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Chemical processes technology are used to
produce chemical products and are by definition
processes which include chemical transformation.
Many chemicals are mixed with other chemicals
to produce formulations suitable for consumer
use. These include consumer products such as
paints, fragrances, Cement, Urea, Fertilizers,
pesticides and medicinal products.
Chemical processes consist of a number of
sequential and integrated operations carried out
in appropriate equipment.
For example Chemical reaction carried out in a
The precise operations, sequence of operations
and equipment specifications depend on the
nature of the process, operating conditions,
materials used and product produced.
Dryers (various types)
Pipes, valves, pumps etc
Flow sheets are used to describe the operating details
of Chemical processes.
*Arrangement of equipment
*Movement of material
Types Of Flow Sheets :
1: Flowcharts (Block Flow Diagrams)
2: Process Flow sheets (Process Flow Diagram)
3: Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (PID)
A flowchart is a formalized graphic
representation of a logic sequence , work or
manufacturing process, organization chart, or
similar formalized structure. The purpose of a
flow chart is to provide people with a common
language or reference point when dealing with a
project or process. Flowcharts use simple
geometric symbols and arrows to define
(Process Flow sheets)
A Process Flow Diagram (PFD) or System Flow
Diagram (SFD) shows the relationships between the
major components in the system. PFD also tabulate
process design values for the components in different
operating modes, typical minimum, normal and
maximum. A PFD does not show minor components,
piping systems, piping ratings and designations.
A schematic representation of the sequence of all
relevant operations occurring during a process and
includes information considered desirable for
A PFD should include:
♦ Process Piping
♦ Major equipment symbols, names and identification
♦ Control, valves and valves that affect operation of
♦ Interconnection with other systems
♦ Major bypass and recirculation lines
♦ System ratings and operational values as minimum,
normal and maximum flow, temperature and
♦ Composition of fluids
The purpose of PFD is generally as follows:
1. Plant design basis
PFD shows the plant design basis indicating
feedstock, product and main streams flow rates and
2: Scope of process
PFD serves to identify the scope of the process.
3. Equipment configuration
PFD shows graphically the arrangement of major
equipment, process lines and main control loops.
4. Required utilities
PFD shows utilities which are used continuously in the