obtained from field is first washed properly to remove all dust , insects and all other physical impurities . Clarification :- This is done by adding milk of lime and carbondioxide. The carbon dioxide bubbles through the mixture forming calcium carbonate, a chalk like crystal which attracts the non-sugar plant materials like wax, fats, and gums from the juice. In a clarifier, the calcium carbonate and the other materials fall out of the sucrose solution and settle to the bottom. Concentration :- by removing water from the clarified juice in multiple stages under vacuum. This allows the juice to boil at lower temperatures to protect the sugar from caramelization. The juice becomes a clear, rich brown syrup during this step. CRYSTALIZATION:-by evaporating the last portion of water under very tight controls in a vacuum pan. Seed grain (pulverized sugar) is fed into the pan as the water evaporates and crystals begin to form. The mixture leaves the vacuum pan as a thick crystal mass and is sent to a centrifuge, a large perforated basket spinning very rapidly much like a washing machine in the spin cycle, where it is spun and dried, yielding golden raw sugar. In its pure form this sugar is crystalline in nature. Sucrose content in fully mature cane ranges.
  • 8. from 12-15%. Under conditions of low pH or under influence of certain enzymes like inverts , sucrose is hydrolyzed into two monosaccharide viz. glucose and laevulose in equimolecular proportions according to equation : Structure of sucrose :- This reaction is commonly known as inversion and the resulting solution as invert sugar. Following are some physical and chemical properties of sucrose which is basically a disaccharide:
  • 9. Physical properties : (i) Molecular weight 342.3 (ii) Density of 26% solution at 20°C 1.108175 (iii) Sucrose melting point is 188°C but it decomposes on melting. (iv) Sucrose is soluble in water and ethanol and the saturated solution in water at 20°C contains 67.09% sucrose by weight & in ethanol at 20°C, 0.9% by weight. Chemical Properties: (i) When heated to 200°C the sucrose loses water forming brown coloured compound known as caramel. (ii) Sucrose on treatment with concentrated nitric acid is transformed into oxalic acid. (iii) On treatment with oxygen the sucrose is converted into dicorboxylic or acid , (iv) When concentrated sulphuric acid is added to it sucrose is charred with evolution of C02 and SO2 . (v) Sucrose reacts with hydroxides of calcium, barium and strontium to form corresponding sucrates .
  • 10. APPLICATIONS OF SUGAR :- Sugar is an important source of carbohydrate, contains no fat or cholesterol, and 15 calories are contained by a teaspoon of it . Sugar is listed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) . Sugar plays an important part in making good foods taste even better and has many functional attributes in food preparation. In addition to its role as a flavor enhancer, sugar can act as a preservative, a bulking agent, a balancing agent, and a fermentation aid. It is sugar that helps bread to rise, heightens flavor and preserves fruit in jams and jellies, provides smooth texture to candies and sauces, and balances the tart flavors of other ingredients in many main dish recipes.