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Sculpture

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Chapter 9 from "Understanding Art, 9e"

Chapter 9 from "Understanding Art, 9e"


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  • 1. Chapter 9 Sculpture 0
  • 2.
    • A sculptor is a person obsessed with the form and shape of things, and it’s not just the shape of one thing, but the shape of anything and everything: the hard, tense strength, although delicate form of a bone; the strong, solid fleshiness of a beech tree trunk. –Henry Moore
    0
  • 3. Henry Moore [British, 1898–1986], Reclining Figure: Angles , 1979.
  • 4. Sculpture
    • Sculpture - The art of carving, casting, modeling, or assembling materials into three-dimensional figures or forms
    • Relief sculpture
    • Bas-Relief or low relief
    • High Relief
    • Freestanding sculpture
  • 5. Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture
    • Subtractive Process - Carving, unwanted materials are removed.
    • Additive Process - Modeling, Casting, Construction
  • 6. Mass : a solid, three-dimensional form that has weight and takes up real space Voids : the empty spaces between the masses of sculpture
  • 7. Carving
    • Carving - removing portions of a block of materials to create a form.
    • Can use stone, wood, ivory, chocolate…
  • 8. Figure 9.1, p.181: MICHELANGELO. The Cross-Legged Captive (c. 1530–1534). Marble. H: 7 ’ 6 1⁄2 ” .
  • 9. Modeling
    • Modeling - using a pliable materials such as clay or wax the artist shapes the material into a 3D form.
    • Can be done by hand or tools.
  • 10. Casting
    • Casting - liquid metal material is poured into a mold to create a form.
    • Mold - the form into which the material is poured and with imparts the shape.
    • Any material that hardens can be used for casting.
    • One of the oldest and most common is Bronze.
  • 11. Figure 9.2, p.181 : LOUISE BOURGEOIS. Portrait of Robert (1969). Cast bronze with white patina. 13 ” x 12 1⁄2 ” x 10 ” .
  • 12. The Lost-Wax Technique
    • Lost-Wax Technique
    • The artist creates a form and them from this form a mold is created by covering the shape usually in plaster or resin.
    • The inside of the mold is is then filled or covered with wax.
    • The wax is removed and covered in a sandy mixture of silica, clay and plaster to create a investiture .
      • Investiture - is a fire resistant mold into which the liquid metal will be poured.
    • The wax is heated and pour out of the now sold investiture and replaced with the liquid metal.
    • The finished metal sculpture is removed from the investiture, and burnished.
      • Burnished - treated chemically to take on a texture and color.
  • 13.  
  • 14. Figure 9.4, p.182 : EDGAR DEGAS. The Little Dancer, 14 Years Old (1880–1881). Bronze. H: 39 ” .
  • 15. Figure 9.5, p.183 : SHERRIE LEVINE. Fountains after Duchamp (1991). Bronze. Installation view at Sherrie Levine Exhibition in the Zürich Kunsthalle (2.11.1991–3.1.1992), Zürich, Switzerland.
  • 16. Figure 9.6, p.183 : GEORGE SEGAL. Three Figures and Four Benches (1979). Painted bronze. 52 ” x 144 ” x 58 ” . Casting of Human Models
  • 17. Robert Gober, American, born 1964 Untitled (Long Leg), 1990–93 Wood, leather, cotton, wax, and hair 67 (L) x 33 x 18 cm
  • 18. Types of Materials
    • Stone
    • Wood
    • Clay
    • Metal
  • 19. Stone
    • Stone is extremely hard
    • It is also very durable
    • Appropriate for monuments and statues
    • Stone tools include the chisel, mallet, and rasp .
    • Artists also use contemporary power tools
  • 20. Figure 9.7, p.184 : LOUISE BOURGEOIS. Eyes (1982). Marble. 74 3⁄4 ” x 54 ” x 45 3⁄4 ” .
  • 21. Wood
    • Wood can be carved, scraped, drilled, and polished molded and bent.
    • Different woods have a different hardnesses.
    • Wood appeals to sculptures because of its grain, color, and workability.
    • Wood is easier to carved than stone.
    • Tensile strength - The inherent strength of a material.
  • 22. Figure 9.8, p.185 : Poro Secret Society mask ( Kagle ). Liberian, Dan people. Wood. H: 9 ’ .
  • 23. Figure 9.9, p.186 : PO SHUN LEONG. Figure (1993). Mahogany with hidden drawers. H: 50 ” .
  • 24. Clay
    • Clay is more pliable than stone or wood
      • Clay is not very strong.
      • Nor is permanent.
    • Armature - an inner skeleton normally made of metal used to help give clay additional strength.
  • 25. Robert Arneson. Brick Bang. 1976. Clay, glaze. 38 x 48 x 15 cm.
  • 26. Metal
    • Metals can be cast, extruded , forged , stamped , drilled, filed, and burnished.
    • Cast bronze sculptures
    • Direct-metal sculptures - Assembling sculpture by welding, riveting, and soldering.
    • Patinas - the colors created on bronze due to oxidation.
  • 27. Figure 9.10, p.187 : RICHARD SERRA. Installation view, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain.
  • 28. Richard Serra 1-1-1-1. 1968 Lead antimony
  • 29. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods
    • Throughout history sculptures have searched for new forms expression.
    • Constructed sculpture
    • Assemblage
    • Readymades
    • Mixed media
    • Kinetic sculpture
    • Light sculpture
    • Land art
  • 30. Constructed sculpture
    • The artist “builds” the sculpture
    • Materials could include, sheet metal, cardboard, celluloid, or wire
    • Some artworks are lighter than those from stone or wood
    • Unorthodox materials can also be used
  • 31. Constructed sculpture Fig. 9-11, p. 188 PABLO PICASSO. Mandolin and Clarinet (1913). Wood construction and paint.
  • 32. Figure 9.12, p.188 : CLAES OLDENBURG. Soft Toilet (1966). Vinyl filled with kapok painted with Liquitex, and wood. 57 1⁄16 ” x 27 5⁄8 ” x 28 1⁄16 ” .
  • 33. Assemblage
    • A form of constructed sculpture
    • Pre-existing or found objects take on a new form as artworks
    • Novel combinations that take on a new life and meaning
    • One of the best-known examples is Picasso’s Bull’s Head
  • 34. Figure 9.15, p.190 : PABLO PICASSO. Bull’s Head (1943). Bronze cast of parts of a bicycle. H: 16 1⁄8 ” .
  • 35. Readymades Marcel Duchamp In Advance of a Broken Arm
  • 36. Mixed Media
    • Mixed Media - Use materials and ready-made or found objects that are not normally elements of a work of art.
    • Artists, such as Rauschenberg (see Ch. 20), may attach other materials to their canvasses.
    • What might be some the materials you could use in a Mixed Media sculpture?
  • 37. Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram (1955-1959) Freestanding Combine
  • 38. Figure 9.16, p.191 : SIMON RODIA. Simon Rodia Towers in Watts (1921–1954). Cement with various objects. H: 98 ’ .
  • 39. Kinetic Sculpture
    • Kinetic sculpture - Sculptures that move, art + action. Example: the mobile.
    • Forms of movement might include:
    • Wind
    • Magnetic fields
    • Jets of water
    • Electric motors
    • The intensity of light
    • Human manipulations
  • 40. Fig. 9-17, p.191 GEORGE RICKEY. Cluster of Four Cubes (1992). Stainless steel.
  • 41. Light Sculpture
    • Light and its reflections have always been an important elements in sculpture (and art!)
    • However, “light sculpture” is a 20th-century artform
    • What are the physical psychological and physical effects of color and the creation of illusion?
  • 42. Dan Flavin installation in Marfa, TX
  • 43. Other Materials
    • Sculpture today uses not only traditional materials, but also materials that have never been used before.
    • Example: beeswax and microcrystalline wax, chocolate, Styrofoam, etc…
  • 44. Marc Quinn Self 1991 blood stainless steel perspex refrigeration
  • 45. Figure 9.20, p.193 : JANINE ANTONI. Chocolate Gnaw (1992). Chocolate (600 lb before biting), gnawed by the artist. 24 ” x 24 ” x 24 ” (61 cm x 61 cm x 61 cm).
  • 46. Chapman Brothers Tragic Anatomies
  • 47. Figure 9.21, p.193 : SYLVIE FLEURY. Dog Toy 3 (Crazy Bird) (2000). Styrofoam, paint. 260 cm x 210 cm x 180 cm.