Introduction to Biological Concepts and Research Chapter 1
1.1 What Is Life?  Characteristics of Living Systems <ul><li>Organized in a  hierarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each level wi...
1.1 (cont.) <ul><li>Energy  flows through; matter cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate  for changes in external environment...
Living Organisms Fig. 1-1, p. 2
Hierarchy of Living Systems (1) <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest level of organization that is alive </li></ul><...
Hierarchy of Living Systems (2) <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All populations living in an area </li></ul></ul><...
Hierarchy of Life Fig. 1-2, p. 3
Fig. 1-2, p. 3 Stepped Art Biosphere All regions of Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere that sustain life Ecosystem Grou...
Fig. 1-2a, p. 3 Cell Smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, independently or as part of a multi-cellular o...
Fig. 1-2b, p. 3 Multicellular organism Individual consisting of interdependent cells
Fig. 1-2c, p. 3 Population Group of individuals of the same kind (that is, the same species) that occupy the same area
Fig. 1-2d, p. 3 Community Populations of all species that occupy the same area
Fig. 1-2e, p. 3 Ecosystem Group of communities interacting with their shared physical environment
Fig. 1-2f, p. 3 Biosphere All regions of Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere that sustain life
Animation: Life’s levels of organization
Information Flow <ul><li>Living organisms have complex structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established by instructions coded ...
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Fig. 1-3, p. 3
Information Flow Fig. 1-4, p. 4
Fig. 1-4, p. 4 Information is stored in DNA. Protein RNA DNA The information in RNA guides the production of proteins. The...
Metabolism <ul><li>The activity of obtaining and using energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Energy and Matter <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flows through the hierarchy of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even...
Metabolism Fig. 1-5, p. 4
Fig. 1-5, p. 4 Electromagnetic energy in sunlight Energy is stored as chemical energy. Sugar Oxygen Cellular respiration r...
Fig. 1-5, p. 4 Stepped Art Oxygen Cellular respiration releases chemical energy from sugar molecules. Electromagnetic ener...
Compensation for Change <ul><li>Cells and organisms use receptors to detect changes in environment </li></ul><ul><li>Trigg...
Reproduction and Development <ul><li>Organisms  reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring  develop  into mature, reproductive ...
Evolution <ul><li>Populations undergo  biological   evolution  as generations replace one another over time </li></ul>
Energy Flow and Nutrient Recycling Fig. 1-6, p. 5
Fig. 1-6, p. 5 Secondary Consumers Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat Decomposers Primary consumers Nutrients recycled Sun Primary P...
1.2 Biological Evolution <ul><li>Darwin and Wallace explained how populations of organisms change through time </li></ul><...
Populations Change With Time (1) <ul><li>Changes occur in structure, function, types of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Theory...
Populations Change With Time (2) <ul><li>Instructions for characteristics are coded in  DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successf...
Life Cycle: Silkworm Moth Fig. 1-7, p. 6
Fig. 1-7, p. 6 e. Adult a. Egg b. Larva c. Pupa d. Recently emerged adult
Animation: One-way energy flow and materials cycling
Heredity (1) <ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segments of DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code instructions for many cha...
Heredity (2) <ul><li>Mutations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in structure, number, or arrangement of DNA molecules </li></...
Adaptations <ul><li>Accumulation of favorable characteristics over many generations may produce  adaptations </li></ul><ul...
Artificial Selection Fig. 1-8, p. 7
Animation: Insect development
Camouflage in Rock Pocket Mice Fig. 1-9, p. 8
Distributions of Rock Pocket Mice Fig. 1-10, p. 9
Fig. 1-10, p. 9 New Mexico Arizona Mouse color Armendaris Pinacate N = 8 N = 12 N = 5 N = 15 N = 11 N = 18 Rock color Most...
Diversity of Life on Earth <ul><li>Produced by accumulation of adaptations and other genetic differences between populatio...
1.3 Biodiversity <ul><li>Species   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely related populations that can interbreed </li></ul></ul><u...
Hierarchy of Classification <ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li>...
Classification Fig. 1-11, p. 10
Fig. 1-11, p. 10 Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Canidae Genus...
Fig. 1-11, p. 10 Stepped Art Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Order: Carnivora Family: C...
Domains <ul><li>Biologists organize kingdoms into 3  domains  based on characteristics of cell structure  </li></ul><ul><u...
3 Domains of Life Fig. 1-13, p. 12
Fig. 1-13, p. 12 a. Domain Bacteria b. Domain Archaea c. Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protoctista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia...
Kingdoms <ul><li>Bacteria and Archaea each include one  kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Eukarya is divided into four kingdoms:  ...
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Fig. 1-12, p. 11
Fig. 1-12a, p. 11 DNA a.  Escherichia coli , a prokaryote
Fig. 1-12b, p. 11 Nucleus with DNA b.  Paramecium aurelia , a eukaryote
1.4 Biological Research <ul><li>Biologists conduct  basic  and  applied research  using the  scientific method </li></ul><...
1.4 (cont.) <ul><li>Model organisms  may be used to study fundamental biological processes </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular tec...
Basic and Applied Research <ul><li>Basic research  advances our knowledge of living systems </li></ul><ul><li>Applied rese...
Data <ul><li>Observational data  describe biological organisms or the details of biological processes </li></ul><ul><li>Ex...
Hypotheses <ul><li>Working explanations developed by scientists about the relationships between  variables   </li></ul><ul...
Experiment <ul><li>A well-designed experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers  alternative hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Experimental Research Fig. 1-14, p. 15
Fig. 1-14a (1), p. 15
Fig. 1-14a (2), p. 15
Fig. 1-14b, p. 15
Animation: Life’s diversity
Null Hypotheses <ul><li>Explanations of what scientists would see if their hypothesis was wrong  </li></ul><ul><li>Used to...
Observational Research Fig. 1-15de, p. 17
Fig. 1-15a, p. 17 Anolis gundlachi
Fig. 1-15b, p. 17 Anolis cristatellus
Fig. 1-15c, p. 17 Copper Anolis model
Fig. 1-15d, p. 17 Percentage of models and lizards perched in sun or shade In the forest where  A. gundlachi  lives, nearl...
Fig. 1-15e, p. 17 Temperatures of models and lizards Lizards Models Lizards Models Percentage of observations Percentage o...
Animation: Sample size and accuracy
Modern Techniques <ul><li>Model organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to maintain in the laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
A Scientific Theory <ul><li>A set of broadly applicable hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely supported by repeated ...
Animation: How do scientists use random samples to test hypotheses
Video: Bird flu
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter1

1,246 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,246
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
32
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
34
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Chapter1

    1. 1. Introduction to Biological Concepts and Research Chapter 1
    2. 2. 1.1 What Is Life? Characteristics of Living Systems <ul><li>Organized in a hierarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each level with its own emergent properties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contain chemical instructions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Govern structure and function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engage in metabolic activities </li></ul>
    3. 3. 1.1 (cont.) <ul><li>Energy flows through; matter cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate for changes in external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce and undergo development </li></ul><ul><li>Populations change from one generation to the next </li></ul>
    4. 4. Living Organisms Fig. 1-1, p. 2
    5. 5. Hierarchy of Living Systems (1) <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest level of organization that is alive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular or multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of organisms of the same kind, living together in the same area </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Hierarchy of Living Systems (2) <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All populations living in an area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include communities that interact through their shared physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The highest level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes all Earth’s ecosystems </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Hierarchy of Life Fig. 1-2, p. 3
    8. 8. Fig. 1-2, p. 3 Stepped Art Biosphere All regions of Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere that sustain life Ecosystem Group of communities interacting with their shared physical environment Community Populations of all species that occupy the same area Population Group of individuals of the same kind (that is, the same species) that occupy the same area Multicellular Organism Individual consisting of interdependent cells Cell Smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, independently or as part of a multi-cellular organism
    9. 9. Fig. 1-2a, p. 3 Cell Smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, independently or as part of a multi-cellular organism
    10. 10. Fig. 1-2b, p. 3 Multicellular organism Individual consisting of interdependent cells
    11. 11. Fig. 1-2c, p. 3 Population Group of individuals of the same kind (that is, the same species) that occupy the same area
    12. 12. Fig. 1-2d, p. 3 Community Populations of all species that occupy the same area
    13. 13. Fig. 1-2e, p. 3 Ecosystem Group of communities interacting with their shared physical environment
    14. 14. Fig. 1-2f, p. 3 Biosphere All regions of Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere that sustain life
    15. 15. Animation: Life’s levels of organization
    16. 16. Information Flow <ul><li>Living organisms have complex structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established by instructions coded in DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information in DNA is copied into RNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guides production of protein molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins carry out most activities of life </li></ul>
    17. 17. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Fig. 1-3, p. 3
    18. 18. Information Flow Fig. 1-4, p. 4
    19. 19. Fig. 1-4, p. 4 Information is stored in DNA. Protein RNA DNA The information in RNA guides the production of proteins. The information in DNA is copied into RNA.
    20. 20. Metabolism <ul><li>The activity of obtaining and using energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two primary metabolic processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Energy and Matter <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flows through the hierarchy of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually released as heat, which cannot be used by living systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled within the biosphere </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Metabolism Fig. 1-5, p. 4
    23. 23. Fig. 1-5, p. 4 Electromagnetic energy in sunlight Energy is stored as chemical energy. Sugar Oxygen Cellular respiration releases chemical energy from sugar molecules. Released chemical energy is made available for other metabolic processes. Carbon dioxide Water and Photosynthesis captures electromagnetic energy from sunlight. Oxygen
    24. 24. Fig. 1-5, p. 4 Stepped Art Oxygen Cellular respiration releases chemical energy from sugar molecules. Electromagnetic energy in sunlight Photosynthesis captures electromagnetic energy from sunlight. Energy is stored as chemical energy. Sugar Carbon dioxide Water and Oxygen Released chemical energy is made available for other metabolic processes.
    25. 25. Compensation for Change <ul><li>Cells and organisms use receptors to detect changes in environment </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers a compensating reaction that allows the organism to survive </li></ul>
    26. 26. Reproduction and Development <ul><li>Organisms reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring develop into mature, reproductive adults </li></ul>
    27. 27. Evolution <ul><li>Populations undergo biological evolution as generations replace one another over time </li></ul>
    28. 28. Energy Flow and Nutrient Recycling Fig. 1-6, p. 5
    29. 29. Fig. 1-6, p. 5 Secondary Consumers Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat Decomposers Primary consumers Nutrients recycled Sun Primary Producers Energy ultimately lost as heat Energy transfer KEY
    30. 30. 1.2 Biological Evolution <ul><li>Darwin and Wallace explained how populations of organisms change through time </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations in DNA allow evolutionary change </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations enable organisms to survive and reproduce in their environments </li></ul>
    31. 31. Populations Change With Time (1) <ul><li>Changes occur in structure, function, types of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of evolution by natural selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain characteristics allow some organisms to survive better and reproduce more than others in their population </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Populations Change With Time (2) <ul><li>Instructions for characteristics are coded in DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful characteristics become more common in later generations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average characteristics of offspring generation differ from those of parent generation </li></ul>
    33. 33. Life Cycle: Silkworm Moth Fig. 1-7, p. 6
    34. 34. Fig. 1-7, p. 6 e. Adult a. Egg b. Larva c. Pupa d. Recently emerged adult
    35. 35. Animation: One-way energy flow and materials cycling
    36. 36. Heredity (1) <ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segments of DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code instructions for many characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed through reproduction from parents to offspring </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Heredity (2) <ul><li>Mutations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in structure, number, or arrangement of DNA molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create variability among individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection and other processes cause biological evolution </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Adaptations <ul><li>Accumulation of favorable characteristics over many generations may produce adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Enable individuals to survive longer or reproduce more </li></ul>
    39. 39. Artificial Selection Fig. 1-8, p. 7
    40. 40. Animation: Insect development
    41. 41. Camouflage in Rock Pocket Mice Fig. 1-9, p. 8
    42. 42. Distributions of Rock Pocket Mice Fig. 1-10, p. 9
    43. 43. Fig. 1-10, p. 9 New Mexico Arizona Mouse color Armendaris Pinacate N = 8 N = 12 N = 5 N = 15 N = 11 N = 18 Rock color Most mice captured on pale rocks had sandy-colored fur. Most mice captured on dark rocks had black fur.
    44. 44. Diversity of Life on Earth <ul><li>Produced by accumulation of adaptations and other genetic differences between populations over long spans of time </li></ul>
    45. 45. 1.3 Biodiversity <ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely related populations that can interbreed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biologists classify organisms into three domains and several kingdoms </li></ul>
    46. 46. Hierarchy of Classification <ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul>
    47. 47. Classification Fig. 1-11, p. 10
    48. 48. Fig. 1-11, p. 10 Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Canidae Genus: Canis Species: Canis familiaris
    49. 49. Fig. 1-11, p. 10 Stepped Art Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Order: Carnivora Family: Canidae Genus: Canis Species: Canis familiaris
    50. 50. Domains <ul><li>Biologists organize kingdoms into 3 domains based on characteristics of cell structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukarya </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. 3 Domains of Life Fig. 1-13, p. 12
    52. 52. Fig. 1-13, p. 12 a. Domain Bacteria b. Domain Archaea c. Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protoctista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Plantae
    53. 53. Kingdoms <ul><li>Bacteria and Archaea each include one kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Eukarya is divided into four kingdoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protoctista </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animalia </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Fig. 1-12, p. 11
    55. 55. Fig. 1-12a, p. 11 DNA a. Escherichia coli , a prokaryote
    56. 56. Fig. 1-12b, p. 11 Nucleus with DNA b. Paramecium aurelia , a eukaryote
    57. 57. 1.4 Biological Research <ul><li>Biologists conduct basic and applied research using the scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Research includes collecting observational and experimental data </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses may be tested with controlled experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Or, a null hypotheses may be used to evaluate observational data </li></ul>
    58. 58. 1.4 (cont.) <ul><li>Model organisms may be used to study fundamental biological processes </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular techniques have revolutionized biological research </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific theories are ideas that have withstood the test of time </li></ul>
    59. 59. Basic and Applied Research <ul><li>Basic research advances our knowledge of living systems </li></ul><ul><li>Applied research solves practical problems </li></ul>
    60. 60. Data <ul><li>Observational data describe biological organisms or the details of biological processes </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental data describe results of an experimental manipulation </li></ul>
    61. 61. Hypotheses <ul><li>Working explanations developed by scientists about the relationships between variables </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific hypotheses must be falsifiable </li></ul>
    62. 62. Experiment <ul><li>A well-designed experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers alternative hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes control treatments and replicates </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. Experimental Research Fig. 1-14, p. 15
    64. 64. Fig. 1-14a (1), p. 15
    65. 65. Fig. 1-14a (2), p. 15
    66. 66. Fig. 1-14b, p. 15
    67. 67. Animation: Life’s diversity
    68. 68. Null Hypotheses <ul><li>Explanations of what scientists would see if their hypothesis was wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Used to evaluate observational or experimental data when experiments are unfeasible </li></ul>
    69. 69. Observational Research Fig. 1-15de, p. 17
    70. 70. Fig. 1-15a, p. 17 Anolis gundlachi
    71. 71. Fig. 1-15b, p. 17 Anolis cristatellus
    72. 72. Fig. 1-15c, p. 17 Copper Anolis model
    73. 73. Fig. 1-15d, p. 17 Percentage of models and lizards perched in sun or shade In the forest where A. gundlachi lives, nearly all models and nearly all lizards perched in shade. Percentage in sun or shade Lizards Models Lizards Models Percentage in sun or shade Perched in sun Perched in shade In the habitat where A. cristatellus lives, nearly all models perched in shade, but most lizards perched in sun. Anolis gundlachi Anolis cristatellus
    74. 74. Fig. 1-15e, p. 17 Temperatures of models and lizards Lizards Models Lizards Models Percentage of observations Percentage of observations Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C) Body temperatures of A. gundlachi were not significantly different from those of the randomly placed models. Body temperatures of A. cristatellus were significantly higher than those of the randomly placed models. Anolis gundlachi Anolis cristatellus
    75. 75. Animation: Sample size and accuracy
    76. 76. Modern Techniques <ul><li>Model organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to maintain in the laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects of much research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Molecular techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation of specific genes in the laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow detailed analysis of DNA of many species </li></ul></ul>
    77. 77. A Scientific Theory <ul><li>A set of broadly applicable hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely supported by repeated tests under many conditions and different situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory of evolution by natural selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains how life evolved through natural processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central importance to biology </li></ul></ul>
    78. 78. Animation: How do scientists use random samples to test hypotheses
    79. 79. Video: Bird flu

    ×