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Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids
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Nucleic Acids

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this presentation covers about all the topics of nucleic acids.I made this presentation by combining too many presentations. and I also presented the same in the university and I got an A++ :). …

this presentation covers about all the topics of nucleic acids.I made this presentation by combining too many presentations. and I also presented the same in the university and I got an A++ :).
best of luck!

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  • 1. BISSMILLAH AHRAHMAN AR-RAHEEM.
  • 2. NUCLEIC ACIDS :
  • 3. Introduction:
    Frederic Miesher in 1869, isolated an acidic compound from the nuclear material of SALMON sperms, and named it as NUCLIEN which is now called NUCLEIC ACID.
    Jones in 1920 proved the fact there are two types of nucleic acids, i.e., Deoxyribo nucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA).
    In 1935 J. D. Watson and F. H. C Crick, on the basis of information's available not only proposed the “Double helical” structure of DNA but also suggested what Crick termed “central dogma of molecular genetics”, which states that genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein.
  • 4. The Double Helix (1953)
    Public Domain image
    © Dr Kalju Kahn USBC Chemistry and Biochemistry
  • 5. Central Dogma
    DNA  RNA  amino acids  proteins
  • 6. CENTRAL DOGME :
    1.Replication:The copying of the DNA to form identical daughter molecules.
    2. Transcription :The process by which the genetic message in DNA is transcribed in the form of m RNA to be carried to the ribosome
    3.Translation: The process by which the message is decode by the ribosome's, where m RNA is used as a template in directing the specific amino acids sequence during protein biosynthesis.
  • 7. Nucleic acids
    Two types;
    DNA
    RNA
    The building blocks of nucleic acids are called NUCLEOTIDES
  • 8. Nucleic Acids
    Chemical Composition
    Elements: C, H, O, N, and P.
    There are 2 types of nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
  • 9. Nucleotide
    Nucleotides: monomers of nucleic acids.
    All nucleic acids consist of many nucleotides bonded together.
    Nucleic acids are polynucleotide.
    Their building blocks are nucleotides
  • 10. Monomers
    nucleotides, are made up of three parts:
    (a) Phosphate (phosphoric acid)
    (b) N-base (Nitrogenous base)
    (c) Sugar ~ ribose or deoxyribose
  • 11. NUCLEOTIDE STRUCTURE
    PHOSPATE
    SUGAR
    Ribose or Deoxyribose
    NUCLEOTIDE
    © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWS
  • 12. DEOXYRIBOSE
    RIBOSE
    CH2OH
    CH2OH
    OH
    OH
    O
    O
    C
    C
    C
    C
    H
    H
    H
    H
    H
    H
    H
    H
    C
    C
    C
    C
    OH
    OH
    OH
    H
    © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWS
  • 13. BASES
    Purines: adenine, guanine (double ring)
    Pyrimidine: thymine, cytosine (single rings)
  • 14. Purines & Pyrimidines
    Thymine
    Adenine
    Guanine
    Cytosine
    © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWS
  • 15. Adenine
    Thymine
    Guanine
    Cytosine
    The bases always pair up in the same way
    A purine with a pyrimidine
    Adenine forms a bond with Thymine
    and Cytosine bonds with Guanine
  • 16. DNA Structure
    Sugar= Deoxyribose
    Specific Base Pairing
    Adenine-Thymine
    Guanine-Cytosine
    Forms a double Helix Structure
  • 17. RNA structure
    Sugar= Ribose
    Thymine gets replaced by Uracil
    Single stranded
  • 18. Structural (and functional) Comparison of DNA & RNA
    Structural (and functional)
    Comparison of DNA & RNA
  • 19. Functions
    DNA is used to store genetic information
    It is replicated before cell division
    DNA is very important so it is stored in the nucleus.
    It never leaves the nucleus
    Your DNA stores the code for your proteins, which exhibit your “traits”
    The DNA gets converted to RNA in order to move out into the cytoplasm
  • 20. Functions
    In the cytoplasm it meets up with the ribosome, where it can synthesize proteins
    Stores genetic information.
    Maintains growth and repair.
    Controls all cellular activities.
    Contains protein codes.
    Ensures each daughter cell & gamete receives exact genetic information.
  • 21. 1.GENE SEQUENCING TECHNIQUE (Gel Electrophoresis)
    2. GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PRODUCTS
    • Insulin for diabetes
    • 22. Factor IX for curing hemophilia B
    • 23. -Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSFGRANULOCYTE) for stimulating the bone marrow after a bone marrow transplant
    • 24. Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) for dissolving blood clots
    • 25. Angiostatinand Endostatin for trials as anti-cancer drugs.
    3. HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
    4. GENE THERAPY particularly AMNIOCENTESIS AND MUCH MORE!!!
  • 26. NUCLEIC ACIDS (DNA)
  • 27. Nucleic Acid:
    Nucleic acids are non-proreinnirogeneous bases made up of Monomeric units called nucleotides.
    These are molecules through which organisms are described through their continuation.
    TYPESOFNUCLEICACIDS:
    DNA
    RNA
  • 28. DNA :
    Abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid.
    It is a polymer of Deoxyribo nucleotide.
    This thread like structure is a combination of large number of nucleotide units joined together.
    This Polynucleotide contains genetic information that gives rise to chemical and physical properties of organisms.
  • 29. Location and Isolation:
    LOCATION:
    It can be found in chromosomes (specifically nucleus), mitochondria and chloroplast of the cell.
    It is present in every living organism because it contains genetic material.
    ISOLATION:
    From viruses, bacteria, thymus gland, spleen, blood, hair, skin, etc
  • 30. Size of DNA:
    Size shows great variation.
    Only 1.7µm long in simple structure of simian virus with 5 or 6 genes. and can also extend to 2M in Human DNA.
    The size of human DNA inside the chromosome is just 200 nm.
  • 31. Structure of DNA:
  • 32. The sub-units are called nucleotides
    Each nucleotide is made up of
    a pentose sugar calleddeoxyribose
    a phosphate group -PO4 and
    Nitrogenous bases
    DNA is a very large molecule made up of a long chain of sub-units
  • 33. Deoxyribose
    Deoxyriboseis almost the same as RNA but lacks one oxygen atom
  • 34. Phosphate Group :
    Negatively charged Phosphate group is present to whole positively charged protein molecule.
    O
    P
    O
    O
    O
  • 35. Structure of the DNA-continued
    c. Nitrogenous base: There are four different bases which are divided into two groups.
    i) Pyrimidines: These are single rings each with six sides. They are Cytosine and Thymine .
    ii) Purines: These are double rings comprising a six-sided and a five-sided ring. They are Adenine and Guanine.
  • 36. Adenine always pairs with
    Thymine, with the help of
    two hydrogen bonds
    and Guanine always pairs with
    Cytosine with the help of
    three hydrogen bonds.
    This makes the two chains complimentary to each other.
  • 37. The bases
    Adenine
    (A)
    Thymine
    (T)
    Cytosine
    (C)
    (G)
    Guanine
    The most common organic bases are
  • 38. Nucleotides
    The deoxyribose,
    the phosphate
    and one of the bases
    Combine to form a nucleotide
    PO4
    adenine
    deoxyribose
  • 39. Joined nucleotides
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    A molecule of DNA (polymer) is formed by millions of nucleotides joined together by phospodiester bonds into a long chain by
    condensation reactions.
    sugar-phosphate
    backbone
    + bases
  • 40. In fact, the DNA usually consists of a double
    strand of nucleotides
    The sugar-phosphate chains are on the outside
    and the strands are held together by hydrogen bonds
    between the bases
  • 41. 2-stranded DNA
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
  • 42. Bonding 1
    Adenine
    Thymine
    Guanine
    Cytosine
    The bases always pair up in the same way
    A purine with a pyrimidine
    Adenine forms a bond with Thymine
    and Cytosine bonds with Guanine
  • 43. Bonding 2
    PO4
    PO4
    thymine
    adenine
    PO4
    PO4
    cytosine
    guanine
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
  • 44. Pairing up
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
  • 45. The paired strands are coiled into a spiral called
    A DOUBLE HELIX
  • 46. THE DOUBLE HELIX
    bases
    sugar-phosphate
    chain
  • 47. Types of DNA :
    Two types;
    Circular DNA
    Non-Circular DNA
    CIRCULAR DNA :
    In Eukaryotes: The ends of DNA are cohesive,so they join forming a circular DNA.eg.mitochondria,chloroplast,tec.
    In Prokaryotes: mostly it is in the form of PLASMID whose replication donot depends on genomic DNA.eg.bacteria.
  • 48. NON-CIRCULAR DNA:
    The two anti parallel strands of DNA twist around each other to form helical structure of double helix.
  • 49. FUNCTIONS OF DNA
    DNA has 2 major functions:
    1. Replication in dividing cells, allowing accurate copying of DNA for cell division.
    2. Carrying the information for protein synthesis in all cells.
  • 50. REPLICATON OF DNA:
  • 51. Steps of DNA Replication
    1) DNA must unwind and break the hydrogen bonds
    2) Each strand is used as a template (blueprint)
    3) Two new strands of DNA are formed from the original strand by the enzyme DNA Polymerase
  • 52. During replication, an enzyme called helicase “unzips” the DNA molecule along the base pairing, straight down the middle.
    Another enzyme, called DNA polymerase, moves along the bases on each of the unzipped halves and connects complementary nucleotides.
    What do we mean by complementary nucleotides?
  • 53. Original strand
    New strand
    DNA polymerase
    DNA polymerase
    Growth
    Growth
    Nitrogenous bases
    Replication fork
    Replication fork
    New strand
    Original strand
  • 54. Because of Chargaff’s rule, only the correct, complementary bases will fit, so chances are good that the DNA polymerase will make a perfect copy.
    Mistakes happen!  Mutation!
    Is this frog likely to survive long in the wild?
  • 55. Transcription- how RNA is made
    Just as DNA polymerase makes new DNA, a similar enzyme called RNA polymerase makes new RNA.
    RNA polymerase temporarily separates the strands of a small section of the DNA molecule.
    This exposes some of the bases of the DNA molecule.
    Along one strand, the RNA polymerase binds complementary RNA nucleotides to the exposed DNA bases.
    An exposed thymine on the DNA strand hooks up with an RNA nucleotide with an adenine; an exposed cytosine on the DNA hooks up with an RNA nucleotide with a guanine base; an exposed adenine DNA base will hook up with URACIL!
  • 56. As the RNA polymerase moves along, it makes a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA).
    It is called messenger RNA because it carries DNA’s message out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm.
    mRNA is SINGLE STRANDED!
    When the RNA polymerase is done reading the gene in the DNA, it leaves.
    The separated DNA strands reconnect, ready to be read again when necessary.
    mRNA moves out of the nucleus and finds a ribosome
    On the ribosome, amino acids are assembled to form proteins in the process called translation.
  • 57. HISTORY OF DNA :
    Nucleotide
    Hydrogen bonds
    Sugar-phosphate backbone
    Key
    Adenine (A)
    Thymine (T)
    Cytosine (C)
    Guanine (G)
  • 58. Griffith’s Experiment
    Was trying to develop a vaccination for the pneumococcus bacteria. 
    Vaccine- a prepared substance from killed or weakened disease causing agents used to prevent future infections
    He was working with two strains of bacteria. 
    Rough - bacteria had a rough appearance in culture, non-virulent (doesn't kill)
    Smooth - bacteria had a  smooth appearance in culture, virulent (kills)
  • 59. Heat-killed, disease-causing bacteria (smooth colonies)
    Harmless bacteria (rough colonies
    Heat-killed, disease-causing bacteria (smooth colonies)
    Disease-causing bacteria (smooth colonies)
    Harmless bacteria (rough colonies)
    Control(no growth)
    Lives
    Dies of pneumonia
    Lives
    Dies of pneumonia
    Live, disease-causingbacteria (smooth colonies)
  • 60. DNA as hereditary material
    The Genetic Material is DNA – Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase, 1952
    Previously, scientists thought that proteins were the hereditary molecule
    Hershey and Chase worked with viruses that infect bacteria called bacteriophages
    Through a series of experiments, they were able to show that DNA, not protein, is the hereditary molecule.
  • 61. Martha Chase (left) & Alfred Hershey (right)
  • 62. Virus Structure
    DNA is located
    in the head.
    The outside and tail
    of the virus is
    made out of
    protein.
  • 63. Virus ATTACKS!!
  • 64. Bacteriophages ATTACK!!
  • 65. Hershey – Chase Experiment – DNA in Viruses
    Radioactivity inside bacterium
    Phage infectsbacterium
    Bacteriophage with phosphorus-32 in DNA
    Phage infectsbacterium
    Bacteriophage with sulfur-35 in protein coat
    No radioactivity inside bacterium
  • 66. Hershey & Chase Experiment
    Concluded that the DNA of viruses is injected into the bacterial cells, while the viral proteins remain outside
    The injected DNA molecules cause the bacterial cells to produce more viruses
    DNA is the hereditary material – not proteins.
  • 67. Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin
    M.H.F. Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, early 50’s
    Wilkins and Franklin studied the structure of DNA crystals using X-rays.
    They found that the crystals contain regularly repeating subunits.
    The X pattern produced by DNA suggested that DNA contains structures with dimensions of 2 nm, 0.34 nm, and 3.4 nm. The dark structures at the top and bottom indicate that some structure was repeated, suggesting a helix.
  • 68. Rosalind Franklin
    X-ray diffraction image of DNA
  • 69. Watson and Crick
    James Watson and Francis H.C. Crick, 1953
    Watson and Crick used Chargaff's base data and Franklin’s X-ray diffraction data to construct a model of DNA.
    The model showed that DNA is a double helix with sugar-phosphate backbones on the outside and the paired nucleotide bases on the inside, in a structure that fit the spacing estimates from the X-ray diffraction data.
    Chargaff's rules showed that A = T and G = C, so there was complementary base pairing of a purine with a pyrimidine, giving the correct width for the helix.
    The paired bases can occur in any order, giving an overwhelming diversity of sequences.
  • 70. Watson & Crick with their model of DNA
  • 71. Chargaff’s rules:
    Base pairing rule is A-T and G-C
    Thymine is replaced by Uracil in RNA
    Bases are bonded to each other by Hydrogen bonds
    Discovered because of the relative percent of each base; (notice that A-T is similar and C-G are similar)
  • 72. Erwin Chargaff
  • 73. Backbone alternates with phosphate and sugar (deoxyribose)
    with the nucleotides formingthe rungs or steps of the ladder
  • 74. The backbone of it all…
    TEMPLATE STRAND
    A C G G T A
    T
    T
    G
    C
    C
    A
    The backbone is made of alternating sugars and phosphates.
    - Remember: Sugar ALWAYS attaches to the Nitrogen base
  • 75. So Remember:
    DNA 
    Chromatin  Chromosomes
  • 76. Nucleosome
    Chromosome
    DNA
    double
    helix
    Coils
    Supercoils
    Histones
  • 77. FUNCTIONS OF DNA :
    -Stores genetic information.
    -Maintains growth and repair.
    -Controls all cellular activities.
    -Contains protein codes.
    -Ensures each daughter cell & gamete receives exact genetic information.
  • 78. RIBONUCLEIC ACID
  • 79. INTRODUCTION:
    Ribonucleic acid usually called as RNA, is a biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units.
    It is a single stranded chain of nucleotides that contains genetic information and it functions for the synthesis of proteins and also to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next.
  • 80. HISTORY OF RNA :
    Nucleic acids were discovered in 1868 by Friedrich Miescher, who called the material 'nuclein' since it was found in the Nucleus.
    Nuclein was shown to have acidic properties, hence it became called nucleic acid
    The role of RNA in protein synthesis was suspected already in 1939.
  • 81. Severo Ochoa won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Medicine after he discovered how RNA is synthesized.
    Carl Woese realized RNA can be catalytic in 1967 and proposed that the earliest forms of life relied on RNA both to carry genetic information and to catalyze biochemical reactions—an RNA world.
    In 1990 it was found that introduced genes can silence homologous endogenous genes in plants, now known to be a result of RNA interference.
    In same year, the discovery of gene regulatory RNAs has led to attempts to develop drugs made of RNA, like siRNA, to silence genes.
  • 82. STRUCTURE OF RNA :
    Found in the nucleus and cytoplasm.
    Linear, single strandof nucleotides.
    Contains the sugar, ribose.
    N-bases include adenine, uracil, cytosine and guanine.
    Backbone is of ribose sugar-phosphate.
  • 83. The sub-units are called nucleotides
    Each nucleotide is made up of
    a pentose sugar called ribose
    a phosphate group -PO4 and
    anitrogenous base
    RNA is a large molecule made up of a long chain of sub-units
    *RNA structure: single-strand molecule
    Note: Backbone consists of alternating P-S-P-S-P- etc…
  • 84. Ribose
    Ribose is a sugar, like glucose, but with only five carbon atoms in its molecule
  • 85. The bases
    Adenine
    (A)
    Uracil
    (U)
    Cytosine
    (C)
    (G)
    Guanine
    The most common organic bases are
  • 86. Nucleotides
    The deoxyribose,
    the phosphate
    and one of the bases
    Combine to form a nucleotide
    PO4
    adenine
    ribose
  • 87. PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    PO4
    Joined nucleotides
    A molecule of RNA is formed by millions of nucleotides joined together into a long chain .
    sugar-phosphate
    backbone
    + bases
  • 88. REPLACEMENT OF URACIL
    • The base thymine is replaced by
    • 89. Uracil (pyrimidine) in RNA.
    • 90. Uracil bonds with adenine.
  • Types of RNA :
    • There are three types of RNA in a cell.
    • 91. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    • 92. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    • 93. Transfer RNA ( tRNA)
    • 94. Their main function is to make proteins after taking instructions from the DNA.
    • 95. They are temporarily present in the cell.
  • Messenger RNA
    Ribosomal RNA
    Transfer RNA
    Bringamino acids toribosome
    Combine
    with proteins
    tRNA
    mRNA
    Carry instructions
    rRNA
    DNA
    Ribosome
    Ribosomes
    RNA
    can be
    also called
    which functions to
    also called
    also called
    which functions to
    from
    to
    to make up
  • 96. Messenger RNA :
    Also known as mRNA.
    Messenger RNA is a single long chain of nucleotides
    It is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product.
    mRNA istranscribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis: the ribosomes.
  • 97. WORKING OF MRNA :
     In mRNA as in DNA, genetic information is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides arranged into codons consisting of three bases each.
    Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons that terminate protein synthesis.
  • 98.
  • 99. RIBOSOMAL RNA :
    It is also known as rRna.
    Ribosomal RNA is the central component of the ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells.
  • 100. Ribosomal RNA - continued
    Ribosomal RNA has two units,
    one large and
    the other small.
    .
    Ribosomal RNA
    Large subunit
    (rRNA)
    Small subunit
  • 101. The function of the rRNA is to provide a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and to interact with the tRNAs during translation.
    The tRNA then brings the necessary amino acids corresponding to the appropriate mRNA codon.
  • 102. Working
    mRNA is sandwiched between the small and large subunits and the ribosome catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond between the 2 amino acids that are contained in the rRNA.
    The ribosome also has 3 binding sites called A, P, and E.
    The A site in the ribosome binds to an aminoacyl-tRNA (a tRNA bound to an amino acid).
  • 103. The amino (NH2) group of the aminoacyl-tRNA, which contains the new amino acid, attacks the ester linkage of peptidyl-tRNA (contained within the P site), which contains the last amino acid of the growing chain, forming a new peptide bond.
    The tRNA that was holding on the last amino acid is moved to the E site, and what used to be the aminoacyl-tRNA is now the peptidyl-tRNA.
    A single mRNA can be translated simultaneously by multiple ribosomes.
  • 104. TRANSFER RNA :
    Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA molecule (usually about 74-95 nucleotides) that transfers a specific active amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation.
    act as adapter between nucleotides codons and amino acids. They pick up free amino acids in cytoplasm and carry them into the ribosomes where polypeptide chain is elongated.
  • 105. Transfer RNA
    Each tRNA carries an amino acid
    As each codon of the mRNA molecule moves through the ribosome, the corresponding amino acid is brought into the ribosome by the tRNA.
    Each tRNA molecule has three unpaired bases (anticodons)which are complimentary to mRNA codons
  • 106. There are 20 different tRNAs, for the different aminoacids.
  • 107. Differences between DNA and RNA
    DNA
    RNA
    Structure:
    Double stranded
    Sugar: Deoxyribose
    Bases:
    Adenine
    Guanine
    Cytosine
    Thymine
    Structure:
    Single-stranded
    Sugar: Ribose
    Bases:
    Adenine
    Guanine
    Cytosine
    Uracil
  • 108.
  • 109. Translation- the Ultimate Goal!
    • Going from mRNA to the final product
  • Why are proteins needed?
    Immune system
    Muscles move bones
    Cell membranes
    Enzymes
    For repair of broken cells
    Growth of organisms
  • 110. Decoding the Information in DNA
    How does DNA (a twisted latter of atoms) control everything in a cell and ultimately an organism?
    DNA controls the manufacture of all cellular proteins including enzymes
    A gene is a region of DNA that contains the instructions for the manufacture of on particular polypeptide chain (chain of amino acids)
    DNA is a set of blueprints
    or code from making proteins
  • 111. How do you get from DNA to Proteins?
    TRANSCRIPTION – the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA
    TRANSLATION – the actual synthesis of a protein,
    which occurs under the direction of mRNA
  • 112. Where does this happen?
    Where is the DNA?
    Protein synthesis – the manufacture of proteins
    Where are proteins made in the cell?
  • 113. Translation: Protein Synthesis
    mRNA combines with a ribosome and tRNA and makes a protein
    Remember:
    mRNA carries the codon (three base sequence that codes for an amino acid)
    tRNA carries the anticodon which pairs up with the codon
    tRNA brings the correct amino acid by reading the genetic code
  • 114. tRNA (transfer RNA)
    tRNA carries (or transfers) the correct amino acid to the codon on the mRNA.
    tRNA has an ANTICODON that can attach to mRNA’s codon.
  • 115. Translation
    GUA UCU GUU ACC GUA
    mRNA
    • mRNA carries the same message as DNA but rewritten with different nitrogen bases.
    • 116. This message codes for a specific sequence of amino acids
    • 117. Review..Amino acids are the building blocks of…
    • 118. PROTEINS
  • Translation
    GUA UCU GUU ACC GUA
    mRNA
    • Codon: a sequence of 3 nitrogen bases on mRNA that code for 1 amino acid
    • 119. It’s aTRIPLETcode
    • 120. Example: This strand of mRNA has 5 codons, so it would code for 5 amino acids.
  • Translation
    GUA UCU GUU ACC GUA
    mRNA
    • These codons are universal for every bacteria, plant and animal on earth
    • 121. There are 64 codons which code for all 20 amino acids on earth.
  • Translation
    GUA UCU GUU ACC GUA
    mRNA
    Ribosome
    • The mRNA molecule travels to the ribosomeswhere the mRNA codes are “read” by the ribosomes
    • 122. Ribosomes hold the mRNA so another type of RNA,transfer RNA (tRNA)can attach to the mRNA
  • Translation
    GUA UCU GUU ACC GUA
    A
    C
    U
    A
    GA
    mRNA
    Ribosome
  • 123. Translation
    GUA UCU GUU ACC GUA
    A
    C
    C
    U
    A
    GA
    AA
    mRNA
  • 124. Codons match up with anticodons to create a protein
  • 125.
  • 126. Protein formation
    Amino acids link together to form a protein
    The new protein could become cell part, an enzyme, a hormone etc.
  • 127.
  • 128. SO:
    Say the mRNA strand reads:
    mRNA (codon) AUG–GAC–CAG-UGA
    tRNA (anticodon) UAC-CUG-GUC-ACU
    tRNA would bring the amino acids:
    Methionine-Aspartic acid-Glutamine-stop
  • 129. 1)mRNA is transcribed in the nucleus and leaves the nucleus to the cytoplasm
    2) mRNA attaches to the ribosome
    3)The codon on the mRNA is read by the anticodon on the tRNA
    4) tRNA brings the amino acid as it reads mRNA
    5) The amino acids are joined together to form a polypeptide (protein)
    6) When a stop codon is reached (UAA, UAG, UGA) protein synthesis stops
  • 130.
  • 131. What if things go wrong?
    MUTATION!!!
    If transcription or translation were to copy the wrong sequence, the incorrect amino acid could be added
    This would change the overall protein structure and could make the protein ineffective
    Sickle cell anemiais caused by a single amino acid difference in the hemoglobin protein sequence
  • 132. Gene Mutations
    Point Mutations – only occur at a single point in the DNA sequence – only changes a few amino acids
    Frameshift Mutations – shift the entire “reading frame” – change ALL the amino acids
  • 133. Mutations
    Substitution – one base replaces another
    Insertion – an extra base is inserted
    Deletion – loss of a single letter (makes entire base disappear!)
  • 134. Chromosomal Mutations
    Change in the number or structure of chromosomes
    Ex. – Deletion, Duplication, Inversion, and Translocation
  • 135. Deletion
    Duplication
    Inversion
    Translocation

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