Ch 11 Catacombs to Cathedrals

4,411 views
4,280 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,411
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
94
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Ch 11 Catacombs to Cathedrals

    1. 1. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e
    2. 2. Europe and the Near East in Late Antiquity
    3. 3. Goals <ul><li>Understand how Roman art and architecture is changed as a result of Christianity and the decisions of Constantine </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concept of “synchonism” in early Christian art. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the different media used to create early Christian art. </li></ul><ul><li>Know and cite artistic and architectural terminology from the period.   </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Between 323 and 330CE, Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium (renamed Constantinople); although northern barbarians conquered half of the empire in 476, the Eastern Empire continued to thrive. Differences between the Patriarch in Constantinople and the Bishop (Pope) of Rome led to the division of Christianity into two doctrines: Orthodox doctrine in the East and the Catholic doctrine in the West. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Christian art encompasses the total Christian area until early 500, when Western art, under northern influence, and Eastern art developed marked differences of style. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Late Antiquity: Duros Europos <ul><li>Why was the town of Duros-Europos important? </li></ul><ul><li>It was a Roman garrison town in Syria with both Jewish and early Christian communities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Synagogue: Narrative wall paintings: [246-256 CE] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do they get around the proscription against “graven images”? [ 2 nd commandment ] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Yaweh ” is shown as only a hand. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Late Antiquity: Duros Europos <ul><li>Moses and the Burning Bush </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>The Christian community house: [240-256 CE] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>** A modest second-hand house -- Meeting area, baptistery and upstairs dining room. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>** persecuted until Constantine; often the poor of society.; wouldn’t even token homage to official Roman gods. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Catacombs [ 3 & 4 th cen. CE ] <ul><li>Subterranean networks of galleries and chambers designed as cemeteries for the Christian dead, many of them sainted martyrs. [ They also housed the graves of Jews and other groups, to a lesser extent .] </li></ul><ul><li>Placed outside the city walls, hollowed out of “tufa” bedrock. “ ad catacumbus ” – “in the hollows” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have run for 60-90 miles underground. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of early Christian paintings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements: Galleries, loculi [ shelves ], cubicula [ chapels/house of the living ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would build a new gallery when the first was full etc… </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Catacombs [ 3 & 4 th cen. CE ] <ul><li>Similar to painting in “spoke-wheel” vault at Ostia. </li></ul><ul><li>Lunettes contain story of Jonah? Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefiguration of Christ’s resurrection. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Jewish Subjects in Christian Art <ul><li>Why are there so many Old Testament references? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus was a Jew. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as prefiguration of the coming & life/death of Jesus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus himself used these stories in his parables. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jonah : prefiguration of Christ’s resurrection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham & the 3 angels : taken to symbolize Holy Trinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacrifice of Isaac : Prefiguration of sacrifice of God’s only son for us. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel : A salvation tale, precursor of Christ’s triumph over death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adam & Eve : “Original Sin” led to Christ’s sacrifice. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. The Changing Image of Christ <ul><li>Period of Persecution : </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Good Shepherd,” a youthful and loyal protector of the Christian flock. </li></ul><ul><li>A teacher or learned philosopher. </li></ul><ul><li>Period of Recognition : </li></ul><ul><li>Halo </li></ul><ul><li>Purple robe </li></ul><ul><li>Throne. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus: ca. 359
    13. 13. Christ Seated ca. 350-375 <ul><li>What is unusual about this statue? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retained Greco-Roman habits – “idols” or statues of the gods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early & rare “in the round” statue. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Architecture: From Basilica to Church <ul><li>Once Constantine recognized Christianity, the need for churches arose. Located on outskirts to avoid conflict with the official religion. </li></ul><ul><li>The early churches took over the form of the Roman basilica or meeting hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Old St. Peter’s Rome, ca. 320 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Santa Constanza , ca 337-351 <ul><li>How does the Church of Santa Costanza differ from basilican churches? </li></ul><ul><li>It has a central plan, where the building’s parts are all of equal dimension around the center; in this case round. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantium takes over this model and develops it fully. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Santa Constanza , ca 337-351 -- MOSAICS <ul><li>Christ as Sol Invictus. [pagan sun god] represented in a vineyard – another pre-Christian reference to harvest festivals. </li></ul><ul><li>From Bacchus to the Eucharist </li></ul>
    17. 17. Abraham & Lot : Santa Maria Maggiore ca. 432-440 <ul><li>Part of an Old testament cycle– first major church in the West dedicated to the Virgin Mary after the Council of Ephesus that named her “Mother of God” </li></ul><ul><li>Departure of Abraham’s son, Lot for Sodom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses “head cluster” and unambiguous gestures and glances. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Ravenna’s Mosaics <ul><li>After founding of Constantinople in 324, the empire begins to fall apart. </li></ul><ul><li>After Constantine’s death, Christianity grows and in 380 is named as state religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Under threat of barbarian invasion, capital of the West Empire moved from Milan to Ravenna. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaic : First made from beach pebbles. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans used marble; creating complex volumes and images. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians used glass “ tesserae ” [ Latin for cubes or dice ] to imitate the brilliance of paintings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size could be adjusted as desired. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color was placed, not blended. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger pieces because viewed at a distance. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Mausoleum of Galla Placida ca. 425 <ul><li>Cruciform [ cross shaped ] structure; barrel-vaulted “arms” and a tower at the crossing. </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion of central and longitudinal plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaics cover the interior. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Mausoleum of Galla Placida ca. 425 <ul><li>Above the entrance: Christ, The Good Shepherd </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What elements of Christian iconography do you see? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is still rooted in the Greco-Roman tradition? </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Sant’Apollinare Nuovo, 504 <ul><li>Theodoric’s Palace-Church: Upper two zones of Mosaics date from his time. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Sant’Apollinare Nuovo, 504 <ul><li>Loaves & Fishes: Stylistic changes from Galla Placida: </li></ul><ul><li>No details of event – focus has shifted to the holy character, the power of Christ’s divinity </li></ul><ul><li>A “miracle” takes it out of time and events. </li></ul><ul><li>Almighty power rather than narrative is the focus </li></ul><ul><li>Least number of figures. </li></ul><ul><li>Placed in a shadow box, no landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Heavenly gold, not sky blue </li></ul><ul><li>Roman illusionism is gone. [ cf. less folds ] </li></ul>
    23. 23. Illuminated Manuscripts – Luxury Goods <ul><li>Vienna Genesis is the oldest well-preserved manuscript. [ early 6 th cen .] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made from calfskin, dyed with rich purple; Greek text is written in silver ink. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rebecca & Eliezer : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used Roman conventions; water is personified. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple yet convincing details. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Vienna Genesis <ul><li>The Temptation of Joseph [ Potiphar’s wife ] </li></ul>
    25. 25. Rossano Gospels: Greek, early 6 th cen. <ul><li>Jesus being brought before Pilate : </li></ul><ul><li>The two Marys and two soldiers at the open door of the Tomb. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian iconography is more developed by now. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christ as a bearded adult. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presented as a continuous narrative. [ multiple events placed in the same frame ] </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Ivory Carving <ul><li>A century before The Rossano Gospels ivory panels were made with carved scenes from the life of Christ, most often placed on boxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide of Judas & Crucifixion : What message would you get viewing this? How is Christ represented? </li></ul>
    27. 27. Yet the pagan gods endured … <ul><li>Diptych ca. 400: </li></ul><ul><li>possibly commemorating a marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Woman on right is sacrificing at an altar to a pagan god. </li></ul>
    28. 29. Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia, Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey, 532-537
    29. 30. Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia, Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey, 532-537
    30. 31. Unfortunately nothing remains of the original Hagia Sophia, which was built on this site in the fourth century by Constantine the Great. Constantine was the first Christian emperor and the founder of the city of Constantinople, which he called &quot;the New Rome.&quot; The Hagia Sophia was one of several great churches he built in important cities throughout his empire.
    31. 32. Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey, 532-537 Following the destruction of Constantine's church, a second was built by his son Constantius and the emperor Theodosius the Great. This second church was burned down during the Nika riots of 532, though fragments of it have been excavated and can be seen today. Hagia Sophia was rebuilt in her present form between 532 and 537 under the personal supervision of Emperor Justinian I .
    32. 33. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, (Istanbul), Turkey, 532-537 The characteristic Byzantine plainness and unpretentious of exterior( which, in case, also disguise the disguise the great scale), scarcely prepare us for the interior of the building.
    33. 34. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, (Istanbul), Turkey, 532-537
    34. 35. Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, (Istanbul), Turkey, 532-537
    35. 36. Justinian as world conqueror (Barberini Ivory) mid-6th century ivory 1 ft. 1 1/2 in. x 10 1/2 in. The reign of Justinian marks the beginning of the first golden age of Byzantine art.
    36. 37. San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547 The church is unlike any of the other 6 th century churches of Ravenna. Indeed, it is unlike any other church in Italy because San Vitale is not a basilica. It is centrally planned, like Justinian’s churches in Constantinople.
    37. 38. San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547 The design features two concentric octagons. The dome covered inner octagon rises above the surrounding octagon to provide the interior with clerestory lighting.
    38. 39. San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547 The mosaics that decorate San Vitale’s choir and apse, like the building itself, must be regarded as among the most climatic achievements of Byzantine art.
    39. 40. Apse Mosaic San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547, mosaic In the apse vault, a youthful Christ, seated on the orb of the world at the time of the second coming, extends the golden martyr’s wreath to Saint Vitalis.
    40. 41. Justinian, Bishop Maximianus and attendants north wall apse mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 547, mosaic Justinian himself stands in the middle, with soldiers to the left and clergy on the right, emphasizing that Justinian is the leader of both church and state of his empire.
    41. 42. Theodora and attendants south wall apse mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 547, mosaic
    42. 43. Abraham and the Three Angels ( Philoxeneos) , and the Sacrifice of Isaac north lunette mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 547, mosaic
    43. 44. Sacrifice of Abel, Sacrifice of Melchisedech north lunette mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 547, mosaic
    44. 45. Sant’Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna, Italy, 33-49 The Ravenna epoch closes with the church of Sant’Apollinare in Classe, where, in the great apse mosaic, the Byzantine style reaches full maturity.
    45. 46. Sant’Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna, Italy, 533-549
    46. 47. Saint Apollinaris amid sheep Sant’Apollinare in Classe Ravenna, Italy, 533-549, mosaic Saint Apollinaire stands beneath Christ’s Cross with his arms raised in prayer. Although the scene is set in a landscape, the Byzantine artist rejected the classical illusionism of earlier mosaics.
    47. 48. Saint Michael the Archangel early-6th century, ivory, 1 ft. 5 in. x 5 1/2 in. The prototype of St. Michael must have been a pagan Victory; the flowing Classical yet naturalistic drapery, the delicately incised wings, and the facial type and coiffure are of the pre-Christian tradition.
    48. 49. Justinian as world conqueror (Barberini Ivory) mid-6th century, ivory, 1 ft. 1 1/2 in. x 10 1/2 in.
    49. 50. Anicia Juliana Between Magnanimity and Prudence, folio 6 of the Vienna Dioskorides, from Honoratai, near Constantinople ca. 512, tempera on parchment 1 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 11 in. The physical world was the focus of one of the rare secular books to survive from the early Middle Ages. It is likely that the Vienna Dioskorides painters copied the 498 illustrations from classical manuscripts. The dedication page, however, cannot be a copy due to its portrait
    50. 51. Ascension of Christ, Rabbula Gospels From Zagba, Syria, 586, tempera on vellum 1 ft. 1 in. x 10 1/2 in. The Gospels do not mention the Virgin Mary as a witness of Christ’s Ascension. Her prominent position in the Rabbula Gospels is an early example of the important role Mary played in later medieval art.
    51. 52. <ul><li>Iconoclasm </li></ul><ul><li>In Byzantine theology, the contemplation of icons allowed the viewer direct communication with the sacred figure(s) represented, and through icons an individual's prayers were addressed directly to the petitioned saint or holy figure. Miraculous healings and good fortune were among the requests. </li></ul><ul><li>Iconoclasm literally means &quot;image breaking&quot; and refers to a recurring historical impulse to break or destroy images for religious or political reasons. In the Byzantine world, Iconoclasm refers to a theological debate involving both the Byzantine church and state. </li></ul>
    52. 53. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George, icon 6th or early 7th century, encaustic on wood, 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 7 3/8 in. Although traces of Greco-Roman illusionism are evident in the portrait, the bodies begin to be rendered in a new Byzantine manner.
    53. 54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child enthroned Apse mosaic, Hagia Sophia, 867, mosaic Shortly after the repeal of iconoclasm, the emperor Basil I dedicated a huge new mosaic in the apse of Hagia Sophia depicting the Virgin and Child enthroned. It replaced one the iconoclasts destroyed.
    54. 55. Katholikon and Church of the Theotokos Hosios Loukas, Greece The Katholikon exemplifies church design during the second golden age of Byzantine art and architecture. Middle Byzantine churches typically are small and high shouldered, with a central dome on a drum and the exterior wall surfaces with decorative patterns, probably reflecting Islamic architecture.
    55. 56. Katholikon and Church of the Theotokos, Hosios Loukas, Greece Katholikon early 11th century, Church of the Theotokos, 10th century
    56. 57. Apse of the Katholikon, Hosios Loukas, Greece, 11th century, mosaic
    57. 58. Dome of the Katholikon, Hosios Loukas, Greece, 11th century, fresco
    58. 59. Dome of the Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century fresco
    59. 60. Crucifixion in the Church of the Dormition Daphni, Greece ca. 1090-1100 mosaic The Daphni Crucifixion is a subtle blend of the painterly Hellenistic style and the later more abstract and formalistic Byzantine style.
    60. 61. Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy begun 1063 The revival on a grand scale of church buildings, featuring vast stretches of mosaic-covered walls, was not confined to the Greek-speaking Byzantine East. A resurgence of religious architecture and of the mosaicist’s art occurred in areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
    61. 62. Saint Mark’s Cathedral, Venice, Italy, begun 1063 The first St Mark's was a temporary building in the Doge's Palace, constructed in 828, when Venetian merchants stole the supposed relics of Saint Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria. This was replaced by a new church on its present site in 832; from the same century dates the first St Mark's Campanile (bell tower). The new church was burned in a rebellion in 976, rebuilt in 978 and again to form the basis of the present basilica since 1063.
    62. 63. interior of Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy ca. 1180 mosaic Saint Mark’s has a central dome over the crossing and four other domes over the four equal arms of the Greek cross.
    63. 64. interior of Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy ca. 1180 mosaic
    64. 65. Apse Cathedral at Monreale Monreale, Sicily, Italy ca. 1180-1190 mosaic
    65. 66. Pantocrator Cathedral at Monreale Monreale, Sicily, Italy ca. 1180-1190 mosaic
    66. 67. David composing the Psalms Paris Psalter ca. 950-970 tempera on vellum 14 1/8 in. x 10 1/4 in. Another example of a classical-revival style is a page from the book of the Psalms of David.
    67. 68. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child, icon Late 11th to early 12th century tempera on wood 2 ft. 6 1/2 in. x 1 ft. 9 in. Nothing in the Middle Byzantine art better exemplifies the rejection of the iconoclastic point of viewpoint than the return of the painted icon. After the restoration of images, icons multiplied by the thousands to meet public and private demand.
    68. 69. Anastasis apse fresco in parekklision of the Church of Christ in Chora Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey, ca. 1310-1320, fresco Late Byzantine Art
    69. 70. Christ as Savior of Souls, icon early 14th century tempera, linen and silver on wood 3 ft. 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 1/2 in. Notable for the lavish use of finely etched silver foil, this icon typifies Byzantine eclecticism. Christ’s fully modeled head and neck contrast with the schematic linear folds of his garment.
    70. 71. Annunciation, reverse of 2-sided icon early 14th century tempera and linen on wood 3 ft. 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 3/2 in.
    71. 72. Andrei Rublyev Three Angels, icon ca. 1410 tempera on wood 4 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. In Russia, icon painting flourished for centuries, extending the life of the Byzantine style well beyond the Byzantine Empire in 1453.

    ×