Ch 5 Lecture Part2

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  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 5 Gods, Heroes, and Athletes: The Art of Ancient Greece pp. 120-164
  • 2. Summary
    • Geometric statues & vases: Strong Asian influence, stylized with geometric patterns.
    • Archaic Sculpture: Starts with, but moves away from Egyptian influence.
    • Temples: Influenced by near east. Move from the simple Cretan megaron , through Doric to Ionic. .
    • Doric Ionic
    • Severely plain Highly ornamental
    • Echinus convex Echinus small and supports
    • and cushionlike bolster ending in scroll-like spirals
    • Frieze subdivided into Frieze left open to provide triglyphs and metopes continuous field for relief sculptures
    • Massive in appearance Light and airy in appearance
  • 3. The Greek World
  • 4. TOPICS
    • Early & High Classical Period
      • Temple of Zeus, Olympia
      • Statuary: The Perfect Statue
      • The Athenian Acropolis:
        • Parthenon
        • Propylaia
        • Erechtheion
        • Temple of Nike
    • Late Classical
    • Hellentistic
  • 5. Early & High Classical: Architectural Sculpture
    • East pediment Temple of Zeus, Olympia, ca 500-490 BCE
    Represents the chariot race between Pelops and King Oinomaos, the story told in Aeschylus’ Oresteia .
  • 6. Architectural Sculpture
    • The seer – who knows the future … is the only one who reacts
    • East pediment Temple of Zeus, Olympia, 470-456 BCE
  • 7. Architectural Sculpture
    • Labors of Herakles, metope TheTemple of Zeus, Olympia, 470-456 BCE
    • The attitude (more human and emotional) and dress (simple Doric clothing) contrast with the elaborately clothed, always smiling Late Archaic style statues.
    • Contrapposto , the shifting of weight to create counterbalance, was a large step towards the depiction of natural movement.
    • Poses of the Late Archaic period were inspired by Egyptian rigidity and frontality and did not accurately show how real human beings stand.
  • 8. Charioteer from Delphi, ca. 470 BCE
  • 9. Hollow-casting life-size bronze sculpture
  • 10. Sculpture
    • Zeus or Poseidon, ca. 460-450 BCE
  • 11. Classical vs Archaic statuary
    • Riace Warrior, Italy ca. 460-450 BCE.
    • Compare with Kritoi Boy
  • 12. Roman Copies
    • Made in marble ca. 450 BCE
    • The discus thrower was part of a search for an ideal form.
    Beauty, Chrysippus feels, resides not in the commensurability ( symmetria ) of the constituents (i.e. of the body), but in the commensurability of parts, such as the finger to the finger, and of all the fingers to the metacarpus and the wrist (carpus), and of these to the forearm, and of the the forearm to the arm, in fact of everything to everything, as it is written in the Canon of Polyclitus. For having taught us in that treatise all the symmetriae of the body, Polyclitus supported his treatise with a work, having made a statue of a man according to the tenets of his treatise, and having called the statue itself, like the treatise, the Canon .
  • 13. After Polykleitos Doryphos [ Roman Copy ], Pompeii, 450-440 BCE
    • “ Symmetria”
    • He uses dynamic asymmetry rather than static symmetry.
    • Chiastic (cross) balance is motion while at rest.
    • Tense and relaxed limbs oppose each other diagonally (the right leg and the left arm are relaxed, and the left leg and the right arm are tensed).
  • 14. Chrysippus on Polykleitos
    • Beauty, Chrysippus feels, resides not in the commensurability ( symmetria ) of the constituents (i.e. of the body), but in the commensurability of parts, such as the finger to the finger, and of all the fingers to the metacarpus and the wrist (carpus), and of these to the forearm, and of the forearm to the arm, in fact of everything to everything, as it is written in the Canon of Polyclitus. For having taught us in that treatise all the symmetriae of the body, Polyclitus supported his treatise with a work, having made a statue of a man according to the tenets of his treatise, and having called the statue itself, like the treatise, the Canon .
  • 15. The Classical Period: Pericles
    • Kresilas , Pericles [ Roman copy ] ca. 429
    • The “ Delian League ” – centered in Delos
    • The acropolis is not the fruits of democracy, by of tyranny and abuse of power.
  • 16. The Acropolis -- Athens
  • 17. The Acropolis -- Athens
  • 18. The Parthenon
    • ca. 447-438 BCE
    • The “Ideal” Temple
    • Peripteral colonnade largely standing today.
    Design the result of blending math & optics. Built according to set proportions.
  • 19. The Parthenon
    • Doric with 2 Ionic elements.
    • The back room had four tall and slender Ionic columns as its sole supports.
    • The inner frieze that ran around the top of the cella wall was Ionic.
    • Irregular elements:
    • The stylobate curves upwards at the center on both the sides and the façade, forming a shallow dome.
    • The curvature of the shallow dome of the stylobate carries up into the entabulature .
    • The peristyle columns lean inward slightly.
  • 20. Parthenon – inside the Cella
    • Reconstruction of Phidias, Athena Parthenos, 438 BCE
    The Athena Parthenos was a 38-foot tall statue of Athena, made of gold and ivory. She was fully armed with a shield, spear, and helmet, and she held Nike, the winged female personification of Victory. Her sandals and shield bore paintings and reliefs of battles.
  • 21. The Acropolis
    • Lord Elgin:
    • British ambassador to the Ottoman court at Istanbul, dismantled (with permission) many of the Parthenon sculptures and shipped them to England between 1801 and 1803.
    • He sold them to the British government at great financial loss.
    • In modern times accused of “stealing” Greece’s cultural heritage, but also saved them from certain ruin if they had been left at the site.
    Lapith vs centaur Metope, Parthenon
  • 22. The Acropolis
    • From the east pediment of the Parthenon that depicted the birth of Athena.
    • Helios & his horse
    • Three goddesses.
    • ca. 438-432 BCE
  • 23. The Acropolis -- Parthenon
    • The remains of the east pediment
  • 24. The Acropolis -- Athens
    • A few of the Elgin Marbles at the British Museum [ taken by Sally Fowler ]
  • 25. The Acropolis -- Parthenon
    • The water-bearers from the Parthenon – now in the Acropolis Museum.
    Hydria
  • 26. The Acropolis -- Parthenon
    • Festival procession
    • Gods & goddesses
  • 27. The Acropolis -- Parthenon
    • Maidens & elders
  • 28. The Acropolis -- Propylaia
    • Mnesikles, 437-432 BCE
    • The entrance to the temple complex.
  • 29. Erechtheion
    • 421-405 BCE
    • A multiple shrine
  • 30. Erechtheion
    • Better proportioned than the Delphi ones.
  • 31. Temple of Athena Nike Ionic
    • Kallikrates, 427-424 BCE
    • Worked with Iktinos on Parthenon, which may explain Ionic elements in that building.
    • Stands on the site of a former Mycenaean bastion.
  • 32. Temple of Athena Nike
    • Stylistic features :
    • a. Clinging garments reveal curves of the body
    • b. Intricate linear patterns of folds create abstract design
    • c. Deep carving produces pockets of shade to contrast with the polished marble
    Nike adjusting her sandal, ca. 410 BCE
  • 33. Grave Stele of Hegeso
    • Dayton Cemetary ca. 400 BCE
    • Same style as the Temple of Athena Nike.
  • 34. Achilles Painter, ca 440 BCE.
    • Polychromy & use of white ground
      • variation on Red-figure painting
  • 35. Niobid Painter ca. 450 BCE
    • Artemis & Apollo slaying the children of Niobe . [ because she boasted to Leto about having more children than Leto ]
  • 36. Tomb of the Diver – Paestum, Italy, ca. 480 BCE
    • Possibly symbolizes the plunge from this life into the next.
  • 37. Late Classical Period
    • Praxiteles – Aphrodite of Knidos, Roman copy , orig. 350-340 BCE
  • 38. Late Classical Period
    • Praxiteles: Hermes & the infant Dionysos, 324 BCE
  • 39. Late Classical Period
    • Lysippos, ca 330 BCE
    He introduced a new canon of proportions, with the head one-eighth the height of the body instead of one-seventh, for a more slender figure. He also began to break down the use of the dominance of the frontal view of sculptures and encouraged viewers to look at the sculptures from multiple angles.
  • 40. Late Classical Period
    • Lysippos, Weary Herakles, ca. 320 BCE
  • 41. Late Classical Period: Architecture
  • 42. Late Classical Period
    • Amphitheatre at Epidauros, ca 350 BCE
  • 43. Tholos, Delphi
  • 44. Late Classical Period
    • The Greeks were slow to adopt Corinthian capitals – used at Delphi & Epidauros only in the interiors of sacred buildings.
    • The main advantage of a Corinthian capital over an Ionic capital was that
    • All four sides have a similar appearance, so corner Corinthian capitals did not have to be modified like Ionic capitals to follow the rule of “triglyphs at the corners of a frieze must meet so that no space is left over.”
    • They also did not require the use of metopes or triglyphs, because an Ionic frieze could be used instead .
  • 45. Didyma Hellenistic Period
    • Begun 331 BCE
  • 46. Hellenistic Period: Priene
    • 4 th cen. BCE
  • 47. The Acropolis – Athens Stoa of Attalos II – ca 150 BCE -- Now used as part of the Acropolis Museum
  • 48. Pergamon-Altar of Zeus
    • ca. 175 BCE
  • 49. Pergamon-Altar of Zeus
    • ca. 175 BCE
  • 50. Epigonis
    • Dying Gaul / Gallic chieftan killing himself & his wife
    • ca. 230-220 BCE [ copies of orig. bronzes .]
  • 51. Winged Victory of Samothrace
    • ca. 190 BCE – She’s alighting on a warship.
  • 52. Winged Victory of Samothrace
    • a. The motion created through the beating wings and the wind-swept drapery.
    • b. The theatrical effect created by the statue’s original setting, high atop a fountain that featured water falling down two tiers onto boulders.
    • c. The statue interacted with its environment: it was reflected in the water of the fountain, which caused it to seem light and moving. The sound of the water also provided an aural element. It was not an isolated work on a pedestal.
    • d. Its dynamic pose causes it to appear living, breathing, and emotional.
  • 53. Venus de Milo
    • ca. 150-125 BCE
  • 54. Aphrodite, Eros, Pan from Delos ca 100 BCE Sleeping Satyr, ca. 230-200 BCE
  • 55. Seated Boxer ca. 100-50 BCE
  • 56. Hellenistic
    • Polykeutos, Demosthenes, ca. BCE 280
    • Old Market Woman
    • ca. 150-100 BCE
  • 57. Laocöon
    • Rome, Early First Century CE.
    • The Trojan priest, Laocöon, and his sons were strangled by sea serpents while they were sacrificing at an altar, a scene told in the Aeneid.
  • 58. Laocöon Great emotion is showed by Laocöon , who seems to give out a huge cry of pain, which is heightened by the writhing forms of the serpents. Even his hair is twisted and active. Motion is created by dynamic poses and every muscle of each figure is tensed with drama.
  • 59.  
  • 60.  
  • 61. The Roman World
  • 62. Goals
    • Understand the great innovations of Roman architecture and how these innovations contributed to the expanse of the Roman Empire.
    • Explore Pompeii for its information about Roman art and architecture.
    • Examine the types, methods, and subject matter of Roman wall painting.
    • Understand what Roman portraiture says about Roman society.
    • Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especially as it communicates ideas of power for the emperor and empire.
    • Examine changes in Roman art and architecture as a result of expansion of the Roman Empire and the incorporation of the conquered cultures.
  • 63. Historical & Cultural influences on the transition from Classical Greek to Hellenistic Greek Art
    • Rise of Macedon – after the defeat of Athens in 404 BCE, the Greeks were weakened, and then overcome by Philip II of Macedon, then succeeded by Alexander the Great.
    • The political upheaval challenged the notion that rational human beings could impose order on their environment.
    • Refocused on individual rather than the ideal and on the real world of appearances.
      • The gods were humanized.
  • 64. Historical & Cultural influences on the transition from Classical Greek to Hellenistic Greek Art
    • The gods were humanized.
    • Nobility in defeat.
  • 65. Historical & Cultural influences on the transition from Classical Greek to Hellenistic Greek Art
    • In Hellenistic Greece the center was not Athens, but Antioch, Alexandria and Pergamon.
      • Much richer, more cosmopolitan culture emerged after Alexander the Great.
      • The 2 Aphrodites tell the story
    • By 2 nd cen. BCE the Greeks are under the control of the Romans.
  • 66. Architectural Innovations
    • Sasanian: Ctesiphon – Barrel Vault
    • Egyptian : Gizeh – Pyramid
  • 67. Architectural Innovations
    • Archaic Greece: Mycenae – Corbel Arch
    • Etruscan: Perugia – Keystone Arch
  • 68. Architectural Innovations: ROME
    • Barrel Vault  Groin Vault
    • Multiple groin vaults allowed for clerestories
    • The invention of cement made possible an Architecture of Space, not Mass.
    • Hemispheric Dome with Oculus 
  • 69. Architectural Innovations: ROME
    • DEFINITIONS:
    • Barrel vault : The extension of a simple arch creating a semi-cylindrical ceiling over parallel walls. It requires buttressing of the walls below the vaults to counteract their downward and outward thrust.
    • Groin or cross vault : Formed by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults of equal size. Needs less buttressing and appears lighter than barrel vaults .
    • Pseudo-peripteral : A series of engaged columns that run around the sides and back of the cella to give the appearance of a peripteral colonnade.
  • 70. Temple of Fortunus Virilis ca. 75 BCE
    • Etruscan influences?
    • The plan—the high podium is accessible only by the front via a wide flight of steps.
    • Columns are confined to the porch.
    • Greek influences ?
    • The Ionic features—the fluted columns with bases and the Ionic frieze.
    • It is built of stone overlaid with stucco in imitation of Greek marble temples.
    • Roman element ?
    • A series of engaged Ionic half-columns on the sides and back of the cella ( pseudo-peripteral ).
  • 71. Temple of Vesta, Tivoli early 1st cen. BCE
    • Corinthian columns
    • Podium only reachable by narrow staircase leading to cella door.
    • Used concrete for cella wall.
  • 72. Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia late 2 nd cen. BCE
    • 1 st grandiose complex symbolic of Roman power.
    • Covered a hillside
    • Made possible by cement and massive concrete barrel vaults.
    • Terraces led to central tholos
  • 73. Art of The Republic (509-27 B.C.)
    • The role of Portraits in society.
      • Temples full of portraits of men from old & distinguished Roman families
      • Slaves/former slaves had no ancestor portraits as slaves were property.
    Gesii funerary relief ca, 30 BCE Certified their status as Roman citizens
  • 74. Art of The Republic (509-27 B.C.)
    • Republican Verism : Influenced by Greeks, Etruscans & Egyptians, but celebrated their elevated position in society.
    • Thought head was enough, vs. the Greeks who wanted the whole body.
    • Wanted brutal realism, yet would put old head on young body.
  • 75. Caesar Breaks the Rules – 44 BCE
    • First live person to appear on a coin in Roman [before that distinguished ancestors]
  • 76. The Early Empire (27 B.C. – 98 A.D.)
    • Explore Pompeii for its information about Roman art and architecture.
    • Understand the role of the Colosseum and amphitheater in Roman life.
    • Understand the concepts, methods and materials of Roman house construction and why it is significant.
    • Examine the types, methods, and subject matter of Roman wall painting.
    • Understand the development of Roman art and architecture as the empire expands and develops.
  • 77. Roman Architecture in Pompeii
    • August 24, 79 CE Pompeii was buried by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, thus preserving it for us to see.
    • Forum: Center of civic life, usually closed to traffic.
    • 2 story colonnades on 3 sides
    • “ Capitoline ”: Temple to Jupiter, Juno & Minerva.
    • Temple faced into the civic center, not isolated on a hill.
    • Standard Republican build – tufa covered in stucco.
  • 78. Roman Architecture in Pompeii
    • Earliest amphitheater known. [double theater] ca. 7- BCE – modeled on Greek.
    • Radial barrel vaults form a retaining wall & support the earthen mound and the seats.
    • Painting : Record of a brawl between Pompeians and their neighbors in 59 CE.
  • 79. Amphitheater Pompeii, Italy ca. 80 B.C.E.
  • 80. The Roman House
    • Inward looking.
    • Had similar elements.
    • Were the focus of the social structure of a Roman city
    • House of Vetti – rebuilt 62-79 CE
  • 81. First Style wall painting fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy late 2nd century B.C.E. fresco The First Style Roman wall painting, "Incrustation" (right) is thought to imitate Greek painting that created flat areas of color and 'faux" finishes (like a fake marble or oak finish)
  • 82. Cubiculum (bedroom) Second Style from the villa of P. Fannius Synistor Boscoreale, Italy ca. 40-30 B.C.E. fresco
  • 83. In the second style Roman wall painting, called the "architectural style," space extends beyond the room with various perspective ("illusion of three-dimensional space on a flat two-dimensional surface)  devices.  Roman artists came close to developing a true linear perspective.
  • 84. Dionysiac mystery frieze Room 5, Pompeii, Italy ca. 60-50 B.C.E. fresco frieze approximately 64 in. high
  • 85. Gardenscape from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy ca. 30-20 B.C.E. fresco approximately 79 in. high
  • 86. Gardenscape from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy ca. 30-20 B.C.E. fresco approximately 79 in. high
  • 87. still life with peaches Detail of 4th style wall painting from Herculaneum, Italy ca. 62-79 C.E. fresco approximately 1 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. 1 1/2 in.
  • 88. Third Style
    • In the Third Style Roman Wall Painting, called the "Ornate Style," pictorial illusion is confined to "framed" images, where even the "framing" is painted on.  The overall appearance is flat rather than a 3-d illusion of space.
  • 89. The Fourth Style Roman Wall Painting, called the "Intricate Style," confines full three-dimensional illusion to the "framed images," which are placed like pictures in an exhibition.  The images themselves do not relate to one another nor do they present a narrative, as in the Second Style. The Fourth Style is also characterized by the open vistas and the use of aerial perspective, as well as the elaborate architectural framing.
  • 90. Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, Italy ca. 20 B.C.E. marble 80 in. high
  • 91. This depiction of Augustus has subtle political expressions in it. He has pictures of his victories at war written on his chest, and he also holds a staff. Cupid is at his feet, which tells that he is a descendent of deities.
  • 92. Pont-du-Gard Nimes, France ca. 16 B.C.E. The aqueducts and bridges in Roman period exist in Rome, Merida, Segovia, Tarragon in Spain and Nimes in France. Pont du Gard in Nimes is one of the famous one which preserve original style of Augustus era.
  • 93. Pont-du-Gard Nimes, France ca. 16 B.C.E.
  • 94. Porta Maggiore, Rome, Italy ca. 50 CE
    • The double gateway, which supports the water channels of two important aqueducts, is the outstanding example of Roman rusticated masonry, which was especially popular under Claudius.
  • 95. Colosseum, Rome, Italy ca. 70-80 C.E. The columns of the ground floor are the Doric, the first floor are Ionic, the second floor are Corinthian and the top of floor are Corinthian pilaster.
  • 96. Colosseum Rome, Italy ca. 70-80 C.E.
  • 97. Portrait of Vespasian, ca. 75-79 CE
    • Vespasian’s sculpture revived the veristic tradition of the Republic to underscore the elderly new emperor's Republican values in contrast to Nero’s self-indulgence and extravagance.
  • 98. Portrait bust of a Flavian woman from Rome, Italy ca. 90 C.E. marble 25 in. high
  • 99. Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, 81 C.E. This arch commemorates Titus' conquest of Judea which ended the Jewish Wars (66-70). The arch was erected posthumously, after Titus had already become a "god."
  • 100. Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE
    • The spiral frieze of Trajan’s column tells the story of the Dacian Wars in 150 episodes. All aspects of the campaigns were represented, from battles to sacrifices to road and fort construction.
  • 101.  
  • 102. Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, ca. 114-118 CE
    • Unlike Titus’s arch, Trajan has relief panels covering both facades, transforming it into a kind of advertising billboard featuring the emperor's many achievements on and off the battlefield.
  • 103. Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E.
  • 104. Pantheon, Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E. The Pantheon reveals the full potential of concrete, both as a building material and as a means for shaping architectural space.
  • 105. Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E.
  • 106. Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E.
  • 107. Al-Khazneh Petra, Jordan 2nd century C.E. Al Khazneh, also known as the Treasury, is one of the most impressive sites of ancient Petra in Jordan. Al Khazneh was hand carved from the beautiful red sandstone mountain.
  • 108. Model of an Insula, Ostia, Italy 2nd century C.E. After the great fire under Nero, the emperor restricted their height. Even if the insulae didn't burn, they might collapse from bad construction. Light came from openings we refer to as windows, although they would not have contained panes of glass.
  • 109. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius from Rome, Italy ca. 175 C.E. bronze 11 ft. 6 in. high
  • 110. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius from Rome, Italy ca. 175 C.E. bronze 11 ft. 6 in. high
  • 111. Asiatic Sarcophagus with kline portrait of a woman 165-170 C.E. marble approximately 5 ft. 7 in. high Sarcophagi were produced in several regional centers. Western sarcophagi were decorated only on the front. Eastern sarcophagi, like this one, have reliefs on all four sides.
  • 112. Sarcophagus of a Philosopher 270-280 C.E. marble 4 ft. 11 in. high
  • 113. Mummy portrait from Faiyum, Egypt ca. 160-170 C.E. encaustic on wood
  • 114. Portrait of Carcalla ca. 211-217 C.E. marble 14 in. high
  • 115. Portrait Bust of Trajan Decius Capitolino, Rome 249-251 C.E. marble 2 ft. 7 in. high This portrait of a short-lived “soldier emperor” depicts an older man with bags under his eyes and a sad expression. The eyes glance away nervously, reflecting the anxiety of an insecure ruler.
  • 116. Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy, ca. 251-253 CE Bronze
  • 117. Portraits of the four tetrarchs St. Mark’s, Venice ca. 305 C.E. porphyry 51 in. high Diocletian established the tetrarchy to bring order to the Roman world. In group portraits, artists always portray the four co-rulers as nearly identical partners in power, not as distinct individuals.
  • 118. Portraits of the four tetrarchs St. Mark’s, Venice ca. 305 C.E. porphyry 51 in. high
  • 119. Palace of Diocletian (model) Split, Croatia ca. 300 - 305 C.E.
  • 120. Arch of Constantine Rome, Italy ca. 312-315 C.E. The reuse of statues and reliefs on the Arch has often been cited as evidence of a decline in creativity and technical skill in the waning years of the Roman Empire.
  • 121. Arch of Constantine Rome, Italy ca. 312-315 C.E.
  • 122.  
  • 123. Portrait of Constantine from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy ca. 315-330 C.E. marble head approximately 8 ft. 6 in. high Constantine’s portraits revive the Augustian image of an eternally youthful ruler.
  • 124. Basilica Nova reconstruction drawing Rome, Italy 306-312 C.E.
  • 125.  
  • 126.