Ch 2-lecture


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Ch 2-lecture

  1. 1. :
  2. 2. Goals <ul><li>Understand the cultural changes in the Neolithic Revolution as they relate to the art and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concept of civilization and the importance of Sumer in the ancient Near East. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the artistic materials, techniques, subject matter, styles and conventions developed in the ancient Near East. </li></ul><ul><li>The Art of the Ancient Near East </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Ancient Near East
  4. 4. Definitions <ul><li>City-state: Independent cities that were each under the protection of a different deity, represented by the rulers. Rulers and priests directed all communal activities, which were institutionalized. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuneiform: The beginning of writing, taking the form of wedge-shaped signs, simplified from pictograph signs (simplified pictures). </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder seal: A cylindrical piece of stone engraved to produce a raised impression when rolled over clay. Used to “sign” and seal documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Gilgamesh: An epic from the 3rd millennium BCE describing Gilgamesh, the legendary kind of Uruk and slayer of the monster Huwawa. </li></ul><ul><li>Heraldic composition: A composition that is symmetrical on either side of a central figure. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art <ul><li>The Neolithic Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary change in daily life occurred in Mesopotamia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA The Fertile Crescent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learned how to use wheel, plow, irrigation and control floods. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sumerian Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was created in the City-States of Sumer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rulers were the gods’ representative on earth, thus rulers and the priests directed all activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor specialization developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>City Planning & Religion : Reflected the central role of the local god in daily life. As well as administrative & economic. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art <ul><li>The earliest writing dates to 3400-3200 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counting using pictographs scratched into soft clay arises in Sumer & Elam [ Iraq/Iran ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed into cuneiform  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 2600 BCE complex grammar had been developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Epic of Gilgamesh is from this period. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uruk’s White Temple: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5,000 years old. Built of mud bricks </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art <ul><li>Uruk’s White Temple: 3200-3000 BCE [ 5,000 years old .] </li></ul><ul><li> -- The “bent axis” approach to the sanctuary was standard for Sumerian temples -- Corners oriented to cardinal directions -- Temple itself was small. </li></ul><ul><li> -- Gods reside above the level of humans. </li></ul>Model 
  8. 8. Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art <ul><li>The Inanna [ ? ] 3200-3000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe just a priestess </li></ul><ul><li>Imported stone, colored shells & stones, a wig of gold leaf. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing body of wood clothed & decorated elegantly. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art <ul><li>The Wark Vase [ for presenting offerings ] </li></ul><ul><li>ca 3200-3000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerians may have been the first to tell stories using pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>The vase depicts a religious festival in honor of the goddess. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into 3 “registers” or friezes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest frieze shows animals in strict profile. Images reflected economics, but also fertility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd band : Naked men carrying jars of offerings; nature’s bounty – men composite– frontal & profile. Con-ceptual vs optical representation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top band :Female figure with tall horned headdress. Men bringing offerings are smaller – “hierarchy of scale” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art <ul><li>The Wark Vase [ Wark is modern name for Uruk ] </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Gods & Goddesses of Mesopotamia <ul><li>Anu: Chief deity of sky and the city-state of Uruk. </li></ul><ul><li>Enil: Anu’s son; winds & earth. [ took over as chief god ] </li></ul><ul><li>Inanna: Goddess of love & war. Later named Ishtar. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanna: The moon god, also Sin; Ur. </li></ul><ul><li>Babylon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utu/Shamash: God of the Sun . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marduk: chief god of theBabylonians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others: Nabu [ writing/wisdom ]; Ada [ storms ] [ Both on Ishtar Gate ]; Ningirsu [ Lagash/Girsu – appears on the Stele of the Vultures ] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art <ul><li>Votive Statues: Eshunna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-3 ft in height; Made of simple shapes – cones, cylinders, but specific in dress and type. </li></ul></ul> From Temple of Ishtar at Mari, ca 2600-2500 BCE Statue of 2 worshippers at Eshunna  ca. 2700 BCE
  13. 13. Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art <ul><li>How did the religion practiced by Sumerians differ from that practiced by Paleolithic hunters and how were those religions reflected in art? What was the relationship between religion and the state in ancient Sumer? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Victory & Vultures <ul><li>Stele: Carved stone slab to commemorate an event. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This stele presents a labeled narrative. ca. 26005-2500 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory of Eannatum of Lagash over Umma. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes its name from scene of vultures carrying off the severed heads of the vanquished. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides info about warfare techniques & the special status of the Sumerian ruler </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The God Ningirsu watched over Ennatum </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. “ War & Peace”/Standard of Ur <ul><li>The Sumerians buried their elite in vaulted chambers, under the earth, with servants and possessions. ca. 2600 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Standard of Ur : sloping sides inlaid with shells and lapis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called War/Peace, but may have been two parts of a single narrative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it called a “standard”? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>War  </li></ul><ul><li>Peace  </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lyre from Ur [ restored ] <ul><li>From the “King’s Grave” in Ur. </li></ul><ul><li>Bull’s head decoratation </li></ul><ul><li>On the soundbox are animals with human faces serving a banquet, playing music & dancing. </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 2600 BCE </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sumerian Art in Miniature <ul><li>Cylinder seal depicting a banquet – from tomb of “Queen” Pu-abi. ca. 2600 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller scale than Standard of Ur , but similar figure types & rukes are utilized. </li></ul><ul><li>Use? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seals were used to identify documents & protect storage jars. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. AKKADIAN, NEO-SUMERIAN, BABYLONIAN, AND HITTITE ART <ul><li>Gudea of Lagash: Ensi of Lagash c. 2100 BCE. Preferred statuettes to regal trappings, and also liked statues carved of him in diorite. [ igneous/close to feldspar ] </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi: King of Babylon from c. 1792-1750 BCE. He established a central government over south Mesopotamia. He is most famous for his code of laws, which he had inscribed on a black basalt stele. </li></ul><ul><li>Sargon II: Assyrian king, who started the building of a royal citadel at Dur Sharrukin that covered 25 acres. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The First Near-Eastern Kings <ul><li>The head of the Akkadian ruler combines both naturalism and formal abstract patterning. 2250-2200 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>The shape of the nose </li></ul><ul><li>Different textures of hair and flesh </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasting textures of beard, mustache, and hair. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract patterning </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns in hair </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistic symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Formal patterns of lozenges and triangles. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The First Near-Eastern Kings <ul><li>Victory stele of Naram-Sin from Susa: Defeat of the Lullubi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second inscription by an Elamite king who captured Susa and took the stele as booty. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbolism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storming the mountain = scaling the heavens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2254-2218 BCE </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The First Near-Eastern Kings <ul><li>Neo-Sumerian state established at Ur: “The Third Dynasty of Ur.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ziggarut built ca. 2100 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of baked bricks and bitumen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 yrs after Uruk. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Piety of Gudea <ul><li>These statues showed his piety as well as his wealth and pride </li></ul><ul><li>They were designed to always be in the temple to give the gods their due. </li></ul><ul><li>Diorite: Hard, costly stone: imported and difficult to carve. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image is of Gudea presenting his plan to Ningirsu for the new temple. ca. 2100 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Code of Hammurabi <ul><li>Ca. 1780 BCE [ 18 th cen. BCE ] </li></ul><ul><li>King Hammurabi wrote a comprehensive law code for his subjects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If any man puts out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If he kills a man’s slave he shall pay one-third of a mina. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It someone steals property from a temple, he will be put to death, as will the recipient of the stolen goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… . If a man’s wife is caught in bed with another man, both will be tied up and thrown in the water. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. King Hammurabi <ul><li>The stele with the code written on it was carried off to Susa as booty in 1157 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>It shows Hammurabi in the presence of the sun god, Shamash. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol of Shamash? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artist used convention of combined front and side views, with exception of headdress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have experimented with foreshortening. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Zimiri-Lim & Ishtar <ul><li>King Zimiri-Lin controlled Neo-Sumerian city-state of Mari during reign of Hammurabi. </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Palace was destroyed by Hammurabi in 1757 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Painting frament represents the investiture of Zimiri-Lin , his right to rule granted by Ishtar [ formerly Inanna ] </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: Ishtar: sacred lion Right to rule: rod/ring </li></ul><ul><li>Painting symbolizes the benevolence of the gods </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Hittites’ Fortified Capital <ul><li>The Lion Gate: ca. 1400 BCE -- Lions are 7 ft high </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early example of protecting cities through sculptures of wild beasts at the gate. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Middle Elamite & Assyrian Art <ul><li>Proto-Elamite & Elamite records are among the earliest “writing” known. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elam appears in Genesis 10:22 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statue of Queen Napir-Asu from Susa, 1350-1300 BCE – life-size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighs 3,760 lbs even now. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a solid bronze core inside a hollow-cast copper shell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was to be a permanent, immovable votive offering in the temple. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shares many characteristics with earlier votive statues. They are? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. ASSYRIAN: Citadel of Sargon II <ul><li>Unfinished [ca. 721-705 BCE] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibited both confidence & fear. Covered 25 acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had over 200 courtyards & rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Represented Sargon’s grandeur: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merciless & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgiving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Included a ziggurat and sanctuaries for 6 deities. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Citadel of Sargon II <ul><li>The Guardian Gates of the Citadel . [ made of limestone ] [ca. 721-705 BCE] </li></ul><ul><li>Lamassu: winged , human-headed bull </li></ul><ul><li>Partly in the round, but conceived as high reliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Presents a conceptual view of the creature, in order to show all aspects. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Chronicles of “Great Deeds”: Ashurnasirpal <ul><li>ca. 875-860 BCE -- Later than Egyptian ones, but have greater detail. Records battlefield victories & slaying of wild animals. </li></ul><ul><li>A compressed style to make the story legible. </li></ul><ul><li>Combines different viewpoints. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Babylon <ul><li>Hanging Gardens & Marduk ziggurat. [ “Tower of Babel” ] </li></ul>
  33. 33. Neo-Babylonian & Achaemenid Art <ul><li>Ishtar Gate: </li></ul><ul><li>King Nebuchadnezzar </li></ul><ul><li>[ r. 604-562 BCE ] – mentioned in Daniel. </li></ul><ul><li>Babylon was built of mud bricks, but the important buildings were faced with glazed bricks </li></ul><ul><li>Images on bricks are of Marduk’s dragon & Adad’s bull in profile. </li></ul><ul><li>Babylon conquered by Cyrus of Persia in the 6th cen. BCE . </li></ul>
  34. 34. Neo-Babylonian & Achaemenid Art Ishtar’s sacred lion
  35. 35. Elamite, Assyrian, and Neo-Babylonian Art <ul><li>Evaluate the stylistic and formal visual aspects of later Mesopotamian art and its iconography. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the ideas of power expressed in the art of the Assyrians. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the materials and techniques of Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian painting and low relief sculpture. </li></ul><ul><li>Critically evaluate the role of art and power in different Near Eastern civilizations from this period. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Persia: Persepolis [ Iran ] ca. 521-465 BCE <ul><li>The Gate of All Lands: entrance to the complex </li></ul><ul><li>Many nations contributed to the site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionian Greeks, Medes, Egyptians, Babylonians </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Persepolis [ Iran ] <ul><li>Aerial view of the site: Sculpture echoes Archaic Greek style </li></ul>
  38. 38. Persepolis [ Iran ] <ul><li>Frieze from The Royal Audience Hall </li></ul>
  39. 39. Persepolis [ Iran ] <ul><li>Persepolis characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Monumental gateway with man-headed bulls </li></ul><ul><li>Apadana - huge royal audience hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Columns </li></ul>
  40. 40. Persian and Sassanian Splendor <ul><li>Explore how the Persian art and the later Sassanian art is different from other art of Mesopotamia. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify hallmarks of Persian culture and style in art and architecture. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Sasanian Art: Shapur I & Ctesiphon <ul><li>Palace at Ctesiphon noted for the large barrel vault of the iwan , or audience hall. </li></ul><ul><li> -- 1,000 yrs later Islamic artists looked to this palace as their standard for their own work. </li></ul><ul><li>Shapur II? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Reliefs at Bishapur Celebrated victory of Shapur I over Roman emperor, Valerian, ca. 260 BCE
  43. 43. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Discuss how many artworks are intended to celebrate a ruler’s accomplishments—even if they did not occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify evidence of the Sumerian culture’s lasting influence today. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify evidence of the Persian Empire’s lasting influence today. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Mesopotamian Architecture <ul><li>Compare the architecture of the Neo-Sumerian ziggurat with the city of Babylon and the fabled “Tower of Babel.” Explore the different materials used. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Minos and the Heroes of Homer: </li></ul><ul><li>The Art of the Prehistoric Aegean </li></ul>Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e
  46. 46. The Prehistoric Aegean ** Cyclades ** Knossos ** Thera ** Phaistos ** ** Hagia Triada ** Tiryns ** Mycenae**
  47. 47. Goals <ul><li>Identify the geographic area known as the Aegean. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the visual aspects and possible context of the Cycladic sculptures. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Minoan society and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand visual aspects of Minoan art. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate significant aspects of archeological excavations at Mycenae. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the link between culture and architecture of Mycenae </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the relationship between Minoan and Mycenaean art and culture </li></ul>
  48. 48. Important Names <ul><li>Arthur Evans: British archaeologist who uncovered the palace at Knossos, Crete, in 1900. He named the people who built it the Minoans, after the mythological king Minos. </li></ul><ul><li>Homer: Composed the Iliad c. 750 BCE, one of the finest epic poems ever created. It describes the Trojan wars. </li></ul><ul><li>Heinrich Schliemann: German businessman-turned-archaeologist who uncovered Troy ( Hissarlik, Turkey ) between 1870-1890. He discovered that the site held a number of fortified cities built on top of the remains of each other. </li></ul>
  49. 49. The Greece of Homer <ul><li>Originally thought the world described in Homer’s epic poem the Iliad was mythological. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But in the late 1800s. Heinrich Schliemann proved that belief wrong with the discovery of Troy and a fire that dated to the time of Homer’s epic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next to be moved from fiction to history was King Minos of Knossos, Crete – more recent Minoan remains found on Thera [ now Santorini ] </li></ul></ul>Example of Linear A
  50. 50. The Early Cycladic Figures <ul><li>Made of the abundant local marble, found on Naxos & Paros. </li></ul><ul><li>Most were statues of nude women with their arms folded, like many Stone Age examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Traces of paint are found on several. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to be funerary offerings. </li></ul><ul><li>Male figures include the lyre player from Keros. 2700-2500 BCE  </li></ul>
  51. 51. Cycladic Art– 2700-2500 BCE <ul><li>Stylistic characteristics of the Bronze Age statuettes from the Cyclades: </li></ul><ul><li>a. strikingly abstract </li></ul><ul><li>b. human body rendered in highly schematized manner </li></ul><ul><li>c. originally painted in bright colors </li></ul>
  52. 52. Cycladic Art … <ul><li>Resemblances with 20th cen. works </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm Lehmbruck  </li></ul><ul><li> Henry Moore </li></ul>
  53. 53. Minoan Culture and Art Aerial view and plan of the palace at Knossos 1700-1400 BCE
  54. 54. Figure 4-4 Plan of the palace at Knossos (Crete), Greece, ca. 1700–1400 BCE.
  55. 55. Minoan Culture and Art <ul><li>Middle Minoan palaces destroyed around 1700 BCE—earthquake? </li></ul><ul><li>Knossos is a Late Minoan palace. </li></ul><ul><li>Famed for the Minotaur's labyrinth– Theseus battled the bull-man with help from Ariadne </li></ul><ul><li>Labrys = double-ax : found everywhere in Knossos as a sign of sacrifice. </li></ul><ul><li>Palace made of rough fieldstones covered in clay. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Minoan Culture and Art <ul><li>Architectural characteristics of the Palace at Knossos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Grouped around large rectangular court. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Two long corridors separate rooms of different functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Well-constructed with thick walls of rough, unshaped fieldstones embedded in clay. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Terracotta pipes provided drains and light wells in staircases provided air and light. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Minoan Culture and Art <ul><li>The problem with Arthur Evans </li></ul><ul><li>We owe a lot to him, BUT </li></ul><ul><li>His reconstruction strays far from the original, even when there were appropriate fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>Approached the reconstruction as a Victorian gentleman – note the hairstyles! </li></ul>
  58. 58. Minoan Culture and Art: Palace Frescos <ul><li>The Bull Leaping Fresco at Knossos . </li></ul><ul><li>Fair/Dark skin convention for female/male representation. </li></ul><ul><li>Elongation and pinched waists- show more movement than previous paintings. </li></ul>
  59. 59. The Minoans were a sport-centered society; while all sports ultimately derive from religious rituals, by the time the Cretans were enjoying their palace civilization, sport seemed to have passed over into a recreational activity. This is a new pheneomenon in the ancient world: sport for sport's sake, and parallels a number of other aspects of Minoan culture.
  60. 60. Minoan Culture and Art: Thera [ Cyclades ] <ul><li>Akrotiri : Miniature Ships Fresco . – survived because buried by a volcano– thus not “mis-restored” </li></ul><ul><li>17” high/at the top of 3 sides of a room. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides information about sea-faring practices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figures represented according to their role. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminds us of Homer’s Iliad. ca. 1650 BCE </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Minoan Culture and Art: Thera [ Cyclades ] <ul><li>Akrotiri : Spring Fresco– Nature is the sole subject </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to express joy. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st known example of a pure landscape painting. </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks humans and narrative element. </li></ul><ul><li>Frescos are now “wet” or true frescos. Painted into wet plaster. Long lasting. </li></ul>ca. 1650 BCE
  62. 62. Minoan Culture and Art: Pottery Crete <ul><li>Sea Life on Pottery – Kamares ware -- Phaistos </li></ul><ul><li>Used potters’ wheels [ new ] creamy white & reddish brown. 1’ 8” hight </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired octopus vase from Palaikastro ca. 1500 BCE 11” high </li></ul>
  63. 63. Hagia Triada [ southern coast of Crete ] <ul><li>Overview of the site. </li></ul><ul><li>Hagia Triada was just to the west of Phaistos </li></ul>
  64. 64. Hagia Triada <ul><li>Late Minoan sarcophagus: 1450-1400 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate Minoan funerary rites. </li></ul><ul><li>Reminiscent of the early Cycladic lyre player. </li></ul><ul><li>Also Hu-nefer's Last Judgment. Egypt ca. 1290-1280 BCE </li></ul>
  65. 65. The Development of Minoan Pottery <ul><li>The Harvester Vase : finest surviving example of Minoan relief sculpture. ca. 1500 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Only have the upper half and neck of the vase </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly profile/frontal with the exception of the man beating time. </li></ul><ul><li>Obvious study of human anatomy. </li></ul>
  66. 66. The Development of Minoan Sculpture <ul><li>Goddess or Priestess? “ Snake Goddess ” Knossos 1600 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No large temples found in Minoan Crete. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Made of faience [ glazed earthenware ] </li></ul><ul><li>Bare breasts suggest fertility function– leopard on head suggests power over nature. So evidence is ambiguous. </li></ul>
  67. 67. The Development of Minoan Sculpture <ul><li>Sculpture in gold and ivory – probably imported from Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Another serpent woman </li></ul><ul><li>Young “god” from Palaikastro 1500-1475 BCE </li></ul>
  68. 68. Decline of Minoan Civilization <ul><li>Mycenaeans may have moved into Knossos, Crete at end of the new palace period around 1400 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Knossos destroyed around 1200 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Focus moved to the mainland: Distinctive Mycenaean culture existed by 1300 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Giant citadels were built—Mycenae was only one. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best preserved are Tiryns & Mycenae, started around 1400 BCE [ Homer knew of Tiryns ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The heavy walls contrasted with the open Cretan palaces. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Plan of the palace and southern part of the citadel, Tiryns, Greece, ca. 1400–1200 BCE . Mycenaean Art Architecture
  70. 70. Mycenean Art and Architecture <ul><li>Architectural innovations included the corbelled arch. </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of lintels , no mortar is used </li></ul><ul><li>Compare with barrel vault at Ctesiphon, p.51. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Mycenean Art and Architecture <ul><li>Kinds of arches </li></ul>
  72. 72. Mycenaean Culture and Art: Mycenae <ul><li>View of the citadel remains in the surrounding landscape </li></ul><ul><li>1300-1250 BCE </li></ul>
  73. 73. Mycenaean Culture and Art King Agamemnon – House of Atreus ca. 1300-1259 BCE A few generations before the Trojan War.
  74. 74. Mycenean Art and Architecture <ul><li>The Lion Gate : forced attackers into a narrow channel. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed of 2 monoliths and a lintel with the triangular relief of lions and columns with a corbelled arch above </li></ul><ul><li>This kind of guardianship goes back to Egypt & Assyria. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Mycenean Art and Architecture <ul><li>Treasury of Atreus: </li></ul><ul><li>A “beehive” or tholos tomb . 1300-1250 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Misnamed. </li></ul>Made of a series of stone corbelled courses, ending in a lofty dome, 43 ft high.
  76. 76. Mycenean Art and Architecture <ul><li>“ Treasury of Atreus” </li></ul>
  77. 77. Gold Mask from Mycenae <ul><li>Funerary mask from Grave Circle A – 1600-1500 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>A beaten gold mask. </li></ul><ul><li>An attempt to render the human face at life size. </li></ul><ul><li>Different ages and features were found on other masks. </li></ul><ul><li>NOT Agamemnon </li></ul>
  78. 78. Inlaid dagger blade with lion hunt -- from Grave Circle A [ made of bronze ] ca. 1600-1500 BCE
  79. 79. Female Head from Mycenae ca. 1300-1250. The watchful eye of Argos ? <ul><li>Flesh tone indicates a female. </li></ul><ul><li>Facial paint or tattoo </li></ul><ul><li>6 ½ inches high </li></ul><ul><li>May be from goddess cult. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Last, but not least! <ul><li>Warriors’ Vase – Mycenae ca. 1200 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Form is a ”krater”, a bowl for mixing wine and water. </li></ul><ul><li>No indication of settings and a return to the repetitive forms of earlier eras. </li></ul><ul><li>Harbinger of a more abstracted style to come. </li></ul>
  81. 81. Discussion Questions <ul><li>What do you think are possible functions for the Cycladic sculptures? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the Egyptian Old Kingdom and New Kingdom [ Armana period ] styles of wall painting with Minoan wall paintings. </li></ul><ul><li>What was the focus of Minoan art? Did they emphasize the afterlife? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think the Minoan civilization declined? Give reasons for your ideas. </li></ul>