Use of rfid in operations management operations management 3 introduction
Use Of RFID In Operations Management Operations Management 3INTRODUCTIONRadio frequency identification is the use of an object (typically referred to as an RFID tag) applied toor incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and trackingusing radio waves. This means that an RFID device is physically attached to the object that we wishto identify (at a later time). This is known as tagging and the object is said to be tagged. In case ofobjects this tagging may be an RFID device that is glued on it, in case of animals it may be aninjectable tag that is injected through a special syringe into the animal’s body while in case of ahuman, and it may take the form of a wrist band that a person wears. The wrist band contains anRFID device.With RFID, the electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the RF portion of the electromagneticspectrum is used to transmit signals.Most RFID tags contain at least two parts. One is an integrated circuit for storing and processinginformation, modulating and demodulating a radio-frequency (RF) signal, and other specializedfunctions. The second is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal.Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.RFID is also called dedicated short range communication (DSRC).IS THIS THE ONLY IDENTIFICATION TECHNOLOGY?No, this is not the only identification technology. The most ubiquitous identification technology isBarcode. This is the funny set of thick and thin lines that we see on all items e.g. computer parts orshampoo bottles. They help identify what the item is, who made it and such kind of information. Atthe supermarket, the checkout clerk has a barcode scanner who read this information and uses it togenerate the bill.This also makes faster to take inventory, when a shop assistant moves with a handheld barcodereader and checks the items present on the shelves. There is no need to write an items name,brand, description and other information. This all information is stored as a number (representedby a bar-code). The bar code scanner reads off this bar code and hence the number. This numberacts as a pointer to particular information. A database correlates this number with all necessaryinformation like manufacturer, item, description etc.
Use Of RFID In Operations Management Operations Management 4 So, themain thing that differentiates the RFID from Barcode reader is that barcode reader can read thebarcode one at a time, this means that however faster barcode readers you have, howeversophisticated barcode software you have, you will always be physically constrained by one at a timerule, while RFID reader can identify hundreds of tags in its range within fraction of second.HISTORYToday RFID technology is one of the hottest technologies around the world but it is not a so newtechnology. The earliest development of an RFID technology was in the 1940s for aircraftrecognition systems. In 1946 Leon Theremin invented a tool for the Soviet Union whichretransmitted incident radio waves with audio information. Even though this device was not anidentification tag, it is considered to be a predecessor of RFID technology. Similar technology, suchas the IFF transponder invented in the United Kingdom in 1939, was routinely used by the allies inWorld War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders are still used by most poweredaircrafts to this day.The first true ancestor of modern RFID is a passive radio transponder with memory The originalbusiness plan presented to investors in 1969 showed its uses in transportation (automotive vehicleidentification, automatic toll system, electronic license plate, electronic manifest, vehicle routing,vehicle performance monitoring), banking (electronic check book, electronic credit card), security(personnel identification, automatic gates, surveillance) and medical (identification, patient history).Animal tracking was one of the earliest large scale uses of this technology yet the first RFIDimplementation for operations management was at General Motors in 1984.After its first time implementation in 1984, RFID has been used in hundreds of operations andhence enhanced the performance of the companies, using this technology. The thing that has madethis technology popular is the absence of line of site and its working ability in tough conditions.
TYPES OF RFIDThe RFID tags comes in two major types which are as follows1. Passive RFID tags2. Active RFID tags1. PASSIVE RFID TAGSPassive RFID tags have no internal power supply. So they generate power to activate the circuitfrom the incoming radio frequency signal from the reader and transmit an extremely weak signalback to the reader using the back scattering principle Tag contains an antenna, and a small chip thatstores a small amount of data. Tag is powered by the high power electromagnetic field generatedby the antennas – usually in doorways. It has a longer life and limited range.2. ACTIVE RFID TAGSUnlike passive RFID tags, active RFID tags have their own internal power source (which is normally abattery); it is used to power the circuits and to broadcast the response signal to the reader. Becauseof the battery the active tags are larger in size, and more expensive to manufacture. Active tags hasa smaller life (may be a decade) and longer range than the passive tags. Active RFID tags are usedfor higher value items e.ga. Shipping containersb. Electronic assets
Use Of RFID In Operations Passive RFIDManagement Operations Management 6Active RFIDTag Power Source Internal to tag Energy transferred using RF from readerTag Battery Yes NoAvailability of power Continuous Only in field of readerRequired signal strength to Very Low Very HightagRange Up to 100m Up to 3-5m, usually lessMulti-tag reading 1000’s of tags recognized – up Few hundred within 3m of to 100mph ReaderData Storage Up to 128Kb or read/write 128 bytes of read/write with sophisticated search and access
HOW RFID WORKSA Radio-Frequency Identification system has three parts:a. A scanning antennab. A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the datac. A transponder - the RFID tag - that has been programmed with information.In tracking of some object, the whole tracking process starts with the enquiry signal from thescanning antenna or the receiver. It sends the radio signal to the object with the RFID tag. As the tagcomes in contact with the radio signals it transmits data, which is burned into its memory, back tothe receiver or reader device. The reader, then forward the data to the computer system, fordatabase checking and processing purpose.